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CHAPTER 32 ACTIVE READING WORKSHEETS
CHAPTER 34 ACTIVE READING WORKSHEETS
I NTRODUCTION TO A NIMALS
Section 32-1: The Nature of Animals
Read the passage below, which covers topics from your textbook.
Answer the questions that follow.
The term symmetry refers to a body arrangement in which parts
that lie on opposite sides of an axis are identical. The simplest
animals, sponges, display no symmetry. Moreover, although
sponges are multicellular, their cells are not organized into tissues.
Animal bodies range from those that lack true tissues and an organized body shape, such as that of the sponge, to those that have very
organized tissues and a consistent body shape, as is found in most
other animal phyla.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Some animals have a top side and a bottom side, but no front,
back, right, or left end. These animals are said to display radial
symmetry. In radial symmetry, similar parts branch out in all
directions from a central line. Cnidarians, such as sea anemones,
jellyfish, and hydra, are radially symmetrical.
Most animals have a dorsal (back) and ventral (abdomen) side,
an anterior (head) and posterior (tail) end, and a right and left
side. Such animals have two similar halves on either side of a central plane and are said to display bilateral symmetry. Bilaterally
symmetrical animals tend to exhibit cephalization. Cephalization
is the concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior end of the animal; a cephalized animal has a head. As a
cephalized animal swims, burrows, walks, or flies through its environment, the head precedes the rest of the body, sensing danger,
prey, or a potential mate.
Read each question and write your answer in the space provided.
SKILL:
Recognizing Text Structure
1. A writer will use different types of text structure to present organized ideas or events. The ability
to understand how ideas are organized will help you understand a text. What type of text structure did the author use in the above passage?
continued on the next page . . .
Modern Biology Active Reading Worksheets
Section 32-1
121
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2. How does the body structure of a sponge differ from that of a jellyfish?
3. What are the similarities and differences between radial symmetry and bilateral symmetry?
4. Classify each of the drawings below as showing bilateral symmetry, no symmetry, or radial
symmetry. Write your answers on the lines provided.
a.
c.
b.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Circle the letter of the phrase that best completes the statement.
5. An animal that exhibits cephalization
a.
b.
c.
d.
122
has a head.
usually is bilaterally symmetrical.
lacks a brain.
Both (a) and (b)
Modern Biology Active Reading Worksheets
Section 32-1
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CHAPTER 31
Plant Responses
SECTION 31-1: PLANT HORMONES
1. Plant hormones are chemical messengers that
affect a plant’s ability to respond to its environment.
2. auxins, gibberellins, ethylene, cytokinins, and
abscisic acid
3. a
1. thigmotropism
2. gravity
3. Answers will vary but may include: photosynthesis, photoreceptor, photoautotroph, and
photoperiodism.
4. c
SECTION 31-3: SEASONAL RESPONSES
1. a cause-and-effect text structure
2. Some tree leaves change colors in the fall due to a
photoperiodic response and temperature change.
3. to decompose
4. c
Sponges, Cnidarians, and Ctenophores
1. The body plan of a sponge suggests a relationship between structure and function.
2. two cell layers separated by a jellylike substance
3. As the choanocytes lining the interior cylinder of
a sponge beat their flagella, water is drawn
through ostia in the body wall and moves into
the hollow cylinder. The water then exits
through the osculum.
4. a. Choanocyte
b. Flagellum
c. Osculum
d. Ostium
e. Spicules
f. Interior of sponge
5. c
SECTION 33-2: CNIDARIA AND CTENOPHORA
CHAPTER 32
Introduction to Animals
SECTION 32-1: THE NATURE OF ANIMALS
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 33
SECTION 33-1: PORIFERA
SECTION 31-2: PLANT MOVEMENTS
1. recognizing similarities and differences
2. A sponge lacks symmetry, while a jellyfish possesses radial symmetry.
3. Both radial and bilateral symmetry are consistent
overall patterns of structure. The traits differ in
the particular pattern. Radial symmetry refers to
a pattern in which similar parts branch out from
a central axis. Bilateral symmetry refers to two
similar halves on either side of a central plane.
4. a. no symmetry
b. radial symmetry
c. bilateral symmetry
5. d
SECTION 32-2: INVERTEBRATES AND
VERTEBRATES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5. endoderm
6. a. blastula
b. gastrula
c. endoderm
d. mesoderm
7. c
1. All cnidiarians have a body made up of two cell
layers.
2. Due to its vase-shaped form, a polyp is sessile.
The bell-shaped body of the medusa, however, is
specialized for swimming.
3. Cnidarians have an outer epidermis, inner gastrodermis, jellylike mesoglea, a gastrovascular cavity,
a mouth, and tentacles.
4. a. Medusa
b. Polyp
c. Epidermis
d. Mesoglea
e. Gastrovascular cavity
f. Gastrodermis
g. Tentacle
h. Mouth
5. not free moving; fixed
6. a
CHAPTER 34
oxygen and nutrients
carbon dioxide and wastes
diffusion across cell membranes
open circulatory system
c
Flatworms, Roundworms, and Rotifers
SECTION 34-1: PLATYHELMINTHES
SECTION 32-3: FERTILIZATION AND
DEVELOPMENT
1. development of germ layers into certain
body organs
2. mesoderm
3. mesoderm
4. ectoderm
1. a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
2. a.
b.
7
3
9
5
2
8
4
6
1
Primary host
Eggs
Modern Biology Active Reading Worksheets
Answer Key
209