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UCL-­INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY ARCLG195 THE LATE BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 2015-­16: Term II MA Option Module (15 credits) Co-­ordinator: Todd Whitelaw [email protected] Office 207, Institute of Archaeology. Tel 020 7679 7534 Office hours: stop-­in if door is open, or e-­mail to arrange an appointment. Seminars: Tuesdays 9:00-­11:00 (Room 410). 1. Overview Introductory information This handbook contains information about the content and administration of this course. If you have queries about the organisation, objectives, structure, content or assessment of the course, please consult the Course Co-­ordinator. Further important information, relating to all courses at the Institute of Archaeology, can be found on the IoA website, in the general MA/MSc handbook, and in your degree handbook. It is your responsibility to read and act on this information. This includes information about originality, submission and grading of coursework, disabilities, communication, attendance and feedback, not duplicated here. Short description This course provides selective thematic coverage of the Bronze Age Aegean, c. 3000-­
1100 BC. Structured around student interests, this year the focus will principally be on Crete, within its Aegean and East Mediterranean context. Drawing on the reJLRQ¶V
exceptional wealth of archaeological data, and set within a theoretically informed, problem-­oriented framework, the course explores alternative perspectives and aims to introduce students to current interpretations, debates and avenues for future research. It locates prehistoric Crete and the Aegean relative to contemporary Mediterranean and Near Eastern societies, and so generates a link between traditionally separate fields. Themes of recurrent importance include social, political and economic structures, the significance of material culture, local and longer-­range interaction, the archaeologies of ideology, cult and death, and the integration of undeciphered textual evidence with material data. Week-­by-­week summary Week Date Session Subject 1 12/01 No seminar. 2 19/01 1. Introduction, frameworks, and the Aegean context. 3 26/01 2. Social dynamics in the Early Bronze Age southern Aegean. 4 02/02 3. The emergence of the Minoan palace-­states. 5 09/02 4. Protopalatial Crete: society, economy and ideology. 6 Reading Week (please note re-­scheduled session, and British Museum session). 18/02 Object seminar in British Museum. 19/02 5. Neopalatial Crete: cultural and political dynamics. 7 23/02 6. Material culture, art, ritual and power in palatial Crete. 8 01/03 7. Minoanisation and the southern Aegean. 9 08/03 8. Minoan Crete in its East Mediterranean context. 10 15/03 9. The end of Neopalatial Crete. 11 22/03 10. Crete within the Mycenaean Aegean. 1 Basic texts Warren, P.M. 1989. The Aegean Civilisations (revised edition;; short book-­length introduction). Issue desk WAR;; DAG 10 Qto WAR;; YATES Qto A 22 WAR Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age (long the standard textbook, organised by themes rather than periods). IoA Issue Desk DIC;; DAE 100 DIC;; online. Fitton, J.L. 2002. Minoans. London: British Museum. DAG 14 FIT. Schofield, L. 2007. The Mycenaeans. London: British Museum. DAE 100 SCH. Cline, E. (ed.) 2010. The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford: OUP. ISSUE DESK IoA CLI 2;; online. Shelmerdine, C. (ed.) 2008. The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge: CUP. ISSUE DESK IoA SHE 16;; DAG 100 SHE;; online. Bintliff, J.L. 2012. The Complete Archaeology of Greece. From hunter-­gatherers to the 20th century A.D. Oxford: Wiley-­Blackwell. DAE 100 BIN. An overview of the broader chrconological context. Broodbank, C. 2013. The Making of the Middle Sea. London: Thames and Hudson. The wider Mediterranean chronological and geographical context. Methods of assessment This course is assessed by 4,000 words of coursework, divided into (i) a 1,000 word written version of an oral presentation to the group on an object selected by you (subject to approval) from the British Museum collections (contributing 25% of the course mark), and (ii) a 3,000 word essay (contributing 75% of the course mark). If students are unclear about the nature of an assignment, they should contact the Course Co-­ordinator. Written version of oral presentation: Monday 7 March 2016. Essay: Friday 29 April 2016. Teaching methods The course is taught as a series of 10 weekly seminars in Term II (Tuesdays 9-­11am, Room 410), to discuss and debate the subject defined for that week. Seminars have weekly required readings, which students will be expected to have read to be able fully to follow and actively to contribute to the discussion. There will also be an object presentation in the British Museum in association with the first piece of assessed coursework, and an additional optional British Museum visit to view the Aegean material in the galleries. Workload There will be 20 hours of seminars for this course, plus the British Museum presentation (c. 3-­4 hours depending on the size of the group). Students will be expected to undertake around 80 hours of reading for the course, plus 45 hours preparing for and producing the assessed work. This adds up to a total workload of some 150 hours for the course. Prerequisites This course does not have a formal prerequisite. However, students should ideally have some familiarity with Aegean prehistory through previous study, to ensure that they have the background to get the most out of the Masters level seminars. There is no good textbook which covers the material for this course, but anyone needing to brush-­up could usefully consult the on-­line resource produced by Jerry Rutter at Dartmouth College <http://www.dartmouth.edu/~prehistory/aegean/>. 2 Aims, objectives and assessment Aims ‡7RSURYLGHDGYDQFHGZHOO-­rounded, inter-­disciplinary training in the archaeology of the later prehistoric Aegean. ‡ 7R LQVWUXFW VWXGHQWV LQ FULWLFDO evaluation of current research (problems, methods and theory, the quality of evidence and substantive results). ‡ 7R IDPLOLDULVH VWXGHQWV ZLWK PDMRU HOHPHQWV DQG H[DPSOHV RI $HJHDQ PDWHULDO FXOWXUH
