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Mineralium Deposita (1997) 32: 426±433
Ó Springer-Verlag 1997
S. JankovicÂ
The Carpatho-Balkanides and adjacent area: a sector
of the Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt
Received: 3 June 1996 / Accepted: 10 January 1997
Abstract The Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt
(TEMB) was formed during Mesozoic and post-Mesozoic times in the area of the former Tethyan ocean on
the southern margin of Eurasia, with the Afro-Arabian
and Indian plates to the south. It extends from western
Mediterranean via the Alps and southeastern Europe
through the Lesser Caucasus, the Hindu Kush, and the
Tibet Plateau to Burma and SW Indonesia, linking with
the West Paci®c metallogenic belt. The Carpatho-Balkan region is one of the sectors of the TEMB, characterized by some speci®c features. The emplacement of
ore deposits is related to a de®nite time interval, and to
speci®c tectonic settings such as:
1. Late Permian-Triassic intracontinental rifting along
the northern margin of Gondwanaland and/or fragments already separated. This setting involves volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary deposits (iron, lead/
zinc, manganese, antimony, mercury, barite), skarn
deposits associated with volcano-plutonic complexes
of bimodal magmatism, and low temperature carbonate-hosted lead/zinc deposits.
2. Jurassic intraoceanic rifting ± ophiolite complexes:
This setting hosts major magmatic (particularly
podiform chrome deposits) and volcano-sedimentary
deposits, mainly of the Cyprus type.
3. Subduction-related setting involves porphyry copper
deposits, lesser skarn deposits (iron, locally Pb-Zn),
massive sulphide Cu (e.g. Bor) accompanied locally
by Pb-Zn of replacement type, epithermal gold
deposits, associated with calc-alkaline igneous complexes of the Early Tertiary-Late Cretaceous, and the
Neogene gold/silver and base metals deposits.
Editorial handling: DR
S. JankovicÂ
Department of Mineral Exploration,
The Faculty of Mining and Geology,
Djusina 7, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
4. Post-collision continent-continent setting includes
deposits of Pb-Zn, Sb, As, Au-Cu associated with
volcano-plutonic complexes of calc-alkaline anity.
Several major Alpine metallogenic units are developed in the Carpatho-Balkanides and adjacent area,
each characterized by speci®c development, mineral associations, and types of ore deposits.
The Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt (TEMB) was
formed during Mesozoic and post-Mesozoic in the area
of the former Tethyan ocean along the southern margin
of Eurasia, ¯anked on the south by Afro-Arabian and
Indian plates. This metallogenic belt was ®rst recognized
as a separate metallogenic unit by Jankovic (1977a).
The TEMB is of global size, almost 10 000 km long,
and can be compared with the CircumPaci®c belts,
though it di€ers in many respects, and is characterized
by many speci®c metallogenic features. It extends from
the western Mediterranean via the Alps and SE Europe
over the Pontides and Anatolia, Lesser Caucasus and
Central and Northern Iran to west Pakistan, Central
and SE Afghanistan passing into the Hindu Kush,
southern Pamir and the Tibet Plateau reaching Burma
and Sumatra, to link with the West Paci®c metallogenic
belt. The TEMB consists of several sectors. Figure 1
shows the main regional metallogenic units of the
The general geotectonic evolution of the domain
where the TEMB was formed is closely connected with
the history of Tethys, its opening, development of island
arcs and microplates, closing, welding of microplates
with Eurasia, subduction of oceanic crust(s), as well as
collision of continents, continent-island arc collisions
and underthrusting of continental crusts. The development of ore deposits and regional metallogenic units is
associated with speci®c tectonic settings within the individual sectors of the TEMB.
Ore deposits and tectonic setting
The tectonic evolution of the Carpatho-Balkanides and
adjacent areas in the Alpine period is dominated by the
opening and closure of the Tethys-Paratethys ocean.
