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Transcript

Population Dynamics Review Topics Covered: - - - - Fecundity / Biotic Potential (p.662) Population change formula (p.661) Open / Closed population (p.662) 3 patterns of survival / survivorship curves (p.661) 3 Growth curves / Calculating growth rates (p.662-668) - Geometric N(t) = N(0) λt - Exponential dN/dt = rN - Doubling time dt = 0.69 / r - Logistic growth dN/dt = rN x [(K-n)/K] Limiting Factors (p.671-675) - Density-dependent - Density-independent Niche (ecological / fundamental / realized) (p.676-677) Symbiotic Relationships (p.677-685) - Competition, Predation, Mutualism, Commensalism & Parasitism Population Density (crude density vs ecological density) (p. 650-651) Population Dispersion (clumped, uniform, random) (p.652) Measuring population density (p.653-658) Human Populations - History & impact of domestication (p.699-700) - Correlation between population distribution and food (p.698-701) - Impact of disease (p702) - Impact of science and tech (p.703) - Demographic transition model (p.707) - Is humanity living unsustainably/projection of future trends (p.711-712) Life support systems - food and soil (p.714-721) - water and air (p.723-730) Review Questions 1. Indicate which type of survival ship curve would be used to describe the following populations a. A species that has an equal chance of death/survival through its entire lifespan b. A species that is more likely to die at a young age but has a long life expectancy if it survives c. A species that has a long life expectancy and low mortality rates 2. List 4 factors that are used to determine a species biotic potential: 3. a) List 3 density-dependent and 3 density-independent limiting factors b) Choose one of each (listed in a) and explain why it is dependent/independent of the population. Use a specific species to explain 4. Match the relationship with the effect of those involved Relationship Match Effect A. Parasitism Both benefit B. Commensalism One species hunts and kills the other C. Predation Both speciesʼ population is limited by the other D. Mutualism One species benefits and the other species is harmed E. Competition One species benefits, the other neither benefits or is harmed 5. The original population is 57 000 a) Calculate the size of a population if the following takes place during one year: - 680 births, 200 immigrants, 160 emigrants, 400 deaths b) Calculate the the population growth rate of the population: c) What would the population size be after 8 years if similar changes occurred every year? 6. If the growth rate in Ontario is 2.4% (r=0.24). In what year will the population have doubled? 7. The carrying capacity of chipmunks in Lemoineʼs Point is 600 and the intrinsic growth rate of chipmunks is 0.6 a) If the current population is 200 - calculate the population growth rate b) If the current population is 500 - calculate the population growth rate c) Explain the differences in the rates calculated 8. a) Describe the difference between clumped, uniform and random population dispersion patterns and give an example of an organism for each. Which dispersion do humans follow? 9. A student wants to do a mark-recapture study on a population of grasshoppers around the school a) Outline the steps the student should follow to be successful b) What are 2 assumptions the student must make in using the data they collect. d) Describe an alternative method of estimating the population size if the area around the school is known to be 400m2: 10. Which areas of the world have the highest population densities? Suggest possible reasons: 11. How did large-scale food production influence: a) family size b) daily life c) technological advances 12. The human population is growing most rapidly in many of the poorest countries of the world. Use the demographic transition model to explain this pattern 13. Explain how food production and food distribution are NOT the same - suggest two possible solutions 14. Identify and describe three factors that contribute to stresses on global water resources 15. How have humans increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? 16. Identify areas of the world where potential threats of water deficiency are likely to occur how does this compare to the distribution of people and the distribution of food crops?