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Transcript
Chapter 9 - Reconstruction
http://salempress.com/store/samples/african_american_history/african_a
merican_history_reconstruction.htm
Reconstruction Terms to Know
1. Reconstruction
2. Thirteenth
Amendment
3. Fourteenth
Amendment
4. Fifteenth
Amendment
5. Freedmen
6. Freedmen’s Bureau
7. Black Codes
8. Carpetbaggers
9. Scalawags
10.Georgia Act
11. Sharecropping
12.Tenant farming
What is the Reconstruction Era?
• the period after the Civil War
• Involved the process of the Southern states
being readmitted to the Union
• the “punishment” of and physical rebuilding
of the South, which had been destroyed
during the war
• the establishment of granting citizenship
rights to the newly freed former slaves
(freedmen)
Aftermath of the War in Georgia
• People struggled just to eat or find shelter.
• Fields were ruined. There was not enough food,
and people were starving.
• Most houses were destroyed or run down.
• Businesses stopped
• Railroads destroyed – no transportation
• Banks closed – no money
• 25,000 Georgians were killed in the war, and
many more were injured
Problems Facing the Freedmen
• The former slaves were now called the freedmen.
• Homeless, uneducated, poor, fearful of old masters
• Had virtually nothing (few belongings, little or no
money)
The new freedom established a new relationship
between blacks and whites, and freedmen
struggled to find their place in the world.
Freedmen’s Bureau
• Established by the U.S. Government
– Original purpose was to help blacks and poor whites
cope with everyday problems
– Later changed to helping just the freedmen adjust to
their new lives by gaining land and getting an education
– Established different kinds of schools
Freedman’s School in Georgia
Political Reconstruction
The U.S. Government (who were all Union
representatives from Northern states), had to
figure out how to allow Southern states to rejoin
the Union.
They wanted to be sure that Southern states no
longer supported the concept of states’ rights and
would “obey” the laws and regulations established
by the federal government.
President Lincoln had a plan, but tragedy caused a
change….
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction
Lincoln wanted to restore the South to the Union as
quickly as possible. He had a two-step plan:
1. All Southerners would be pardoned (forgiven) after
taking an oath of allegiance to the U.S.
2. When 10% of voters in each state took the oath,
the state would be allowed to rejoin the Union.
Congress and many Northerners thought the South
should be punished and felt that Lincoln’s plan was
not tough enough.
Lincoln’s Assassination
Lincoln was shot on April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes
Booth. Lincoln died the next morning.
Andrew Johnson became President after the
assassination of Lincoln.
Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction
President Johnson wanted to use Lincoln’s plan,
except he wanted certain groups to have to apply
directly to him for a pardon:
1. Those who owned property worth more than
$20,000,
2. High-ranking Confederate military leaders
3. High-ranking Confederate civilian leaders
Pressure from Radical Republicans
Radical Republicans had most of the power in the U.S.
Congress. They wanted:
• stronger requirements for readmission of the
Southern states
• For the South to be severely punished.
Under pressure from the Radical Republicans,
President Johnson added 3 more requirements for
readmission to the Union:
Johnson Plan Additions
In addition to everything else, Southern states also
had to:
1. Declare invalid secession ordinance (officially
say they were no longer a part of the
Confederacy)
2. Promise not to repay those who had given the
Confederacy money to support the war, and
3. Ratify the 13th Amendment, which made slavery
illegal
Political Reconstruction in Georgia
Georgia’s steps towards being readmitted to the
Union happened in three phases:
1.Presidential Reconstruction
2. Congressional Reconstruction
3. Return to Military Rule
Phase I: Presidential Reconstruction
President Johnson directed Georgia to hold a
Constitutional Convention.
Constitutional Convention of 1865
• Repealed ordinances of succession
• Voted to abolish slavery
• Wrote a new State constitution
Later, the General Assembly ratified the 13th
amendment.
Presidential Reconstruction, con’t
At this point, Georgia had done what was required
to re-enter the Union. However, the Radical
Republicans had taken control of Reconstruction
and did not allow Georgia back in.
Like most other Southern states, Georgia ratified the
13th Amendment to end slavery, but they still
severely limited the rights of the freedmen by
passing a set of state laws called Black Codes.
The Black Codes
Georgia was not readmitted because of the highlydiscriminatory Black Codes. Examples:
• Limited blacks to only working certain jobs
• Allowed blacks to be whipped as punishment
• Said that blacks must work from sunrise to sunset,
six days a week
• Allowed unemployed blacks to be arrested and
imprisoned
• Did not allow blacks the rights to vote, serve in
juries, testify against whites, or marry whites
Phase II – Congressional Reconstruction
The Northern politicians in Congress reacted swiftly to
the Black Codes.
In 1866, Congress passed the 14th Amendment, which
granted full citizenship to former slaves and forbid
states from making laws that would limit the rights of
citizens.
Radical Republicans required Southern states to ratify the
14th Amendment to be readmitted to the Union.
Georgia and almost all Southern states refused.
Congress put the states under military rule in 1867.
