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Chapter 9 - Reconstruction http://salempress.com/store/samples/african_american_history/african_a merican_history_reconstruction.htm Reconstruction Terms to Know 1. Reconstruction 2. Thirteenth Amendment 3. Fourteenth Amendment 4. Fifteenth Amendment 5. Freedmen 6. Freedmen’s Bureau 7. Black Codes 8. Carpetbaggers 9. Scalawags 10.Georgia Act 11. Sharecropping 12.Tenant farming What is the Reconstruction Era? • the period after the Civil War • Involved the process of the Southern states being readmitted to the Union • the “punishment” of and physical rebuilding of the South, which had been destroyed during the war • the establishment of granting citizenship rights to the newly freed former slaves (freedmen) Aftermath of the War in Georgia • People struggled just to eat or find shelter. • Fields were ruined. There was not enough food, and people were starving. • Most houses were destroyed or run down. • Businesses stopped • Railroads destroyed – no transportation • Banks closed – no money • 25,000 Georgians were killed in the war, and many more were injured Problems Facing the Freedmen • The former slaves were now called the freedmen. • Homeless, uneducated, poor, fearful of old masters • Had virtually nothing (few belongings, little or no money) The new freedom established a new relationship between blacks and whites, and freedmen struggled to find their place in the world. Freedmen’s Bureau • Established by the U.S. Government – Original purpose was to help blacks and poor whites cope with everyday problems – Later changed to helping just the freedmen adjust to their new lives by gaining land and getting an education – Established different kinds of schools Freedman’s School in Georgia Political Reconstruction The U.S. Government (who were all Union representatives from Northern states), had to figure out how to allow Southern states to rejoin the Union. They wanted to be sure that Southern states no longer supported the concept of states’ rights and would “obey” the laws and regulations established by the federal government. President Lincoln had a plan, but tragedy caused a change…. Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln wanted to restore the South to the Union as quickly as possible. He had a two-step plan: 1. All Southerners would be pardoned (forgiven) after taking an oath of allegiance to the U.S. 2. When 10% of voters in each state took the oath, the state would be allowed to rejoin the Union. Congress and many Northerners thought the South should be punished and felt that Lincoln’s plan was not tough enough. Lincoln’s Assassination Lincoln was shot on April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln died the next morning. Andrew Johnson became President after the assassination of Lincoln. Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction President Johnson wanted to use Lincoln’s plan, except he wanted certain groups to have to apply directly to him for a pardon: 1. Those who owned property worth more than $20,000, 2. High-ranking Confederate military leaders 3. High-ranking Confederate civilian leaders Pressure from Radical Republicans Radical Republicans had most of the power in the U.S. Congress. They wanted: • stronger requirements for readmission of the Southern states • For the South to be severely punished. Under pressure from the Radical Republicans, President Johnson added 3 more requirements for readmission to the Union: Johnson Plan Additions In addition to everything else, Southern states also had to: 1. Declare invalid secession ordinance (officially say they were no longer a part of the Confederacy) 2. Promise not to repay those who had given the Confederacy money to support the war, and 3. Ratify the 13th Amendment, which made slavery illegal Political Reconstruction in Georgia Georgia’s steps towards being readmitted to the Union happened in three phases: 1.Presidential Reconstruction 2. Congressional Reconstruction 3. Return to Military Rule Phase I: Presidential Reconstruction President Johnson directed Georgia to hold a Constitutional Convention. Constitutional Convention of 1865 • Repealed ordinances of succession • Voted to abolish slavery • Wrote a new State constitution Later, the General Assembly ratified the 13th amendment. Presidential Reconstruction, con’t At this point, Georgia had done what was required to re-enter the Union. However, the Radical Republicans had taken control of Reconstruction and did not allow Georgia back in. Like most other Southern states, Georgia ratified the 13th Amendment to end slavery, but they still severely limited the rights of the freedmen by passing a set of state laws called Black Codes. The Black Codes Georgia was not readmitted because of the highlydiscriminatory Black Codes. Examples: • Limited blacks to only working certain jobs • Allowed blacks to be whipped as punishment • Said that blacks must work from sunrise to sunset, six days a week • Allowed unemployed blacks to be arrested and imprisoned • Did not allow blacks the rights to vote, serve in juries, testify against whites, or marry whites Phase II – Congressional Reconstruction The Northern politicians in Congress reacted swiftly to the Black Codes. In 1866, Congress passed the 14th Amendment, which granted full citizenship to former slaves and forbid states from making laws that would limit the rights of citizens. Radical Republicans required Southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment to be readmitted to the Union. Georgia and almost all Southern states refused. Congress put the states under military rule in 1867. Congressional Reconstruction, con’t Under military rule, the South was divided into 5 districts (pg. 304) “The First Vote” “ General Pope governed the district that included Georgia. One of his first tasks was to register all eligible voters, both white and black. Each state was instructed to write new constitutions which extended the right to vote to blacks and to ratify the 14th Amendment. Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867 Georgians voted to have a Constitutional Convention and voted on who the delegates should be. For the first time, some African-American males were able to vote in Georgia. Some delegates were carpetbaggers – Northerners who moved to the South after the war. Most delegates were scalawags – Southerners who supported the Radical Republicans. 36 delegates were African-Americans. Most Georgians DID NOT LIKE this group of people who had taken over Georgia’s government. Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867 Georgians voted to have a Constitutional Convention and voted on who the delegates should be. For the first time, some African-American males were able to vote in Georgia. Some delegates were carpetbaggers – Northerners who moved to the South after the war. Most delegates were scalawags – Southerners who supported the Radical Republicans. 36 delegates were African-Americans. Most Georgians DID NOT LIKE this group of people who had taken over Georgia’s government. Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867, con’t New State Constitution – new things added: 1. Gave civil rights to ALL citizens 2. Approved free public education 3. Allowed married women to control their own property Rufus Bullock (from New York) was elected governor in 1868. The General Assembly ratified the 14th Amendment. Georgia had again met requirements for readmission to the Union. The new state constitution was ratified and federal troops left the state. . Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867, con’t How Atlanta became the state capital: New State Constitution – new things added: Milledgeville was the capital of Georgia 1. Gave civil rights to ALL citizens in 1867. 2. Approved free public education Hotelsmarried in Milledgeville wouldtheir notown allow 3. Allowed women to control property black legislators who came for the Rufus Bullock (from New York) was elected governor in Convention to stay there. 1868. For thisAssembly reason,ratified the Convention was The General the 14th Amendment. therequirements city of Atlanta. Georgia moved had againtomet for readmission to the Union. After this, Atlanta became the state The new state constitution was ratified and federal troops capital. left the state. . Phase III – Return to Military Rule Sept. 1868: The General Assembly expelled 28 black legislators. They said that the right to vote did not carry the right to hold office. There was evidence that the KKK kept blacks from voting in 1868 Presidential election. Ku Klux Klan- a secret organization that tried to keep freedmen from exercising their civil rights. They wanted to get the Democratic party back in control in the South Secret Meeting of the Ku Klux Klan http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=7A6E66C6-90ED-48AA-A41227C4CA3A4581&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US Return to Military Rule, con’t. Governor Bullock asked the federal government for help. Georgia Act (1869)- placed Georgia under military rule for the third time. The Georgia Act required ratification of the 15th Amendment (giving all men the right to vote) before the military would be removed again. End of Reconstruction Georgia Supreme Court ruled that blacks could hold office. The General Assembly reseated the black legislators who had been expelled. General Assembly ratified 14th and 15th Amendments. Georgia was readmitted to the Union in July 1870-Reconstruction was officially over. How long did the Reconstruction Era take in Georgia? The Democratic party regained control of the General Assembly in the 1870 election. From Dec. 1871 through 2003- Georgia’s governor was always a Democrat. Anti-south policies were identified with the Republican party. Economic Reconstruction Georgia had to rebuild economically, also. **Confederate money was worthless, so banks failed; two-thirds of railroads were useless. Former slaves had no jobs. Most whites who owned farms needed workers but could not pay Land owners and workers agreed on 2 new ways to farm: 1. Sharecropping- landowner provided land, house, tools, seed animals- The workers would give the owner a share of his crop 2. Tenant Farming- tenants owned some equipment and animals. They paid the landowner to use the land. Discovery Education video on Sharecropping (6 min) Georgia Stories: The Saga of Reconstruction video (5 min) Economic Reconstruction, con’t Industry: increasing cotton production brought some industry to Georgia. Cotton was the biggest crop. Railroads were necessary to the success of Georgia’s economy (transportation of goods). Railroads expanded during this time. The 2 major coastal ports for shipping were Savannah and Brunswick. Atlanta In 1837, Atlanta was known as “Terminus” because it was the last (terminal) stop on the Georgia State Railroad. In 1842, Terminus was renamed Marthasville. The name later changed to Atlanta - for the word “Atlantic” in Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. By 1861 ,Atlanta had a population of 9,500. It was the 4th largest city in GA (after Savannah, Augusta, and Columbus) Atlanta, con’t During the Civil War, Atlanta grew in importance and population. After Sherman left, Atlanta was in ruins. However, the city rebuilt quickly. In 1868, Atlanta became the capital city. The New South “The New South” was a term used to describe progress in the late 1800’s. The phrase was first used by Henry Grady, a