Since the available space for this study is strictly limited,
readers are directed to the interpretation of tectonic
events in terms of plate tectonics in this region considered by Dimitrijevic and Grubic (1977), Dewey et al.
(1973), Herz and Savu (1974a), Horvath (1974), Radulescu and Sandulescu (1973).
This study brie¯y reviews the relations between the
Alpine deposits, and tectonic settings in the CarpathoBalkanides and adjacent areas based on plate tectonic
concepts. These problems have been discussed by Petrascheck (1942, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1982), Herz and Savu
(1974a, b), Ilavsky (1977), Ilavsky et al. (1979), JankovicÂ
(1977b), Jankovic et al. (1974), JankovicÂ, ed. (1977),
Raincsak (1988), Tvalchrelidze (1985-based on geosyncline concept).
Figure 2 shows the relations between regional metallogenic zones and tectonic settings in the NE Mediterranean domain.
1. Intracontinental rifting
The intracontinental rifting along the northern margin
of Gondwanaland and/or within already separated
fragments was particularly widespread during the Late
Permian-Middle Triassic. The lateral spreading of continental crust and commencement of drift produced
Fig. 1 The Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt: the central and
eastern segments (above). The principal metallogenic zones in the
central and western segments (Jankovic and Petrascheck, 1987)
crustal thinning and formation of the graben ¯oor by
deep crustal ¯ow and tensional faulting. These processes
in the area of consideration were largely of a short duration and failed to reach the stage of ocean ¯oor development. Locally, sea-¯oor spreading along the rift
system continues right to the ocean stage as in the area
of Mirdita in the Dinarides (Jankovic 1977b).
The intracontinental rifting is often accompanied by
volcanoplutonic complexes of calc-alkaline composition,
spilite-keratophyre, and, locally, albite syenite, and
The ore metals originated from the intermediate,
ma®c or alkaline magmatic complexes, and/or from
hydrothermal mobilization from the surrounding rocks.
In some areas volcanic sources at depth supplied only
heat to drive hydrothermal systems. There are also intracontinental mineral-bearing basins without volcanic
activity, the mineralization of which is associated with
shallow-water environment, while the sources of metals
are most probably non-volcanics.
The following three principal morphogenetic types
of deposit and metallogenic environment are distinguished.
1.1. First iron-oxide skarn deposits are associated with
hypabyssal intrusions. They occur infrequently (e.g.
Tovarnica in the Dinarides Jankovic 1982; Iulia and
Cetal Bair in Dobrogea, Ianovici and Borcos, 1982;
Vlad, 1984a).
1.2. Second, volcanogenic hydrothermal and volcanosedimentary deposits, both syngenetic and epigenetic are related to volcanic/subvolcanic activity,
close to/or at the ¯oor of an epicontinental sea.
Locally, small ore deposits are associated with
shallow intrusives (quartz porphyries, diorite, even
gabbro, Jankovic 1986, 1987). Scarcity of major
copper deposits is a speci®c feature of such environments.
The most signi®cant deposits involve (1) barite and
base metal sulphides (Somova in Dobrogea, Vlad
1984a), (2) the proximal and distal volcano-sedimentary lead/zinc deposits, locally accompanied by barite
and/or cinnabar, (3) hydrothermal veins and stockwork
of lead-zinc sulphides hosted by the volcanics (Jankovic 1982), and (4) manganese volcano-sedimentary
1.3. Third, low temperature deposits are located along
continental margins and represented by carbonate
hosted lead-zinc sulphides (the Triassic deposits of
the Alps), and syngenetic and/or epigenetic mercury
mineralization (the Idrija deposit in the Dinarides).
2. Mineralization associated
with ocean-¯oor spreading areas
When the lateral spreading of continental crust continues beyond the stage of intracontinental rifting, new
Fig. 2 Major Alpine metallogenic units and tectonic settings in the
northeastern Mediterranean (Jankovic 1977b; modi®ed)
oceanic crust is formed and a mid-oceanic ridge develops. The ¯oor of the Tethys has many tectonic elements
that are considered to be settings for ore deposits (e.g.
active spreading axes, hot-spots).