relevant to the period, and analytical and interpretive approaches to them. ‡7RLQWURGXFHVWXGHQWVWRLPSRUWDQWFXUUHQWUHVHDUFKSURMHFWV ‡7RSUHSare students to undertake original research in Aegean prehistoric archaeology. 2 Objectives On successful completion of this course a student should: ‡ +DYH D VROLG RYHUYLHZ RI Pajor developments and interpretive perspectives in Aegean prehistory, with greater in-­depth knowledge of topics on which coursework has been written, and a general understanding of how the Aegean region fits into a wider Mediterranean and European context. ‡8QGHUVWDQGWKHPDLQLQWHUSUHtive paradigms that have dominated the field, as well as their strengths and weaknesses, enabling assessment and criticism of the structure or rationale of arguments and interpretations in the literature. ‡ 5HFRJQLVH D EURDG UDQJH RI WKH PDWHULDO FXOWXUH IURP WKH SHULRG DQG XQGHUVWDQG LWV
cultural significance as well as its interpretive potential. ‡ %H DEOH WR H[SORUH GDWD IURP WKH SUHKLVWRULF $HJHDQ XVLQJ D ZLGHUDQJHRIWKHRUHWLFDO
approaches current in archaeology. Learning outcomes On completion of the course, students will have enhanced their skills in critical reading and reflection, be aware of how to evaluate alternative interpretations, developed their skills in applying ideas and methods to bodies of data, become proficient in combining information and ideas from different sources, improved their peer-­debating skills, and honed their ability to express arguments clearly in written form. They will have gained the background required to define and pursue original research in Aegean prehistory. Assessment tasks This course is assessed by a total of 4,000 words of coursework. This is divided into (i) a 1,000-­word written version of an oral presentation to the group (plus the Course Coordinator and Andrew Shapland, Curator of the Aegean Bronze Age collections at the Department of Greece and Rome) on an object selected by each student (subject to approval) from the British Museum collections (25%), and (ii) a 3,000-­word essay (75%). Together these comprise 100% of the mark awarded for the course. Topics and specific titles for the essays are defined by each student to suit their individual interests, in consultation with (and with the approval of) the Course Co-­ordinator, who will give guidance to ensure that the question is answerable, that it is neither too narrow nor too broad, and that it is being approached in an effective way. He can also advise on relevant readings from the seminar lists, plus additional reading that may be appropriate. If students are unclear about the nature of an assignment, they should contact the Course Co-­ordinator. Coursework content Like almost any satisfactory piece of academic writing, your essays should present an argument supported by evidence and analysis. Typically your analysis will include a critical evaluation (not simply summary or description) of the principal or most relevant previous ideas and arguments, and develop your own reasoned argument, supporting, critiquing, or combining elements of earlier scholarship, or developing a new perspective or synthesis. Some specific guidelines on academic essay writing will be circulated closer to the essay submission date, but two points relevant to all MA essay writing deserve emphasis. First, express your arguments in your own words;; your essay is meant to demonstrate your understanding of an issue. Some essays are essentially just a string of quotations illustrating what others have said, but demonstrate no critical assessment of their claims, or clear understanding of the issues. These simply demonstrate that you have read those sources, not that you understand them. Use a range of sources to engage with different perspectives on a topic, and you will have something to critically assess and adjudicate between, or even pick and choose points from, and synthesise your own perspective. Second, do not rely on web sources. There is no vetting system on the web (unlike academic publications), so anyone can publish whatever nonsense they wish;; unfortunately Aegean Prehistory attracts a lot of this. You should be extremely cautious about relying on information from websites, and should not, normally, use them as sources for academic essays. The reliable information in them has almost invariably come from some other source, and if they are academically reputable sites, they should be properly referenced, so you can chase ideas back to the original source. The 3 exceptions are official fieldwork project websites, which may contain information not otherwise published. If you feel information from a website is essential and you cannot track it back to an original published source, ask the Course Co-­ordinator whether it is reputable, before relying on it. If students are unclear about the nature of an assignment, they should contact the Course Co-­ordinator. The Course Co-­ordinator will be willing to discuss an outline of your approach to an assessment, provided this is planned suitably in advance of the submission date. Students are not permitted to re-­write and re-­submit essays in order to try to improve their marks. Coursework production and submission General policies and procedures concerning courses and coursework, including submission procedures, assessment criteria, and general resources, are available in your Degree Handbook and on the following website: <http://wiki.ucl.ac.uk/display/archadmin>;; see also the Appendix. It is essential that you read and comply with these. Note that some of the policies and procedures will be different depending on your status (e.g. undergraduate, postgraduate taught, affiliate, graduate diploma, intercollegiate, interdepartmental). If in doubt, please consult the Course Co-­ordinator. For this course, please do not use fancy fonts or, for the text, a font size less than 11 point, and use 1.5 line spacing to allow the marker space to make comments on the text. A smaller font size (8-­10) and 1.0 line height may be used for the bibliography (to reduce printing costs), as long as it is still readable, and two-­sided printing is welcome (to save paper and trees). Please leave at least 1 inch/2.5 cm margins to allow room for comments. There is no need to use a separate title page for essays (why pay for the extra page), and please do not use plastic folders, covers, etc. (I just have to take them off to read it). Illustrations are welcome, but only if they are directly relevant to your argument (i.e. not as generic filler). For this course, ensure your essay has been submitted to Turnitin by midnight on the specified due date. You can submit the hard copy on the following weekday. If you have a last-­minute problem submitting your essay to Turnitin, contact the Turnitin adviser for help, but also e-­mail a copy of your final version to the Course Co-­ordinator, to ensure it is registered as submitted on time. If any procedures or details are not clear, please discuss these with the Course Co-­
