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What is an organization ?
An organization is deliberate arrangement pie to accomplish some specific
purpose .
Characteristics of the organization :1- each organization has a distinct purpose .
2- each organization is composed of people .
3- each organization has stricter .
4- each organization affects by the culture .
Who are managers ?
A manager is an organization member who integrates and coordinates the
work of other .
Why we cannot differentiate between manager and operatives ?
operatives >> described those organization members , who worked directly
on a job or task and had on subordinates
the work now include manage rid activities especially on teams because
team members often develop plans , make decision ,and monitor their own
Managers classification :1- first-line managers are the lowest level of management and are often
called supervisors .
2- middle managers include all levels of the organization and titled had 0f
the department , project leader , plant manager , unit chief , dean , bishop , or
division manager.
3- the top manager , who are responsible for making organization –wide
decisions and establishing the policies and strategies that affect the entire
organization . they have titled such as executive vice president , president ,
managing director , chief operating officer , chief executive officer , or
chainman of the board .
What is management ?
The term management refers to the process of coordinating and integrating
work activities ,they’re activities , and efficiently .
Management process :Management process represent function .
these function (planning – organizing –leading – controlling )
Efficiency :
If refers to the relationship between inputs efficiency and output. if you can
get more output from the given inputs, you have increased efficiency.
Similarly, if you can get the same output from less input, you also have
increased efficiency.
“doing things right”-that is not wasting resources.
Effectively:Doing the right things to attain organizational goals, efficiency and
ineffective are related poor management maybe inefficient and ineffective
or effective through inefficient .
The definition of planning
Planning involves defining the organization’s objectives or goals,
establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a
comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
Purposes of planning
1- Planning establishes coordinated effort. It gives direction to managers and
nonmanagers alike. Coordinate the activities cooperate with each other, and
work in teams.
2- planning reduces impact of change
3- minimizes pinpoint waste and redundancy.
In formal
- Nothing is written down.
- Defined specific objectives
covering a period of the years .
- There is on sharing of
objectives with others.
- Objectives are written.
- Done in small organization
- Specific action programs exist
and in some large
for the achievement of the
4-sets the objectives or standards that are used in controlling.
Planning and performance :1- formal planning associated with higher profits , higher return on assets
and other positive financial results .
2- the quality of the planning and implementation of plans lead to high
performance .
3- Environment such as governmental regulation , powerful labor unions
constrains the organizational performance .
Misconceptions about planning :1- planning that proves inaccurate is a waste of managers time .
2- planning can eliminate change .
3- planning reduces flexibility .
Types of plans :Strategic planning
-Establish the organizational overall
- Extended time-period ,three years
or more .
- Broader view of the organization .
Operational planning
- Determine the detain of how the
overall objectives are to be achieved
- Shorter period of times monthly
,weekly , and day – to –day plans .
- Deal with specific areas .
Intermediate any time between the two :Shorter – term plans >>><<< covering one year or less
long – term plans >>><<< over three years
-Clearly defined objectives .
- No ambiguity .
- No problem with misunderstanding
-increase uncertainty .
- Flexible to respond to unexpected
change .
- identify general guide lines
Types of budgets :1- Revenue budgets : is a specific type of revenue forecast
- is the budget that projects future
- selling everything produced…revenue budgets are very accurate
2- Expense budgets :
list the primary activities undertaken by a unit to
achieve its goals and allocate a dollar amount to each .
– lower expenses when accompanied by stable quantity and quality of output
lead to greater efficiency .
3- Profit budgets _ combine revenue and expense budget into one and used
for planning and controlling .
4- Cash budgets _ a budget that forecasts of how much cash the
organizational will need to meet expenses .
5- Capital expenditure budgets _ investments in property , buildings and
equipment .
Defining –
organizational :Defined as the process of creating an organizational structure .
The role of managers :Design an organizational structure that allows employees to effectively and
efficiently do their work .
