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Electrically Pumped GaInNAs Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers for Operation at 1.3 μm Wavelength By Faten Adel Ismael CHAQMAQCHEE A thesis submitted for Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Applied Physics School of Computer Science & Electronic Engineering University of Essex September 2012 ABSTRACT III-V semiconductors are indispensable for today’s optoelectronic devices such as semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers in the 1.3 μm wavelength band used for fibre optic communication systems. This has led to the invention of a dilute nitride GaInNAs that is lattice matched to GaAs for such applications. The research reported in this thesis is aimed to design, processing and characterisation of 1.3 μm GaInNAs optoelectronic devices, the operation of which is based on either longitudinal or vertical transport. Most of the attention was paid to the development of electrically driven Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (VCSOAs). VCSOAs have a number of advantages over Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOAs), such as high coupling efficiency to optical fiber, polarisation independent gain, and low power consumption due to a small active volume. Previous devices have been limited by low output power and thermal problems. Furthermore, optical and electrical properties of the Distributed Bragg Mirrors (DBRs), commercial Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs), Hot Electron Light Emitting and Lasing in Semiconductor Heterostructures (HELLISH)-VCSOAs and Finally TOP-HAT HELLISH-VCSOAs have been studied.