ordinator. To accord with UCL regulations on anonymous marking, all coursework cover-­sheets must be identified with student Candidate Numbers only, not names. This is a 5 digit alphanumeric code and can be found on Portico;; it is different from the Student Number/ID. 7KH ILOHQDPHV IRU DOO DVVHVVHG ZRUN VXEPLWWHG WKURXJK µ7XUQLWLQ¶ VKRXOG
LQFOXGH WKH VWXGHQW¶V &DQGLGDWH 1XPEHU QRW QDPH DV D XQLTXH LGHQWLILHU HJ YBPR6 _G195_Assessment_1). Please do this, as otherwise it is difficult to match hard-­copy of your essay with the Turnitin version on-­line. The Turnitin 'Class ID' for this course is 2971079 and the 'Class Enrolment Password' is IoA1516. 3 Schedule and syllabus Teaching schedule The following session-­by-­session outline identifies the essential and a wider range of additional readings relevant to each topic. The essential readings are necessary to keep up with the topics covered in the seminars, and it is expected that students will have read these prior to the relevant session. These have been kept to five readings for each topic (with difficulty), and the recommended readings are given for students with a particular interest in the topic. These are intended to allow students to follow their interests, and as places to begin when researching for essays. The readings for this course are largely available LQ WKH ,QVWLWXWH¶V RZQ OLEUDU\ ZLWK HVVHQWLDO UHDGLQJV LQ WKH
4 Institute of Archaeology Teaching Collection, in books held at the Library Issue Desk, journals available on-­line, and pdfs on the course Moodle. Works not held in the ,QVWLWXWH¶V OLEUDU\ DUH XVXDOO\ DYDLODEOH LQ WKH 8&/ 0DLQ /LEUDU\ VSecifically in Ancient History, Classics or Comparative Philology) and the DMS Watson Science Library. It may also be worth obtaining access to the library of the Institute of Classical Studies (ICS) in Senate House in Malet Street, a 5-­minute walk away, for very specialist literature. The reading list indicates where in the UCL library system the essential reading is available. The location and Teaching Collection (TC) number, and status (e.g. if on loan) for all UCL holdings can be accessed on the UCL Explore on-­line catalogue. Readings in the Institute of Classical Studies can be located using the University of London Schools of Advanced Studies on-­line catalogue: <http://catalogue.ulrls.lon.ac.uk/search~S7>. Background: Aegean space, time, context and approaches. The societies of the Aegean have deep roots in earlier developments, in the local Neolithic. They also developed within a wider network of societies around the eastern Mediterranean, interacting with societies in coastal western Turkey in the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, and more distant East Mediterranean societies form the end of the Early Bronze Age, from ca. 2100 BC. The following readings can provide some background to these processes, define the geographical and temporal scope of the course, and clarify terminological and chronological issues. Sources and frameworks: Shelmerdine, C. 2008. Background, sources and methods. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, 1-­18. Dickinson, O. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age&KDSWHUµ7HUPLQRORJ\DQGFKURQRORJ\¶DQG&KDSWHU
µ7KHQDWXUDOHQYLURQPHQWDQGUHVRXUFHV¶-­22. Bennet, J. 2007. The Aegean Bronze Age. In, W. Scheidel, I. Morris and R. Saller (eds) The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-­Roman World, 175-­210. Galanakis, Y. 2013. The Aegean World: A Guide to the Cycladic, Minoan and Mycenaean Antiquities in the Ashmolean Museum. Oxford and Athens: Ashmolean Museum and Kapon Editions. Chronology For anyone unfamiliar with dating techniques, & 5HQIUHZ DQG 3 %DKQ¶V WH[WERRN Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice has a good summary of key principles. Maning, S. 2010. Chronology and terminology. In, E. Cline (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Aegean Bronze Age (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford: Oxford University Press:11-­28. Renfrew, C. 1973. Before Civilization: The Radiocarbon Revolution and Prehistoric Europe. London. Warren, P. and V. Hankey 1989. Aegean Bronze Age Chronology. Bristol. Warren, P. 2006. The date of the Thera eruption in relation to Aegean-­Egyptian interconnections and the Egyptian historical chronology. In, E. Czerny et al. (eds) Timelines. Studies in Honour of Manfred Bietak, Vol. 2. Leuven:305-­21. Wiener, M. 2007. Times change: the current state of the debate in Old World chronology. In, M. Bietak and E. Czerny (eds) The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. II. Vienna:25-­47. Kitchen, K. 2007. Egyptian and related chronologies -­ look, no science, no pots! In, M. Bietak and E. Czerny (eds) The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. II. Vienna:163-­71. Manning, S. 2007. Clarifying the 'high', v. 'low' Aegean/Cypriot chronology for the mid second millennium BC: assessing the evidence, interpretive frameworks, and current state of the debate. In, M. Bietak and E. Czerny (eds) The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. II. Vienna:101-­37. Environment and ecology Barker, G. 2005. Agriculture, pastoralism, and Mediterranean landscapes in prehistory. In, E. Blake and A.B. Knapp (eds) The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory. Malden:46-­76. Bintliff, J. 2012. Chapter 1: The dynamic land. In, J. Bintliff, The Complete Archaeology of Greece. From hunter-­gatherers to the 20th century. Oxford: Wiley-­Blackwell:11-­27. Braudel, F. 1972. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, Part I. 0XFK ODWHU SHULRG EXW %UDXGHO¶V SLRQHHULQJ FRQVLGHUDWLRQ RI WRSRJUDSK\ HQYLURQPHQW DQG
ecology remains of seminal importance.) Dickinson, O. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age&KDSWHUµ7KHQDWXUDOHQYLURQPHQWDQGUHVRXUFHV¶