Organizational structure :Is the framework by which job tasks are divided grouped , and coordinated .
What is the six key elements of structure ?
1- work specialization
2- Departmentalization
3- chain of command
4- Spain of control
5- Centralization and decentralization
6- formalization
Work specialization :The concept of work specialization division of labor and his conclusion that
it contributed to increased employee
The importance of work specialization :1- Some work tasks require high levels of skills and others can be performed
by unskilled workers
2- Skilled workers are paid more than un skilled workers
3- Employees skilled at performing a tasks would improve and increase
through repetition
4- Less time would be spent in changing tasks
5- Employee training for specialization is more efficient , easier and less
6- Increases efficiency and productivity by encouraging the creation special
invention and machinery to perform work tasks .
Departmentalization :The basis on which jobs are grouped in order to accomplish
departmentalization goals .
Types departmentalization :1- functional departmentalization >> as accounting , human resources
The major advantage >> obtaining efficiencies from putting similar
specialties and people with common skills , knowledge , and orientations
together into common units .
2- Geographical departmentalization .
3- Process departmentalization .
4- Product departmentalization divided the job according to type of product .
5- customer departmentalization .
The most common types in the world ?
1- customer departmentalization .>> To better monitor customers needs to
meet it .
2- functional departmentalization >> implemented through cross- functional
Cross functional teams –
Responsibility :1- designing a new product .
2- transfer it to the marketplace .
3- preparing a long-term corporate strategy .
4- creating a new layout for the factory floor .
Chain of command :The command >>Authority refers to the right inherent in a managerial
position to give orders and to expect and the orders to be obeyed
is an unbroken line of authority that extends from the upper levels of the
organizational down to the lowest levels and clarifies who reports , they
have a problem and also to whom they are responsible .
Responsibilities >> when one is given the right to do something and assumes
a corresponding obligation to perform those assigned activities .
The unity command >> a person should have one and only one superior to
whom he or she is directly responsible
Span of control :A number of subordinates , a manager can effectively and efficiently
supervise .
What are the factors that affect the span of control ?
1- subordinates experiences .
2- similarity of subordinates tasks .
3- complexity of those tasks .
4- the physical proximity of subordinates .
5- the degree to follow standardized procedures .
6- the sophistication of the organizations management system .
7- the strength of the organizations culture .
8- the preferred style of the manager .
Why is the span-of control concept important ??
1- it determines how many levels and managers an organization will have
2- the wilder or larger the span of control, the more efficient the organization
design .
3- wider span reduce costs, cut overhead speed up decision making, increase
flexibility , get closer to customer and empower employees though training.
Centralization and decentralization:Centralization = describes the degree to which decision making is
Concentrated in the upper levels of the organization.
Decentralization = the more that lower level employees provide inputs or
making a decision.
The concepts are a relative not absolute.
Why decentralization is more flexible ?
Because the lower level managers are more closer to the action and more
detailed knowledge about the problem and how best to solve it .
What are the advantages of Decentralization ?
Make organizations more flexible and responsive
formalization :Refers to the degree to which jobs within the organizations are standardized
and the extent to which employee behavior is guided rules and procedure .
In organization with high formalization ?
1- there are explicit job descriptions .
2- lost of organizational rules
3- clearly defined procedures covering work processes .
When formalization is low ?
1- Job behaviors are relatively non – structured
2- employees have a greet deal of freedom .
How technology affects communications :1- improved manager ability to monitor team performance .
2- allowed employees to have more complete in formation to make .
Types impact on organizational communication :A networked computer systems and wireless capabilities .
How communications affect organizational design ?
Affect the way that organizational members communications ,share
information , and do their work .
This communications not constrained by geography .
Kinds of modern technology :1- Telecommuting , the employees do their work at home on a computer
that is linked to the office, and virtual workplaces , which are offices
characterized by open space , movable furniture portable phones , laptop
computer and electronic files .
2- affect the way that organizational members share information , and do
their work so , work design according to modern technology .