Congressional Reconstruction, con’t
Under military rule, the South was divided into 5 districts
(pg. 304)
“The
First Vote”
“
General Pope governed
the district that
included Georgia. One
of his first tasks was to
register all eligible
voters, both white and
black.
Each state was instructed to write new constitutions
which extended the right to vote to blacks and to ratify
the 14th Amendment.
Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867
Georgians voted to have a Constitutional Convention and
voted on who the delegates should be.
For the first time, some African-American males were
able to vote in Georgia.
Some delegates were carpetbaggers – Northerners who
moved to the South after the war.
Most delegates were scalawags – Southerners who
supported the Radical Republicans.
36 delegates were African-Americans.
Most Georgians DID NOT LIKE this group of people who
had taken over Georgia’s government.
Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867
Georgians voted to have a Constitutional Convention and
voted on who the delegates should be.
For the first time, some African-American males were
able to vote in Georgia.
Some delegates were carpetbaggers – Northerners who
moved to the South after the war.
Most delegates were scalawags – Southerners who
supported the Radical Republicans.
36 delegates were African-Americans.
Most Georgians DID NOT LIKE this group of people who
had taken over Georgia’s government.
Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867, con’t
New State Constitution – new things added:
1. Gave civil rights to ALL citizens
2. Approved free public education
3. Allowed married women to control their own property
Rufus Bullock (from New York) was elected governor in
1868.
The General Assembly ratified the 14th Amendment.
Georgia had again met requirements for readmission to
the Union.
The new state constitution was ratified and federal troops
left the state.
.
Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867, con’t
How Atlanta became the state capital:
New State Constitution – new things added:
Milledgeville
was
the
capital
of
Georgia
1. Gave civil rights to ALL citizens
in 1867.
2. Approved free public education
Hotelsmarried
in Milledgeville
wouldtheir
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allow
3. Allowed
women to control
property
black legislators who came for the
Rufus Bullock
(from New
York)
was
elected governor in
Convention
to
stay
there.
1868.
For thisAssembly
reason,ratified
the Convention
was
The General
the 14th Amendment.
therequirements
city of Atlanta.
Georgia moved
had againtomet
for readmission to
the
Union.
After
this, Atlanta became the state
The new state constitution was ratified and federal troops
capital.
left the
state.
.
Phase III – Return to Military Rule
Sept. 1868: The General Assembly expelled 28 black
legislators. They said that the right to vote did not carry
the right to hold office.
There was evidence that the KKK kept blacks from voting in
1868 Presidential election.
Ku Klux Klan- a secret organization that tried to keep
freedmen from exercising their civil rights. They wanted
to get the Democratic party back in control in the South
Secret Meeting of the Ku Klux Klan
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=7A6E66C6-90ED-48AA-A41227C4CA3A4581&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
Return to Military Rule, con’t.
Governor Bullock asked the federal government
for help.
Georgia Act (1869)- placed Georgia under
military rule for the third time.
The Georgia Act required ratification of the 15th
Amendment (giving all men the right to vote)
before the military would be removed again.
End of Reconstruction
Georgia Supreme Court ruled that blacks could hold office. The General
Assembly reseated the black legislators who had been expelled.
General Assembly ratified 14th and 15th Amendments.
Georgia was readmitted to the Union in July 1870-Reconstruction was
officially over. How long did the Reconstruction Era take in Georgia?
The Democratic party regained control of the General Assembly in the
1870 election.
From Dec. 1871 through 2003- Georgia’s governor was always a
Democrat.
Anti-south policies were identified with the Republican party.
Economic Reconstruction
Georgia had to rebuild economically, also.
**Confederate money was worthless, so banks failed; two-thirds of
railroads were useless.
Former slaves had no jobs. Most whites who owned farms needed
workers but could not pay
Land owners and workers agreed on 2 new ways to farm:
1. Sharecropping- landowner provided land, house, tools, seed
animals- The workers would give the owner a share of his crop
2. Tenant Farming- tenants owned some equipment and
animals. They paid the landowner to use the land.
Discovery Education video on Sharecropping (6 min)
Georgia Stories: The Saga of Reconstruction video (5 min)
Economic Reconstruction, con’t
Industry: increasing cotton production brought some
industry to Georgia. Cotton was the biggest crop.
Railroads were necessary to the success of Georgia’s
economy (transportation of goods). Railroads
expanded during this time.
The 2 major coastal ports for shipping were Savannah
and Brunswick.
Atlanta
In 1837, Atlanta was known as “Terminus” because it was
the last (terminal) stop on the Georgia State Railroad.
In 1842, Terminus was renamed Marthasville.
The name later changed to Atlanta - for the word
“Atlantic” in Atlantic and Pacific Railroad.
By 1861 ,Atlanta had a population of 9,500. It was the 4th
largest city in GA (after Savannah, Augusta, and
Columbus)
Atlanta, con’t
During the Civil War, Atlanta grew in importance and
population.
After Sherman left, Atlanta was in ruins. However, the
city rebuilt quickly.
In 1868, Atlanta
became the capital
city.
The New South
“The New South” was a term used to describe
progress in the late 1800’s. The phrase was first
used by Henry Grady, a newspaper writer.