23-­29. Forbes, H. 1992. The ethnoarchaeological approach to Greek agriculture. In, B. Wells (ed.) Agriculture in Ancient Greece:87-­104. 5 Forbes, H. 2007. Meaning and Identity in a Greek Landscape: an archaeological ethnography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Grove, A.T. and O. Rackham 2001. The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History. (Chapters 1-­6, 9-­11.) Halstead, P. 1987. Traditional and ancient rural economy in Mediterranean Europe: plus ça change? Journal of Hellenic Studies 107:77-­87. Halstead, P. 1994. The north-­south divide: regional paths to complexity in prehistoric Greece. In, C. Mathers and S. Stoddart (eds) Development and Decline in the Mediterranean Bronze Age. Sheffield:195-­219. Halstead, P. 2004. Life after Mediterranean polyculture: the subsistence subsystem and the emergence of civilization revisited. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford:189-­206. Halstead, P. 2014. Two Oxen Ahead: pre-­mechanised farming in the Mediterranean. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. Halstead, P. and C. Frederick 2000. Landscape and Land Use in Postglacial Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Sheffield. Higgins, M. and R. Higgins 1996. A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean. Horden, P. and N. Purcell 2000. The Corrupting Sea: A Study in Mediterranean History. (Especially chapters VI, and III-­V.) Osborne, R.G. 1987. Classical Landscape with Figures: The Ancient Greek City and its Countryside. (Chapters 2-­3: later date, but many factors still apply.) Rackham, O. and J. Moody 1996. The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Sallares, R. 2007. Ecology. In, W. Scheidel, I. Morris and R. Saller (eds) The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-­Roman World, 15-­37. Walsh, K. 2014. The Archaeology of Mediterranean landscapes. Human-­environment interaction from the Neolithic to the Roman perod. Cambridge;; CUP. Some wider perspectives and contemporary developments: Broodbank, C. 2008. The Mediterranean and its hinterland. In, B. Cunliffe, C. Gosden and R. Joyce (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology, 677-­722. Broodbank, C. 2013. The Making of the Middle Sea. London: Thames and Hudson. Fokkens, H. and A. Harding. (eds.) 2013. The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Harding, A. 2000. European Societies in the Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Abingdon: Routledge. Van de Mieroop, M. 2007 A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-­323 BC. Oxford: Blackwell. Van de Mieroop, M. 2007. The Eastern Mediterranean in the Age of Ramesses II. Oxfrod: Blackwell. Byrce, T. 2005. The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Byrce, T. 2002. Life and Society in the Hittite World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bryce, T. 2005. The Trojans and Their Neighbours. London: Routledge. Bryce, T. 2014. Ancient Syria: a three thousand year history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sherratt, A. 1993. What would a Bronze Age world-­system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in late prehistory. Journal of European Archaeology 1.2:1-­58. Sherratt, A.1995. Reviving the grand narrative: archaeology and long-­term change. Journal of European Archaeology 3: 1-­32. Contextualising the study of Aegean prehistory: Barrett, J. and Halstead, P. (eds) 2004. The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. Oxford. Cherry, J.F., D. Margomenou and L. Talalay (eds) 2005. Prehistorians Round the Pond: Reflections on Aegean Prehistory as a Discipline. Gere, C. 2009. Knossos and the prophets of modernism. Chicago. Hamilakis, Y. 2002. WhDW IXWXUH IRU WKH µ0LQRDQ¶ SDVW" Rethinking Minoan archaeology. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) /DE\ULQWK 5HYLVLWHG 5HWKLQNLQJ µ0LQRDQ¶ DUFKDHRORJ\ Oxford: Oxbow Books:2-­28. Hamilakis, Y. 2007. The nation and its ruins: antiquity, archaeology, and national imagination in Greece. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hamilakis, Y. and N. Momigliano (eds) 2006. Archaeology and European Modernity. Producing and consuming the Minoans. (Creta Antica 7.) Padua. Kardulias, P.N. 1994. Paradigms of the past in Greek Archaeology. In, P.N. Kardulias (ed.) Beyond the Site: Regional Studies in the Aegean Area:1-­23. Kotsakis, K. 1991. The powerful past: theoretical trends in Greek archaeology. In, I. Hodder (ed.) Archaeological Theory in Europe: The Last Three Decades:65-­90. MacEnroe, J. 1995. Sir Arthur Evans and Edwardian archaeology. Classical Bulletin 71:3-­18. McNeal, R.A. 1972. The Greeks in history and prehistory. Antiquity 46:19-­28. McNeal, R.A. 1973. The legacy of Arthur Evans. California Studies in Classical Antiquity 6:205-­
20. 6 Morris, I. 2000. Archaeology as Cultural History: Chapter 2, 37-­76. Morris, S.P. 1990. Greece and the East. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 3:57-­66. Papadopoulos, J. 2005. Inventing the Minoans: archaeology, modernity and the quest for European identity. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 18:87-­149. Renfrew, A.C. 1980. The great tradition versus the great divide: archaeology as anthropology? American Journal of Archaeology 84:287-­98. Tartaron, T. 2008. Aegean prehistory as world archaeology: recent trends in the archaeology of Bronze Age Greece. Journal of Archaeological Research 16:83-­161. Seminar 1: 19 January. Introduction, frameworks and the Aegean context. The session will briefly outline the aims of the course, its organisation, assessments and UHVRXUFHV7KHGLVFXVVLRQZLOOORRNDWKRZWKH$HJHDQ¶VVLJQLILFDQFHLQWKHZLGHUZRUOGKDV