Among the ore deposits, associated with ophiolite
suites, particularly in the Dinarides, the following
should be mentioned:
a. Chromite deposits: numerous podiform chromite
deposits are known in the Dinarides and Albanides
b. Ni-Cu-Co sulphides (pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite-pentlandite ‹ magnetite association accompanied by gold
and silver) are locally found in the serpentinites,
Jankovic (1990a)
c. Titaniferous magnetite veins/lenses and disseminations occur sporadically in the gabbro, accompanied
by traces of pyrite and chalcopyrite (JankovicÂ,
d. Volcano-sedimentary deposits are of two principal
types, sporadically found in the same ophiolite complex: (1) sea-¯oor pyritic copper sulphides of Cyprus
type, and (2) bedded ferromanganese deposits associated with pillow lavas and with tu€aceous beds.
Manganese nodules occur sporadically in the Upper
Jurassic-Early Cretaceous deep sea sediments (Jankovic 1990a).
3. Mineralization in subduction-related setting
The closure of Tethys during the Late Jurassic-Early
Cretaceous was followed by the subduction of oceanic
¯oor under the European platform, resulting in the
generation of numerous volcano-intrusive complexes of
calc-alkaline suites, locally alkaline, situated along the
western arcs of the Carpatho-Balkanides (Apusenieastern Serbia-Srednegorie). The Laramian magmatism
involves both the Senonian volcanics (andesite,
dacite, locally rhyolite; andesite prevails), and the
Campanian-Paleocene hypabyssal and plutonic rocks
(granodiorite, monzonite, diorite). The intrusions are
mostly composite and multistage magmatic complexes.
Geochemical features of igneous rocks range from
continental margin type to island arc type, indicate a
contamination of parent magma by continental crust
(the 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.07 to 0.14).
The collision of the northern Pannonian microplate
with the European continental plate in the Late EoceneLower Miocene was followed by the subduction of
oceanic lithosphere in the Middle Miocene (Badenian).
In the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene a regional island arc
type calc-alkaline volcanism was developed in the eastern and western Carpathians. Volcanics dominate and
include rhyolite, rhyodacite, dacite and various types of
andesite. The centres of volcanic activity were controlled
by deep fractures. The emplacements of subvolcanic
granite, granodiorite, quartzdiorite porphyries in the
volcanic structures are common.
The most important types of mineralization are
1. Skarn deposits, both calcic and less frequently magnesian, are commonly developed in the contact zone
of plutonic complexes. The dominant ore constituents
are iron and base metals, locally molybdenum, boron
minerals a.a. The deposits of this type are of particular importance in Banat, Romania (Ianovici and
Borcos, 1982 see also Jenchenoaeva 1997 this issue).
2. Pornhyry copper deposits: several major porphyry
copper deposits have been discovered since 1950 in
the Carpatho-Balkanides (Majdanpek a.a. in Yugoslavia Jankovic 1990a, b; Medet a.a. in Bulgeria ±
Bogdanov 1982; Moldova Nuoa a.a. in Romania ±
Cio¯ica and Vlad 1980; Ianovici and Borcos 1982;
Recsk in Hungary, Baksa et al. 1980).
Ore grade mineralization occurs both in the intrusive
host rocks (mainly subvolcanic/hypabyssal facies) and in
the surrounding rocks, but porphyry copper deposits in
andesite prevail. In some of the porphyry copper hydrothermal systems a vertical zoning of various mineralization styles and mineral assemblages have been
recognized (Bor, Jankovic 1990b; Recsk-Baksa et al.
1980). Gold content of porphyry copper ore is variable,
from less than 0.1 ppm to 1.0 ppm, but mostly 0.2±
0.3 ppm. Concentrations of Pt-group elements (Pt, Pd)
are sporadically found (recovery of Pt and Pd is recorded in Bor).
