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US 8
World War 11
Rise of Totalitarian Regimes
Desperate: The Great
Rise of the Dictators
Hitler of Germany
Mussolini of Italy
Tojo of Japan
Franco of Spain
WW1; Treaty of Versailles
• The War and Versailles contributed to
Totalitarian Regimes……
• Hitler; Mussolini; Tojo; Franco
• The Great Depression as a component
• PROPAGANDA as a TOOL of Control
Japan: 1941
Suicide and Burning
Eva Braun
Eva Braun
Dwight D. Eisenhower
General Dwight Eisenhower; Later
President; 1953-1961
• Supreme Allied Commander; 5 Star
General; Interstate system; militaryindustrial complex; Cold War.
Mussolini; Italy: Fascism
Hanging Mussolini
Death of Mussolini and his mistress
• Image: The corpses of Mussolini, his mistress Claretta Petacci, and
his henchmen are hanged in Piazzale Loreto in Milan on public
display, April 29, 1945. They had been executed the day before
some 50 miles to the north in Mezzegra and were now offered to the
people who spat on the corpses and kicked them. They were then
hanged by the feet. In medieval Italy it was the custom to hang
crooks or embezzlers, by one foot. The fact that Mussolini was hung
by two feet suggests the deep level of rage and betrayal felt by the
people towards their once beloved "Duce". (credit: National
Archives, USA)
Francisco Franco of Spain
Kept it local
Chairman Mao
Uncle Joe Stalin; Joseph Stalin
• One of the most powerful and murderous
dictators in history, Stalin was the
supreme ruler of the Soviet Union for a
quarter of a century. His regime of terror
caused the death and suffering of tens of
millions, but he also oversaw the war
machine that played a key role in the
defeat of Nazism.
Fascism and Communism
The German Revolution
• The Armistice
– The 14 Points
– Article 231 (war guilt)
• Versailles saddled the
Republic with
reparations ($37B)
– In-kind or cash
Fascism and Communism
The German Revolution
Socialist German
Workers Party)
–Hitler (Führer)
Fascism and Communism
The Nazi Revolution
• Hitler’s 4 goals:
– Establish a Nazi state
• Special Commissar Law
• Enabling act
– Fix the economy
• Rearming
• Public works (autobahn)
• Labor programs (RAD, DAF, KdF)
– Deal with the Jews
– Greater (racial) Germany, the dominant state of
• Entailed overthrowing the Versailles Treaty
German Troops invading
Neville Chamberlain
If only…we could sit down at a table with the Germans and run through all their
complaints and claims with a pencil, this would greatly relieve all tension.
Chamberlain, speaking unoffficially to Anthony Eden in 1937.
You have only to look at the map to see that nothing we could do could possibly save
Czechoslovakia from being overrun by the Germans.
Chamberlain, writing to his sister in 1938.
How horrible, fantastic, incredible it is that we should be digging trenches and trying
on gas-masks here because of a quarrel in a far away country between people of
whom we know nothing.
Chamberlain, speaking in a radio broadcast about the Sudetenland crisis, 27
September 1938.
A clever plan of selling off your friends in order to buy off your enemies.
A comment in the British newspaper, The Manchester Guardian, February 1939.
Hitler goose-steps across the ‘spineless
leaders of democracy’ towards his goal:
’Boss of the Universe’.
The first 3 steps are labelled
‘Rearmament’, ‘Rhineland’ and ‘Danzig’.
This cartoon by the British cartoonist
David Low appeared in the Evening
Standard newspaper in July 1936.
Munich Pact 1938
• Appeasement of Hitler by England and
• Hitler got what he wanted: England let it
ride, “it” being the Versailles Treaty.
Hitler the Hero to the German
• 1930’s Germany
Burning Jewish Homes
Ravensbruck for Women
Nazi Murder
• Pushing East into Russia
Murder by Nazis
• Jews and especially Russians
Book Burning
Star of David
FDR Quarantine Speech
Franklin D. Roosevelt: Quarantine the Aggressors
Chicago, October 5, 1937
By October, 1937, President Roosevelt understood that the world was in danger, but
he found himself facing a dilemma: On the one hand, German and Italian aggression
were threatening world peace, and it was no longer a question of which side the
United States might eventually support. President Woodrow Wilson had faced that
issue when World War I broke out in 1914; the German practice of unrestricted
submarine warfare had decided the issue for Wilson as to which side the United
States would support. But Hitler's belligerence, his rejection of the restrictions of the
Treaty of Versailles, his rearming of Germany, and his militant rhetoric, along with the
participation of Italy and Germany and the Spanish civil war and the Italian invasion of
Ethiopia, made it clear that if there was to be an enemy, it would be a fascist states of
Germany and Italy.
On the other hand, the spirit of isolationism was strong in the United States. The
United States military establishment was pitifully small, and the neutrality acts which
Congress had recently passed limited America's ability to support nations with whom
President Roosevelt was sympathetic. He wanted to assist nations that were victims
of aggression, but he also needed to keep the neutralist, antiwar contingent at arm's
length. This quarantine speech was a step in the direction of taking a position that
made it clear on which side the United States stood but at the same time was not
warlike enough to arouse Roosevelt's political opponents.
Japan; 1937; Rape of Nanking
Killing Contests
• Japan attacked China; 1937
Fascism and Communism
Dealing with the Jews
Phase 1 (1933-35)
no policy; too busy elsewhere
R. Heydrich
Phase II (1935-39)
discrimination intended to get them to leave
Nuremberg Laws
Stars of David
“J” on documents
Phase III (1939-42)
Deportation and Resettlement in the East
moved to Polish ghettoes
Phase IV (1942-45)
Final Solution (Endlösung der Judenfrage) Reinhard Heydrich
annihilation camps
on-the-spot killings
Cash and Carry
The US response to “staying neutral.”
Destroyers For Bases
Answers to Common Questions
What was the destroyers-for-bases deal?
Between the US and UK Sept 2, 1940, transferred 50 destroyers
from the US Navy...
• What did the 'destroyer-for-bases deal of 1940 provide for?
• The U.S. transfer of 50 old destroyers given to Britain in exchange
for the use of eight British Atlantic bases.
• What is Destroyers‐For‐Bases Agreement?
• (1940) On 3 September 1940, after intricate negotiations, President
Franklin D. Roosevelt announced that he was transferring fifty
destroyers of World War I vintage to England—already at war with
Germany—in exchange for military bases.
War Bonds
Albert Einstein Letter to
Roosevelt 1939
• I understand that Germany has actually
stopped the sale of uranium from the
Czechoslovakian mines which she has
taken over. That she should have taken
such early action might perhaps be
understood on the ground that the son of
the German Under-Secretary of State, von
Weizsäcker, is attached to the KaiserWilhelm-Institut in Berlin where some of
the American work on uranium is now
Manhattan Project
Robert Oppenheimer
Manhattan Project to Develop
the Atomic Bomb
Zoot Suit Riots/Los Angeles
Nuremberg Trials
Hermann Goering
NAZI Death Sentences and Jail
• Your teacher will show the trial via the
Cold War will follow WW2
• US
• Russia aka Soviet Union
• Red China
• See #31-#33 on handout, Standard 8.