been understood, as illustrated by a series of archaeologists writing over the last fifty years. They should ideally be read in the order listed, so as to appreciate the succession of paradigms, and significance of changes in perspectives. Essential Childe, V.G. 1957. The Dawn of European Civilisation (6th edition). Chapters 2-­5. TC 545;; DA 100 CHI. The diffusionist approach;; although Childe is still insightful, in most respects the details and dates have changed (in many cases radically) since he wrote, so read these chapters for the way in which he is seeing the Aegean within its wider context, rather than for archaeological details. Renfrew, A.C. 1972. The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium BC. Chapters 1-­4. TC 498;; IoA Issue Desk REN 7;; DAG 100 REN;; YATES A22 REN;; Science ANTHROPOLOGY C7 REN. In reaction to traditional diffusionary approaches, Renfrew stresses the cultural and developmental autonomy of Aegean civilisation, using a systems approach to explain the rise of palace societies as an endogenous process. Sherratt, A.G. 1993. What would a Bronze Age world-­system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in late prehistory. Journal of European Archaeology 1.2:1-­58. TC 499;; IoA Pers;; e-­journals. Sherratt emphasises WKHLQVXIILFLHQFLHVRI5HQIUHZ¶Vindependence/isolationist model, and returns to stressing connections with the East and the location of the Aegean relative to Europe. +DPLODNLV<:KDWIXWXUHIRUWKHµ0LQRDQ¶SDVW"5HWKLQNLQJ0LQRDQDUFKDHRORJ\
In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) /DE\ULQWK5HYLVLWHG5HWKLQNLQJµ0LQRDQ¶DUFKDHology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:2-­28. TC 2743;; IoA Issue Desk HAM;; DAG 14 HAM. Draws on a range of post-­processual approaches for the study of Aegean prehistory, its role in the present, and the agendas of modern archaeologists. Recommended Andreou, S. 2005. The landscapes of modern Greek Aegean archaeology. In, J. Cherry, D. Margomenou and L. Talalay (eds) Prehistorians Round the Pond. Reflections on Aegean prehistory as a discipline. (Kelsey Museum Publication 2) Ann Arbor, Michigan: 73-­92. Barrett, J. and Halstead, P. (eds) 2004. The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. Oxford. (Particularly Preface, chapters by Cherry, Halstead, Renfrew.) Bintliff, J.L. 1984. Structuralism and the Minoan myth. Antiquity 58:33-­8. Cherry, J.F. , D. Margomenou and L. Talalay (eds.) 2005. Prehistorians Round the Pond: reflections on Aegean prehistory as a discipline. Ann Arbor: Kelsey Museum. Cullen, T. 2001. Voices and visions of Aegean Prehistory. In, T. Cullen (ed.) Aegean Prehistory. A Review. (AJA, Supplement 1):1-­18. Fotiadis, M. 1993. Regions of the Imagination: Archaeologists, Local People, and the Archaeological Record in Fieldwork, Greece. Journal of European Archaeology 1 (2)151-­168. Kardulias, P.N. 1994. Paradigms of the Past in Greek Archaeology. In, P.N. Kardulias (ed.) Beyond the Site. Regional Studies in the Aegean Area. London: University Press of America:1-­
23. Kotsakis, K. 1991. The powerful past: theoretical trends in Greek archaeology. In, I. Hodder (ed.) Archaeological Theory in Europe: The Last Three Decades. London:65-­90. MacEnroe, J. 1995. Sir Arthur Evans and Edwardian archaeology. Classical Bulletin 71:3-­18. McNeal, R.A. 1972. The Greeks in history and prehistory. Antiquity 46:19-­28. McNeal, R.A. 1973. The legacy of Arthur Evans. California Studies in Classical Antiquity 6:205-­20. McNeal, R.A. 1975. Helladic prehistory through the looking-­glass. Historia 24:3:385-­401. Morris, S.P. 1990. Greece and the East. JMA 3:57-­66. INST ARCH Periodicals. 7 Papadopoulos, J. 2005. Inventing the Minoans: archaeology, modernity and the quest for European identity. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 18:87-­149. Renfrew, A.C. 1980. The great tradition versus the great divide: archaeology as anthropology? AJA 84:287-­98. Snodgrass, A.M. 1985. The new archaeology and the classical archaeologist. AJA 89:31-­7. Tartaron, Thomas F. 2008. Aegean Prehistory as World Archaeology: Recent Trends in the Archaeology of Bronze Age Greece. Journal of Archaeological Research 16.2. p. 83-­161. Seminar 2: 26 January Social dynamics in the Early Bronze Age Aegean. The Early Bronze Age, roughly the 3rd millennium BC, saw widespread changes in Aegean societies and economies. These are commonly seen as an essential back-­drop to the rise of the first palatial societies in the 2nd millennium BC, though exactly how and through what mechanisms remains a matter of intense debate. 7KHJHQHUDOSLFWXUHRI(%$µSURWR-­XUEDQVRFLHWLHV¶LQWKH$HJHDQZDVFRQVWUXFWHGE\
Renfrew by drawing on different types of evidence from across the entire region. Despite a further 40 years of research, the different regions of the Aegean have steadfastly resisted falling into such a neat homogenized pattern. This seminar will try to identify some of these contrasts, while aiming to define the different nature of societies in different parts of the broader region. The readings provide an overview of most of the arguments currently being discussed for Crete, the Cyclades and the southern Mainland. This session provides a background for considering in the following seminar, in what ways Crete was different, and how/why it developed differently from the end of the third millennium. Essential Pullen, D. 2008. The Early Bronze Age in Greece. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, 19-­46. On-­line. Broodbank, C. 2008. The Early Bronze Age in the Cyclades. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, 47-­76. On-­line. Sahoglu, V. 2005. The Anatolian trade network and the Izmir region during the Early Bronze Age. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24:339-­61. IoA Pers;; e-­journals. Legarra Herrero, B. 2009. The Minoan fallacy: cultural diversity and mortunary behaviour on Crete at the beginning of the Bronze Age. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 28: 29-­57. IoA Pers;; e-­journals. Papadatos, Y. 2007. Beyond cultures and ethnicity: a new look at material culture distribution and inter-­regional interaction in the Early Bronze Age southern Aegean. In, S. Antoniadou and A. Pace (eds) Mediterranean Crossroads. Athens: Pierides Foundation:419-­51. TC 3717. Recommended Greek mainland: Forsen, J. 2010. 'Early Bronze Age: Mainland Greece.' In, E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford:53-­65. 3HSHUDNL27KH+RXVHRIWKH7LOHVDW/HUQDGLPHQVLRQVRIµVRFLDOFRPSOH[LW\¶,Q-%DUUHWW
and P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:214-­31. Pullen, D.J. 1992. Ox and plow in the Early Bronze Age Aegean. AJA 96:45-­54. Pullen, D.J. 1994. Modeling Mortuary Behavior on a Regional Scale: A Case Study from Mainland Greece in the Early Bronze Age. In, P.N. Kardulias (ed.) Beyond the Site. Regional Studies in the Aegean Area. London: University Press of America:113-­136. Pullen, D.J. 1994. A lead seal from Tsoungiza, ancient Nemea, and Early Bronze Age sealing systems. American Journal of Archaeology 98:35-­52. Pullen, D.J. 2003. Site size, territory, and hierarchy: measuring levels of integration and social change in Neolithic and Bronze Age Aegean societies. In, K. Foster and R. Laffineur (eds.) METRON. Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 24) Liège:29-­36. Pullen, D. 2011. 'Before the palaces: redistribution and chiefdoms in mainland Greece.' American Journal of Archaeology 115:185-­95. 5XWWHU-%µ5HYLHZRI$HJHDQ3UHKLVWRU\,,WKHSUHSDODWLDO%URQ]H$JHRIWKHVRXWKHUQDQG