3. Volcanogenic hydrothermal deposits: these deposits
are related to volcano-intrusive complexes of calcalkaline suites. They are commonly located at subvolcanic level, genetically associated with deep-seated magmatic sources. The wall-rocks are both
volcanics and surrounding rocks. Mineralization is
epigenetic with respect to volcanics, replacement
type of mineralization occurs in places as well
(JankovicÂ, 1986).
The spatial distribution of mineralization is often
controlled by the volcanic structures.
The major deposits of this group include the following:
a. Cupriferous pyrite deposits occur in andesite ‹ dacite
(Bor in Yugoslavia, Jankovic 1990a; Lahoca/Recsk in
Hungary, Baksa et al. 1980; Radtka in Bulgaria,
Bogdanov 1980). They are of replacement type
formed sporadically on the top of porphyry copper
b. Polymetallic massive sulphides with high gold content
occur in places in volcanics (CÏoka Marin in Yugoslavia, JankovicÂ, 1990a, b; CÏelopecÏ in Bulgaria, Bogdanov, 1980).
c. Conglomerate type is a unique type of copper deposits
in the Carpatho-Balkanides (Novo Okno in the Bor
ore ®eld, Jankovic 1990b).
4. Lead-zinc sulphide deposits are usually located along
fractured zones in volcanics (andesite-dacite), less
frequently in surrounding rocks, but often in close
connection with caldera structures.
5. Epithermal gold-silver deposits, vein and stockwork
type of mineralization, occur at subvolcanic levels of
andesite-dacite-rhyolite suites in the Carpathians. The
most signi®cant are the Neogene deposits in Transilvania, and Banska SÏtavnica-BoÈhmer, 1982).
4. Mineralization related to magmatic activity
in post-collision continent-continent setting
Some regional metallogenic units such as the SerboMacedonian-Central Anatolian province are associated
with the Oligocene-Miocene/Pliocene calc-alkaline
complexes. The origin of these magmatic complexes
cannot be unequivocally related to subduction of an
oceanic crust and its partial melting, although they are
situated in the vicinity of a suture zone, formed after the
closure of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara ocean. It is more
likely but still a tentative model, that the widespread
calc-alkaline igneous suites resulted from an anatectic
partial melting of the lowermost part of continental
crust and that locally even some ophiolites were involved
(Jankovic 1986). These processes took place during the
late Paleogene through early Neogene along the suture
Vardar-Izmir-Ankara zone, preceded by uplifting of the
central parts of suture zone due to lateral compression
(Karamata 1982).
The ore deposits were emplaced at hypabyssal and
volcanic levels, the latter often associated with caldera
structures. Some deposits were formed from submarine
brines, syngenetic and/or epigenetic with respect to
country rocks; they may represent a speci®c group of
deposits developed in this tectonic setting (such as hydrothermal-sedimentary deposits of boron minerals,
gold/silver ± lead/zinc ‹ Sb/As/Tl a.a.). Some deposits
were formed above ophiolites and they contain some
elements which were mobilized by hydrothermal solutions passing through ophiolites (gold, PGE, copper).
Lead-zinc and antimony are the dominant metals in
this tectonic setting. Porphyry copper deposits occur
along the contact between two tectonic blocks, the Vardar zone and the Serbo-Macedonian massif (SMM).
Molybdenum mineralization as disseminated and/or
vein types occurs sporadically; some of them contain
large reserves but at low grade (MacÏkatica in Yugoslavia). Hydrothermal-sedimentary magnesite and boron
deposits occur in the Neogene basins.
Major metallogenic units
All Alpine ore deposits are located within several major
metallogenic units, each characterized by some speci®c
features regarding style of mineralization, associations
of elements and minerals, and morphogenetic types of
deposit. The principal features of these metallogenic
units will be brie¯y presented.