He thought the South should become like the North
and increase industry and education.
Redemption Era: the period right after
Reconstruction. The purpose of the time was to
redeem Georgia from the humiliation of
Reconstruction.
Bourbon Triumvirate
Redemption was handled by the Bourbon Triumvirate
- a group of 3 important Georgia politicians who
served as GA governors and U.S. Senators. All were
Democrats. They wanted:
A. Stronger ties with industry in the North
B. To keep many old Southern traditions.
Bourbon Triumvirate, con’t
Joseph Brown
Alfred Colquitt
•Governor of
•As governor, he
Georgia during the reduced the state
Civil War
debt
•Oldest member of
the Triumvirate
John B. Gordon
•As governor, he
brought new
industry to the
state
Bourbon Triumvirate, con’t
The Bourbon Triumvirate helped carry Georgia
through economic Reconstruction by lowering taxes
and expanding businesses and industry.
They were criticized for:
1. Not helping the poor
2. Not improving education
3. Not improving factory working conditions
4. Not improving mental hospitals
Independent Democrats
The Independent Democrats was a new political
party who was led by William and Rebecca Felton.
They felt the Democratic Party was not concerned
with poor and low income
families.
They spoke out against
the Bourbons.
More about Rebecca Latimer Felton
• Worked for fairness and justice
• Leader in women’s suffrage (right to vote) and
temperance (anti-alcohol) movements
• Wanted the state to fund public education adequately
• Worked to get UGA to accept women students
• Named a U.S. Senator from Georgia in 1922 at age 87.
She was the FIRST female senator in U.S. history!
Georgia Stories – Rebecca Latimer Felton Biography -
Convict Lease System
Prisoners were leased (rented) to people who provided them
with housing and food in exchange for labor. When the
program began, prisoners were used for public works
(building roads, etc).
By 1879, most prisoners were leased to 3 companies, who
ignored the rules that they were supposed to follow.
Prisoners weren’t properly fed and clothed, and they were
often overworked.
Also, the convict lease system caused many other people to go
jobless.
The Feltons worked to get reforms made. The law was changed
in 1897.
Convict Lease System
Prisoners were leased (rented) to people who provided them
with housing and food in exchange for labor. When the
program began, prisoners were used for public works
(building roads, etc).
By 1879, most prisoners were leased to 3 companies, who
ignored the rules that they were supposed to follow.
Prisoners weren’t properly fed and clothed, and they were
often overworked.
Also, the convict lease system caused many other people to go
jobless.
The Feltons worked to get reforms made. The law was changed
in 1897.
Another Presidential Assassination
President James Garfield was shot on July 2, 1881.
He died Sept. 19, 1881.
He was shot by Charles Guiteau, who was angry
because he had been overlooked for a job.
The assassination brought the practice of patronage
to the surface and led to the passage of the
Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883.
• Established a series of civil service exams for job
vacancies
• Helped ensure the best-suited for a job got it.
Agriculture in the New South Era
In 1867, the “Patrons of Husbandry” was formed. It soon became
known as the Grange.
At first, meetings were about common farming problems and
farming improvements.
In 1870’s and 1880’s, farm prices began to drop and farmers made
very little money. Because of the economic conditions, the
Grange became more political.
**By 1875, there were 18,000 Georgians in the Grange and 750,000
members nationally.
Georgia’s Grange put enough pressure on state legislators to force
the formation of a state Department of Agriculture in 1874.
-GA was first state to have a government agency concerned
entirely with farming
The Farmer’s Alliance
Like the Grange, it began as a social organization.
This group formed cooperative buying stores, or coops.
Farmer’s Alliance worked against high railroad freights
Rise of the Populist Party
The Farmer’s Alliance political influence grew along
with the number of members.
1891- Many labor organizations joined with the
Alliance to form a new political party.
It was named the People’s Party, but it was usually
called the Populist Party.
Georgia’s Best-Known Populist
• Tom Watson – concerned that
poor farmers in Georgia needed
help.
- introduced the Rural Free
Delivery (RFD) Bill. It required the
U.S. Postmaster General to find a
way to deliver mail to rural
homes free of charge. Farm
families no longer had to travel to
a post office to get their mail.
Later, Watson was the Populist Party’s nominee for
vice-president in 1896 and for president in 1904.
Education in the New South Era
The Georgia Constitution of 1868 called for a free public
education for all students.
Georgia established a system of public schools in 1870,
but did not provide money for them until 1871.
Dr. Gustavus Orr: Georgia’s first state school
commissioner. He focused on:
1. improving funding for schools
2. providing equal treatment for black students
Education in the New South Era, con’t
Students went to school for 3 months a year.
Counties held school at different times of the year,
and teachers rotated through the schools.
This met important needs:
1. enabled children to get an education
2. Enabled to children to work on farms or in factories
3. Offset the difference between teacher need and
availability
Education Goes Backward
In 1877- public education was limited to elementary
school- It was thought anyone over 14 should be
working.
The Constitution of 1877 called for segregated
schools.
From 1877 until the 1950’s, whites and blacks went to
separate schools.