central Greek PDLQODQG¶American Journal of Archaeology 97: 745-­97 (focus on 758-­74 for the EBA). 6KDZ-µ7KH(DUO\+HOODGLFFRUULGRUKRXVHGHYHORSPHQWDQGIRUP¶AJA 91: 59-­79. 8 Weiberg, E. 2007. Thinking the Bronze Age: Life and Death in Early Helladic Greece (Uppsala Studies in Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Civilisations 29). Weingarten, J. 2000. Lerna: Sealings in a Landscape. In, M. Perna (ed.) Administrative Documents in the Aegean and Their Near Eastern Counterparts. Torino: Centro internazionale di ricerche archeologiche antropologiche e storiche:103-­123. Wiencke, M.H. 1989. Change in Early Helladic II. AJA 93:495-­509. Cyclades: Broodbank, C. 2000. An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Esp. chapters 3, 6, 7. 'DYLV-/µ7KHLVODQGVRIWKH$HJHDQ¶ American Journal of Archaeology 96: 699-­756. Doumas, C. 1977. Early Bronze Age Burial Habits in the Cyclades. (SIMA 48). Göteborg: Paul Åströms Förlag. Gill, D. & C. Chippindale µ0DWHULDODQGLQWHOOHFWXDOFRQVHTXHQFHVRIHVWHHPIRU&\FODGLF
ILJXUHV¶AJA 97:601-­59. Whitelaw, T. 2000. Settlement instability and landscape degradation in the southern Aegean in the third millennium BC. In, P. Halstead and C. Frederick (eds.) Landscape and Landuse in Postglacial Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 3) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:135-­61. Crete: Alexiou, S. and P. Warren 2004. The Early Minoan Tombs of Lebena, Southern Crete. SIMA 30. Branigan, K. 1992. Dancing with Death: Life and Death in Southern Crete ca. 3000-­2000 BC. Amsterdam. DAG 14 BRA (An update and re-­write of: K. Branigan 1970. The Tombs of Mesara. London.) Branigan, K. 1991. Mochlos, an earO\$HJHDQµJDWHZD\FRPPXQLW\¶" In, R. Laffineur and L. Basch (eds.) 7KDODVVD/¶(JpHSUpKLVWRULTXHHWDOPHU (Aegaeum 7), 97-­105. Carter, T. 2004. Mochlos and Melos: a special relationship? Creating identity and status in Minoan Crete. In, L. Day, M. Mook and J. Muhly (eds) Crete Beyond the Palaces: Proceedings of the Crete 2000 Conference. (Prehistory Monographs 10) INSTAP Academic Press, Philadelphia:291-­307. Catapodi, D. 2014. Beyond the general and the particular: rethinking death, memory and belonging in Early Bronze age Crete. In, A.B. Knapp and P. Van Dommelen (eds.) The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean. Cambridge: CUP:525-­39. Day, P. and Wilson, D. 2004. Ceramic change and the practice of eating and drinking in Early Bronze Age Crete. In, P. Halstead and J. Barrett (eds.) Food, Cuisine and Society in Prehistoric Greece. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:45-­62. Day, P.M. and D.E. Wilson 2002. Landscapes of memory, craft and power in Prepalatial and Protopalatial Knossos. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) /DE\ULQWK5HYLVLWHG5HWKLQNLQJµ0LQRDQ¶
archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:143-­66. Day, P.M., D.E. Wilson and E. Kiriatzi 1998. Pots, labels and people: burying ethnicity in the cemetery at Aghia Photia, Siteias. In, K. Branigan, (ed.) Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 1) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:133-­49. Dimopoulou-­Rethemiotaki, N. D. Wilson and P. Day. 2007. The earlier Prepalatial settlement of Poros-­Katsambas: craft production and exchange at the harbour town of Knossos. In, P. Day and R. Doonan (eds). Metallurgy in the Early Bronze Age Aegean. Oxford: Oxbow:84-­97. Haggis, D. 2002. Integration and complexity in the late Prepalatial period: a view from the countryside in Eastern Crete. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed/DE\ULQWK5HYLVLWHG5HWKLQNLQJµ0LQRDQ¶
archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:120-­42. Hamilakis, Y. 1998. Eating the Dead: Mortuary Feasting and the Politics of Memory in the Aegean Bronze Age Societies. In, K. Branigan (eds.) Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 1) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:115-­32. Legarra Herrero, B. 2012. The Construction, Deconstruction and Non-­construction of Hierarchies in the Funerary Record of Prepalatial Crete. In, Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen, 325-­357. Oxford: Oxbow Books Muhly, J.D. 2004. Chrysokamino and the beginnings of metal technology on Crete and in the Aegean. In, L.P. Day, M. Mook and J.D. Muhly (eds) Crete beyond the Palaces: Proceedings of the Crete 2000 conference. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press:283-­90. Murphy, J. 1998. Ideology, Rites and Rituals: A View of Prepalatial Minoan Tholoi. In, K. Branigan, (ed.) Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 1) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:27-­40. 6ERQLDV.µ6RFLDOGHYHORSPHQWPDQDJHPHQWRISURGXFWLRQDQGV\PEROLFUHSUHVHQWDWLRQLQ
3UHSDODWLDO&UHWH¶. In, A. Chaniotis (ed.) From Minoan farmers to Roman traders. Sidelights on the economy of ancient Crete, 25-­51. Schoep, I., P. Tomkins and J. Driessen. (eds.) 2012. Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age. Oxford: Oxbow Books. 9 Watrous, L.V. 1993 Review of Aegean prehistory III: Crete from earliest prehistory through the Protopalatial period. AJA 98:695-­753. Reprinted with update, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1). Whitelaw, T.M. 1983. The settlement at Fournou Korifi, Myrtos and aspects of Early Minoan social organization. In, O. Krzyszkowska & L. Nixon (eds.) Minoan Society, 323-­45. Whitelaw, T. 2012. The urbanisation of prehistoric Crete: settlement perspectives on Minoan state formation. In, Schoep, I., Tomkins, P. and Driessen, J. (ed.) Back to the Beginning: reassessing social, economic and political complexity in the Early and Middle Bronze Age on Crete. Oxford: Oxbow Books:114-­76. Whitelaw, Todd. 2015. The divergence of civilisation: Fournou Korifi and Pyrgos. In, C. Macdonald, E. Hatzaki and S. Andreou (eds.) The Great Islands: Studies of Crete and Cyprus presented to Gerald Cadogan. Athens: Kapon Editions:41-­48. Whitelaw, T., P.M. Day, E. Kiriatzi, V. Kilikoglou and D.E. Wilson. 1997. Ceramic Traditions at EM IIB Myrtos, Fournou Korifi. In, R. Laffineur and P.P. Betancourt (eds.) TEHNI: Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 16) Liège:II.265-­74. Wilson, D. 2007. Early Prepalatial Crete. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge: CUP:77-­104. East Aegean: Kouka, O. 2009. Third Millennium BC Aegean Chronology: Old and New Data from the Perspective of the Third Millennium AD. Tree-­Rings, Kings, and Old World Archaeology and Environment: Papers Presented in Honor of Peter Ian Kuniholm, Manning, Sturt W. and Mary Jaye Bruce, eds. Oxford and Oakville: Oxbow Books:133-­49. Kouka, O. 2013. 'Minding the Gap': Against the Gaps. The Early Bronze Age and the Transition to the Middle Bronze Age in the Northern and Eastern Aegean/Western Anatolia. AJA 117(4):569-­