The Carpatho-Balkan metallogenic province (Fig. 3) is
characterized by abundance of base metals and precious
metals (Au, Ag). Epithermal mineralization of low
sulphidation type dominates, and is associated with
Miocene-Pliocene volcanism, in close connection with
volcanic structures (volcanic centres and subvolcanic
intrusions of calc-alkaline composition, hydraulic fracturing and extensional fault tectonics, etc). The vein type
of mineralization prevails, disseminated and stockwork
mineralization is subordinate.
The Western Carpathian sub-province includes several
metallogenic ore districts such as: Central Slovakian
district (Pukanec,, Banska SÏtiavnica ± HodrusÏ a, Kremnica) contains volcanic hosted epithermal gold/silver
deposits of low sulphidation type; base metal mineralization; skarn magnetite deposits, and some indications
of porphyry copper mineralization.
Slanske-Tokaj Mts: the epithermal gold/silver, lead/
zinc and antimony deposits are related to Miocene
multiphase volcanics, and diorite porphyry. The most
signi®cant deposits are in Hungary (e.g. Telkibanya,
Rudabanya and GyoÈgyoÈsorszi) (Morvai 1982) and Slovakia (e.g. Brehov).
The large porphyry copper-skarn deposit Recsk is
associated with Paleogene volcanics in the Hungarian
Central Mts.
Fig. 3 The Carpatho-Balkanides: principal metallogenic units (simpli®ed)
Beregovo-Begansk district in Ukraine: the mineralization of gold/silver, base metals, locally mercury, TeBi and barite occurs in Miocene volcanics.
The most signi®cant deposits are Beregovo and Muzhievo (Naumenko, 1987).
The Eastern Carpathians sub-province. Various hydrothermal deposits (gold, silver, base metal i.a.) are associated with the Neogene volcanics, mainly andesite, cut
by subvolcanic intrusions. The ore deposits in Romania
are reviewed by Ianovici and Borcos (1982).
The Oas metallogenic zone contains base metal
deposits accompanied locally by Au, Ag and Hg mineralization (Bixad, Geamana-Camirzana).
Baia Mare metallogenic zone contains signi®cant
deposits of precious and base metals, located along the
systems of fractures in the volcanics (e.g. Baia Sprie,
Calimani-Gurguhiu-Hargita metallogenic zone involves hydrothermal mineralization of base metals, accompanied locally by gold/silver, mercury, sporadically
by native sulphur, associated with volcanic structures.
The Apuseni Mts-Krepoljin sub-province. It is developed
along a narrow, regional fractured zone (Ianovici et al.
1977; Ianovici and Borcos 1982; Jankovic 1990a).
The Apuseni Mts: the ore deposits related to the
Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene volcano-plutonic complexes of calc-alkaline suites (diorite, granodiorite etc).
Related metallogeny involves various styles of mineralization (skarn-hydrothermal) of Fe, Pb/Zn, Cu, minor
B, Mo, Bi, W, Co, Ni, Au, As, Ba (Folea et al. 1987;
Vlad 1984b). Skarns are the dominant type (Mo-Bi ores,
Cu-W a.a.).
The Metalliferous Mts: the ore deposits (Au, Ag, Te
and base metals including porphyry copper mineralization) are associated with the Badenian-Pliocene volcanointrusive complexes. The ore deposits are commonly
located in the roots of the volcanic structures.
The Banat zone: the ore deposits occur mainly as
skarn type, both calcic and locally magnesian; magnetite-hematite (Ocna de Fier) and molybdenite-chalcopyrite associations (Oravita, Moldova Nuoa) occur most
frequently. They are related to the Upper CretaceousPaleocene magmatic complexes (granodiorite, diorite).
The Krepoljin unit: this is an extension of the previous zone southwards of the Danube. The mineralization is related to the andesite-dacite subvolcanic
intrusions: the small replacement type of Pb/Zn-Au/Ag
association, skarn base metals accompanied by minor Bi
and Mo; veins of Sb-W and replacement of stibnite, as
well as copper sulphides in Permian sandstone.
