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Chapter 10
 Classification
– the arrangement of
organisms into orderly groups based on their
 Why
 Classifying organisms makes it easier for
scientists to answer important questions, like:
 1) How many known species are there?
 2) What are their common characteristics?
 3) What are their relationships?
 To
classify an organism a biologist uses a
system that groups them by shared
 There
are 7 levels of classification
+ Levels of Classification
 There
are seven levels of classification
(largest to smallest):
 1)
Kingdoms – are the largest most general
groups of organization
 There are 6 main kingdoms
 2) Phylum – members of a phylum are more alike
than members of another phylum
 3) Classes
 4) Orders
 5) Families
 6) Genus
 7) Species
Is the Basis for Classification?
 Taxonomy
– is the science of identifying,
classifying, and naming living things
 This
was created by a Swedish botanist
named Carolus Linnaeus
 Thanks
to Darwin, today’s taxonomists
classify organisms based on presumed
evolutionary relationships.
+ Dichotomous Keys
Keys – is an aid used to
identify unknown organisms.
 These
keys consist of several pairs of
descriptive questions that have two
different questions.
 These questions help you to identify
the unknown organism
Chapter 10 – Quiz 1
1) ___________ is an arrangement of organisms into
orderly groups based on their similarities
2) ___________ is the largest category that an organism
can be placed in.
3) ___________ is the science of identifying, classifying,
and naming living things
4) _________ or ___________ are the two languages use
in naming living things
B) list the 7 levels of classification in order from largest
to smallest
B2) What are the two kigdoms that bacteria can be
placed in
Section 2 - The Six Kingdoms
 The Two
Kingdoms of Bacteria
 Bacteria
– are extremely small single celled
 They are Prokaryotes
 1) Archaebacteria – contain bacteria that can
survive in extreme environments
 Have been on Earth for 3 billion years
 “archae” means ancient
 2) Eubacteria - contains free-living bacteria
found in a variety of environments
 they live in the soil, water, and even inside
your body!
3) Kingdom Protista
 Protista
– are commonly called protists.
They are single or simple multi celled
 They
are Eukaryotic
 Kingdom Protista contain all organisms
that are NOT plants, animals, or fungi
 First protists evolved over 2 billion years
ago and gave rise to plants, fungi, and
 Examples include protozoa, mold, and
4) Kingdom Plantae
– is the kingdom that contains
 Plants
are multicellular eukaryotic
organisms that perform photosynthesis
 Includes plants with a wide variety of
shapes and sizes
+ 5) Kingdom Fungi
– is the kingdom that contains
molds and mushrooms
 Fungi
does not perform photosynthesis
 Fungi are multicelluar organisms
 Fungi absorb nutrients after breaking
down their surroundings with digestive
+ 6) Kingdom Animalia
– is the kingdom that
contains animals
 Animals
are complex multicellular
eukaryotic organisms
 They contain cells that DO NOT have
cell walls
1) ___________ are extremely small single-celled
organisms that DO NOT contain a nucleus
2) ___________ is the kingdom that contain single celled
or simple multicellular organisms that have a nucleus
3) __________ is the kingdom that contain organisms
that can photosynthesize
4) __________ is the kingdom that contains mushrooms
and molds
5) __________ is the kingdom that contains mullticellular organisms that DO NOT have cell walls
B) What is Mr. Manfreda’s middle name