580. Kouka, O. 2014. Past Stories -­ Modern Narratives: Cultural Dialogues between East Aegean Islands and the West Anatolian Mainland in the 4th Millennium BC. Western Anatolia before Troy: Proto-­
Urbanisation in the 4th Millennium BC? In, B. Horejs and Mathias Mehofer (eds.) Oriental and European Archaeology 1, Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press:43-­63. Muhly, J.D. and E. Pernicka. 1992. Early Trojan Metallurgy and Metals Trade. In, J. Herrmann (ed.) Heinrich Schliemann. Grundlagen und Ergebnisse moderner Archäologie 100 Jahre nach Schliemanns Tod. Berlin: Akademie Verlag:309-­18. 5HLQKROW&µ7KH$HJHDQDQG:HVWHUQ$QDWROLDVRFLDOIRUPVDQGFXOWXUDOUHODWLRQVKLSV¶. In, J. Aruz (ed.) Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus, Aruz. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Yale University Press: 255-­9. 6DKRJOX9µ7KH$QDWROLDQWUDGHQHWZRUNDQGWKH,]PLUUHJLRQGXULQJWKH(DUO\%URQ]H$JH¶
Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24:339-­61 Sagona, A. and P. Zimansky 2009. Ancient Turkey, chapter 5, especally 191-­8. General: Renfrew, A.C. 1972. The Emergence of Civilisation: The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium BC. London: Methuen. ChaSPDQ5µ&KDQJLQJVRFLDOUHODWLRQVLQWKH0HGLWHUUDQHDQ&RSSHUDQG%URQ]H$JHV¶. In, E. Blake and A.B. Knapp (eds.) The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory. Oxford: Blackwell, 77-­101. Broodbank, C. 2013. Ch. 7: The devil and the deep blue sea. The Making of the Middle Sea. London: Thames and Hudson:257-­344. Barrett, J. & P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books. Seminar 3: 2 February The emergence of the Minoan palace-­states. This topic is central to understanding the Aegean Bronze Age. Building on the earlier analysis of paradigms and EBA societies, we now focus on the evidence for the emergence of the first Cretan palace-­states. Key issues are the importance of indigenous versus exogenous factors, the time-­scale of change (revolutionary, or evolutionary), and the social processes that led to palace-­states and the elites inferred from them. Essential Cherry, J.F. 1984. The emergence of the state in the prehistoric Aegean. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 30:18-­48. TC 11;; Main LINGUISTICS Periodicals;; e-­
journal. Whitelaw, T. 2004. Alternative pathways to complexity in the southern Aegean. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield 10 Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:232-­56. INST ARCH DAG 100 BAR. TC 2974;; PDF on course Moodle. Manning, S. 2007. Protopalatial Crete. Formation of the palaces. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, 105-­20. IoA Issue Desk SHE16;; INST ARCH DAG 100 SHE;; On-­line. Schoep, I. and P. Tomkins 2012. Back to the the beginning for the Early and Middle Bronze Age on Crete. In, Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age. I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen (eds.). Oxford: Oxbow Books:1-­31. Inst Arch DAG 14 SCH. Watrous, L.V. 1998. Egypt and Crete in the Early Middle Bronze Age: A Case of Trade and Cultural Diffusion. In, E. Cline and D. Harris-­Cline (eds) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18) Liège:19-­28. IoA Issue Desk IoA CLI Legarra Herrero, B. 2016. Primary state formation processes on Bronze Age Crete: a social approach to change in early complex societies. Cambridge Archaeological Journal. In press. PDF on course Moodle. Recommended Bevan, A. 2004. Emerging civilized values? The consumption and imitation of Egyptian stone vessels in EMII-­MMI Crete and its wider Eastern Mediterranean context. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:107-­26. Cherry, J.F. 1983. Evolution, revolution and the origins of complex society in Minoan Crete. In, O. Krzyszkowska and L. Nixon (eds.) Minoan Society: 33-­45. Cherry, J. F. 2010. "Sorting Out Crete's Prepalatial Off-­Island Interactions. In, Archaic State Interaction. The Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age, edited by W. A. Parkinson and M. L. Galaty, 107-­140. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press. Colburn, C. 2008. Exotica and the Early Minoan elite: eastern imports in Prepalatial Crete. AJA 112:203-­24. Day, P.M. and D.E. Wilson 2002. Landscapes of memory, craft and power in Prepalatial and Protopalatial Knossos. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) /DE\ULQWK5HYLVLWHG5HWKLQNLQJµ0LQRDQ¶
archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:143-­66. Haggis, D. 1999. Staple finance, peak sanctuaries and economic complexity in late Prepalatial Crete. In, A. Chaniotis (ed.) From Minoan farmers to Roman traders. Sidelights on the economy of ancient Crete. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag:53-­85. Haggis, D. 2002. Integration and complexity in the late Prepalatial period: a view from the countryside in Eastern Crete. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed/DE\ULQWK5HYLVLWHG5HWKLQNLQJµ0LQRDQ¶
archaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books:120-­42. Halstead, P. 1988. On redistribution and the origin of Minoan-­Mycenaean palatial economies. In, E.B. French and K.A. Wardle (eds.) Problems in Greek Prehistory. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press:519-­30 Halstead, Paul. 2011. 'Redistribution in Aegean Palatial Societies: Terminology, Scale, and Significance.' American Journal of Archaeology 115:229-­35. Hamilakis, Y. 1998. Eating the Dead: Mortuary Feasting and the Politics of Memory in the Aegean Bronze Age Societies. In, K. Branigan (eds.) Cemetery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 1) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:115-­32. +DPLODNLV<6HQVXRXVPHPRU\PDWULDOLW\DQGKRVWRU\UHWKLQNLQJWKHµULVHRIWKHSDODFHV¶
