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Electrically Pumped GaInNAs Vertical
Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers for
Operation at 1.3 μm Wavelength
Faten Adel Ismael CHAQMAQCHEE
A thesis submitted for Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in
Applied Physics
School of Computer Science & Electronic Engineering
University of Essex
September 2012
III-V semiconductors are indispensable for today’s optoelectronic devices such as
semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers in the 1.3 μm wavelength band used for fibre
optic communication systems. This has led to the invention of a dilute nitride GaInNAs
that is lattice matched to GaAs for such applications.
The research reported in this thesis is aimed to design, processing and characterisation of
1.3 μm GaInNAs optoelectronic devices, the operation of which is based on either
longitudinal or vertical transport. Most of the attention was paid to the development of
electrically driven Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (VCSOAs).
VCSOAs have a number of advantages over Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOAs),
such as high coupling efficiency to optical fiber, polarisation independent gain, and low
power consumption due to a small active volume. Previous devices have been limited by
low output power and thermal problems. Furthermore, optical and electrical properties of
the Distributed Bragg Mirrors (DBRs), commercial Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting
Lasers (VCSELs), Hot Electron Light Emitting and Lasing in Semiconductor
Heterostructures (HELLISH)-VCSOAs and Finally TOP-HAT HELLISH-VCSOAs have
been studied.