newspaper writer. He thought the South should become like the North and increase industry and education. Redemption Era: the period right after Reconstruction. The purpose of the time was to redeem Georgia from the humiliation of Reconstruction. Bourbon Triumvirate Redemption was handled by the Bourbon Triumvirate - a group of 3 important Georgia politicians who served as GA governors and U.S. Senators. All were Democrats. They wanted: A. Stronger ties with industry in the North B. To keep many old Southern traditions. Bourbon Triumvirate, con’t Joseph Brown Alfred Colquitt •Governor of •As governor, he Georgia during the reduced the state Civil War debt •Oldest member of the Triumvirate John B. Gordon •As governor, he brought new industry to the state Bourbon Triumvirate, con’t The Bourbon Triumvirate helped carry Georgia through economic Reconstruction by lowering taxes and expanding businesses and industry. They were criticized for: 1. Not helping the poor 2. Not improving education 3. Not improving factory working conditions 4. Not improving mental hospitals Independent Democrats The Independent Democrats was a new political party who was led by William and Rebecca Felton. They felt the Democratic Party was not concerned with poor and low income families. They spoke out against the Bourbons. More about Rebecca Latimer Felton • Worked for fairness and justice • Leader in women’s suffrage (right to vote) and temperance (anti-alcohol) movements • Wanted the state to fund public education adequately • Worked to get UGA to accept women students • Named a U.S. Senator from Georgia in 1922 at age 87. She was the FIRST female senator in U.S. history! Georgia Stories – Rebecca Latimer Felton Biography - Convict Lease System Prisoners were leased (rented) to people who provided them with housing and food in exchange for labor. When the program began, prisoners were used for public works (building roads, etc). By 1879, most prisoners were leased to 3 companies, who ignored the rules that they were supposed to follow. Prisoners weren’t properly fed and clothed, and they were often overworked. Also, the convict lease system caused many other people to go jobless. The Feltons worked to get reforms made. The law was changed in 1897. Convict Lease System Prisoners were leased (rented) to people who provided them with housing and food in exchange for labor. When the program began, prisoners were used for public works (building roads, etc). By 1879, most prisoners were leased to 3 companies, who ignored the rules that they were supposed to follow. Prisoners weren’t properly fed and clothed, and they were often overworked. Also, the convict lease system caused many other people to go jobless. The Feltons worked to get reforms made. The law was changed in 1897. Another Presidential Assassination President James Garfield was shot on July 2, 1881. He died Sept. 19, 1881. He was shot by Charles Guiteau, who was angry because he had been overlooked for a job. The assassination brought the practice of patronage to the surface and led to the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883. • Established a series of civil service exams for job vacancies • Helped ensure the best-suited for a job got it. Agriculture in the New South Era In 1867, the “Patrons of Husbandry” was formed. It soon became known as the Grange. At first, meetings were about common farming problems and farming improvements. In 1870’s and 1880’s, farm prices began to drop and farmers made very little money. Because of the economic conditions, the Grange became more political. **By 1875, there were 18,000 Georgians in the Grange and 750,000 members nationally. Georgia’s Grange put enough pressure on state legislators to force the formation of a state Department of Agriculture in 1874. -GA was first state to have a government agency concerned entirely with farming The Farmer’s Alliance Like the Grange, it began as a social organization. This group formed cooperative buying stores, or coops. Farmer’s Alliance worked against high railroad freights Rise of the Populist Party The Farmer’s Alliance political influence grew along with the number of members. 1891- Many labor organizations joined with the Alliance to form a new political party. It was named the People’s Party, but it was usually called the Populist Party. Georgia’s Best-Known Populist • Tom Watson – concerned that poor farmers in Georgia needed help. - introduced the Rural Free Delivery (RFD) Bill. It required the U.S. Postmaster General to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge. Farm families no longer had to travel to a post office to get their mail. Later, Watson was the Populist Party’s nominee for vice-president in 1896 and for president in 1904. Education in the New South Era The Georgia Constitution of 1868 called for a free public education for all students. Georgia established a system of public schools in 1870, but did not provide money for them until 1871. Dr. Gustavus Orr: Georgia’s first state school commissioner. He focused on: 1. improving funding for schools 2. providing equal treatment for black students Education in the New South Era, con’t Students went to school for 3 months a year. Counties held school at different times of the year, and teachers rotated through the schools. This met important needs: 1. enabled children to get an education 2. Enabled to children to work on farms or in factories 3. Offset the difference between teacher need and availability Education Goes Backward In 1877- public education was limited to elementary school- It was thought anyone over 14 should be working. The Constitution of 1877 called for segregated schools. From 1877 until the 1950’s, whites and blacks went to separate schools.