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Gymnázium, Brno, Slovanské nám. 7, WORKBOOK - Biology
Topic 4: Mollusks, Annelids
 clitellum – thickened band of segments that produce a cocoon from which young
earthworms hatch
 closed circulatory system – blood is confined to the vessels as it moves through the
 coelom – fluid-filled body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm
 crop – sac in which food and soil are stored until they pass to the earthworm’s gizzard
 ganglion – group of nerve cell bodies that coordinates incoming and outgoing nerve
 gill – respiratory structure of most mollusks
 gizzard – muscular sac that contains hard particles that help grind soil and food before
they pass into the intestine
 mantle – membrane that surrounds a mollusk’s internal organs
 nephridium – structure through which most mollusks eliminate metabolic wastes
from cellular processes
 open circulatory system – blood is pumped out of vessels into open spaces
surrounding body organs
 radula – rasping tonguelike organ with rows of teeth that many mollusks use in
 regeneration – ability to replace or regrow body parts missing due to predation or
 seta – tiny bristle that digs into soil and anchors an earthworm as it moves forward
 shell – hard outer part that protects the body of other animals
 siphon – tubular organ through which octopuses and squids eject water, at times so
rapidly that their movement appears jet-propelled
 tentacle – long thin arm of an octopus that it uses for feeling things a and moving
 trochophore – a free-swimming larval stage of mollusks
 visceral mass – mass which is beneath the mantle, consists of internal organs