The Bor-Srednegorie sub-province. It is related to a riftgraben structure, which is traced from Bozovici in Romania over Bor in Yugoslavia to Srednegorie and Burgas/Black sea in Bulgaria. Copper and gold/silver,
locally molybdenum and lead/zinc are the most signi®cant metals. The ore deposits are associated with the
Upper Cretaceous volcano-plutonic complexes of calcalkaline suites.
The Bor ore district involves several porphyry copper
deposits (Majdanpek i.a.) with the large cupriferous
massive pyrite/porphyry copper-gold deposit at Bor, and
small base metals/gold deposit at CÏoka Marin (JankovicÂ
1990 a, b).
The Panagyurishte ore district contains porphyry
copper deposits (Medet, Assarel, Elatsite), and massive
sulphide deposits (Radtka, Elshitsa and CÏelopecÏ Bogdanov 1982).
The Burgas ore district: the mineralization of vein
quartz-chalcopyrite association prevails (Rossen, Zidarevo). Some of them are characterized by the presence of
Mo, Co, and Bi minerals (Bogdanov 1982).
The Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province. This regional metallogenic unit is developed along the suture
zone of ocean. The Alpine ore deposits are commonly
associated with the Oligocene-Miocene, locally the
Pliocene volcano-intrusive complexes of calc-alkaline
suites (Karamata 1974; Jankovic 1990a, b).
The most signi®cant deposits are those of lead/zinc,
to some extent copper and antimony, accompanied by
gold, silver, arsenic, thallium, bismuth, iron. The major
metallogenic units are displayed in Fig 4. They include:
(1) the Podrinje ore district with signi®cant lead/zinc
(e.g. Srebrenica), and antimony deposits (e.g. ZajacÏa);
(2) the SÏumadija-Kopaonik ore district characterized by
Fig. 4 The Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province: principal metallogenic zones (Jankovic 1990a)
skarn, hydrothermal replacement and vein types of leadzinc mineralization (e.g. TrepcÏa a.a); (3) the LeceChalkidiki metallogenic zone involving lead-zinc
deposits such Lece, Zletovo, Olympias, and porphyry
copper deposits (e.g. BucÏim, Skouries etc); (4) the Osogovo metallogenic zone dominated by signi®cant leadzinc deposits (e.g. Sase-Toranica etc); and (5) the KozÏuf
ore district with minor copper, and important Sb/As/Tl/
Au deposits (e.g. AlsÏ ar).
The Dinaric-Hellenides metallogenic province
Mineralization is associated with Triassic intracontinental rifting. Jankovic (1977b, 1987) reviewed the principal types of deposit and major metallogenic units.
Figure 5 shows the main Triassic metallogenic districts in the Dinarides: (1) the Ljubija ore district containing carbonate-hosted siderite ore bodies, accompanied sporadically by lead-zinc sulphides; (2) the middle
Bosnian Mts with numerous occurrences of Sb, As, Cu,
Pb/Zn ‹ W, Hg-vein type mineralization, locally minor
skarn and/or hydrothermal magnetite deposits; (3) the
northern Montenegro metallogenic zone dominated by
the lead zinc mineralization (volcanogenic and volcanosedimentary types) in this metallogenic zone (e.g. SÏuplja
Fig. 5 The principal metallogenic zones in the Dinario province
(Jankovic 198)
Stijena, Brskovo); (4) the VaresÏ ore district with iron
deposits (e.g. VaresÏ : siderite-hematite-massive sulphides
stratiform deposit) and lead/zinc-barite-stibnite-cinnabar mineralization (e.g. VeovacÏa); and (5) the Podrinje
ore district containing small lead-zinc ore-bodies hosted
by carbonates, and volcano-sedimentary lead/zinc-barite
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