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Archipelagos Steven Gayanilo Instructor: Mr.Wnek Oceanography September 25, 2009 What are they? • Pronunciation: ahr-kuh-pel-uh-goh • A group or cluster of various islands. • A large water body that contains a group or cluster of various islands (“Archipelago”). The above image is the Philippines, one of the many examples of an archipelago. Common Examples? This is the World Islands, found off the coast of Dubai. It is a man-made archipelago. This is the Thousand Islands, an archipelago found in the border of upstate New York and Southern Ontario. Common Examples? Indonesia is the largest archipelago in terms of total size. Japan is one of the many countries that are considered archipelagos. New Zealand is another example of a country considered as an archipelago. How are they formed? • Volcanic Activity – Rock formations form from magma seeping out of the sea from underwater volcanoes (Hemel). – The Hawaiin Islands is an example of an archipelago formed from volcanic activity (Hemel). The aftermath of an underwater volcano that had erupted off the coast of Japan. The Hawaiin Islands are an example of formation through volcanic activity. How are they formed? • Tectonic Activity – Shifting plate tectonics aid in “shifting the magma leakages from the hot spots…which can lead to the formations of An example of how the collision of plate tectonics many small islands can form new land masses. within a relatively small –Colliding tectonic plates push area (Hamel). each other up and can form new land masses such as small islands or mountains. How are they formed? • Sea Level Changes – If sea levels fell, new islands can be created. The aftermath of an underwater volcano that had erupted off the coast of Japan. – If sea levels rose, currently existing islands may possibly disappear. Which species thrive here? • Due to so many countries and group of islands being considered as archipelagos, specific species cannot be pin-pointed. • High endemism (Ecological state of being unique to a particular geographic location). (“Endemism) • Highly biodiverse from region to region. • Strongly impacted by nonnative species. The future based upon GCC? Increased precipitation. Melted glaciers raising sea level. • Increased precipitation will affect the types of species that thrive in archipelagos (Goldman). • Melting glaciers and polar ice caps would increase sea level (Hamel). – Forms new archipelagos near coastal terrain – Currently existing archipelagos may disappear Works Cited "Archipelago - definition of archipelago by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia." Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary. Web. 25 Sept. 2009. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/archipelago>. "Endemism - What is a(n) endemism | Encyclopedia.com: Dictionary of Zoology." Encyclopedia - Online Dictionary | Encyclopedia.com: Get facts, articles, pictures, video. Web. 25 Sept. 2009. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O8endemism.html>. Goldman, Jana. "New Study Shows Climate Change Largely Irreversible." NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Web. 25 Sept. 2009. <http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2009/20090126_climate.html>. Hamel, Gregory. "How Are Archipelagos Formed? | eHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles. Web. 24 Sept. 2009. <http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5122589_archipelagos-formed.html>.