on Bronze Age Crete. In, A.B. Knapp and P. Van Dommelen (eds.) The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean. Cambridge: CUP:320-­36. Legarra Herrero, B. 2012. The Construction, Deconstruction and Non-­construction of Hierarchies in the Funerary Record of Prepalatial Crete. In, Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen, 325-­357. Oxford: Oxbow Books Legarra Herrero, B. 2011. New kid on the block: the nature of the first systemic contacts between Crete and the eastern Mediterranean around 2000 BC. In, Interweaving worlds: systemic interactions in Eurasia, 7th to 1st millennia BC. T. Wilkinson, S. Sherratt and J. Bennet (eds.), 266-­281. Oxford: Oxbow books. Manning, S.W. 1997. Cultural Change in the Aegean c. 2200 BC. In, H.N. Dalfes, G. Kukla, and H. Weiss (eds.) Third Millennium BC Climate Change and Old World Collapse. (NATO Scientific Affairs Division ASI Series Volume I.49) Berlin: Springer:149-­71. 0DUIRH/µ&HGDUIRUHVWWRVLOYHUPRXQWDLQVRFLDOFKDQJHDQGWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIORQJ-­distance WUDGHLQHDUO\1HDU(DVWHUQVRFLHWLHV¶. In, M. Rowlands, M. Larsen and K. Kristiansen (eds.) Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, 25-­35. Parkinson, W. A., and M. L. Galaty. 2007. "Secondary States in Prespective: An Integrated Approach to State Formation in the Prehistoric Aegean." American Anthropologist no. 109 (1):113-­129. 11 Phillips, J. 2005. "A question of reception." In Archaeological perspectives on the transmission and transformation of culture in the eastern Mediterranean, edited by J. Clarke, 39-­47. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Sbonias, K. 1999. Social development, management of production and symbolic representation in Prepalatial Crete. In, A. Chaniotis (ed.) From Minoan farmers to Roman traders. Sidelights on the economy of ancient Crete. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag:25-­51. Schoep, I. 1999. The origins of writing and administration on Crete. OJA 18:265-­76. Schoep, I. 2012. "Bridging the divide between the 'Prepalatial' and the 'Protopalatial' periods?" In, Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen (eds.), 403-­428. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Schoep, I. and C. Knappett. 2004. Dual emergence: evolving heterarchy, exploding hierarchy. In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology) Oxford: Oxbow Books:21-­37. 7RPNLQV3%HKLQGWKHKRUL]RQUHFRQVLGHULQJWKHJHQHVLVDQGIXQFWLRQRIWKHµILUVW SDODFH¶DW
Knossos (Final Neolithic IV-­Middle Minoan IB). In, Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age. I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen (eds.). Oxford: Oxbow Books:32-­80. Tomkins. P. and I. Schoep. Crete. In, E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford:66-­82. Warren, P.M. 1987 The genesis of the Minoan palace. In, R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces: 47-­56. Watrous, L.V. 2005. Cretan international relations during the Middle Minoan IA period and the FKURQRORJ\RI6HDJHU¶VILQGVIURPWKH0RFKORVWRPEV,Q5/DIILQHXUDQG(*UHFRHGV
Emporia. Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. (Aegaeum 25) Liège:107-­16. Watrous, L.V., Hadzi-­Vallianou, D. and Blitzer, H. 2004. The Plain of Phaistos. Cycles of complexity in the Mesara region of Crete. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology: chs 8 & 9. Wengrow, D. 2010. The voyages of Europa: ritual and trade in the eastern Mediterranean, circa 2300±1850 BC. In, W. Parkinson and M. Galaty (eds.) Archaic State Interaction: the Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age. Whitelaw, T. 2012. The urbanisation of prehistoric Crete: settlement perspectives on Minoan state formation. In, Schoep, I., Tomkins, P. and Driessen, J. (ed.) Back to the Beginning: reassessing social, economic and political complexity in the Early and Middle Bronze Age on Crete. Oxford: Oxbow Books:114-­76. Seminar 4: 9 February Protopalatial Crete: society, economy and ideology. Recent advances have improved our understanding of Protopalatial societies on Crete, not least excavations at Mallia Quartier Mu, Monastiraki and Atsipadhes. The character of Middle Minoan society is also increasingly being theorised. Much of this discussion has developed around the site of Mallia, which ha sthe most extensive exposures of this date of any site, giving us some idea of the spatial componets of a palatial centre. This seminar explores what kind of early states the Minoan palaces controlled and how they related to communities in their hinterlands, and the development of the ritual landscape in the early palatial period, as evidenced in particular by the phenomenon of peak sanctuaries. Essential Cherry, J.F. 1986 Polities and palaces: some problems in Minoan state formation. In, C. Renfrew and J.F. Cherry (eds.) Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-­Political Change : 19-­
45. INST ARCH Teaching Collection 483;; IOA Issue Desk REN 10. Knappett, C. 1999. Assessing a polity in Protopalatial Crete: the Malia-­Lasithi state. American Journal of Archaeology 103:615-­39. TC 2159;; IoA Pers;; e-­journal. Schoep, I. 2002. Social and political organization in Crete in the Proto-­Palatial period: the case of Middle Minoan II Malia. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15:101-­32. IoA Pers;; e-­journal. Schoep, I. 2006. Looking beyond the first palaces: elites and the agency of power in EMIII-­MMII Crete. American Journal of Archaeology 110:37-­64. IoA Pres;; e-­journal. Peatfield, A.A.D. 1990. Minoan peak sanctuaries: history and society: Opuscula Atheniensa 17:117-­31. TC 533;; ICS Periodicals. Recommended Betancourt, P.P. 1998. Middle Minoan Objects in the Near East. In, EH. Cline and D. Harris-­Cline (eds.) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18) Liège:5-­11. 12 Bevan, A. 2003. Reconstructing the role of Egyptian culture in the value regimes of the Bronze Age Aegean: stone vessels and their social contexts. In, R. Matthews and C. Roemer (eds) Ancient Perspectives on Egypt. London: UCL Press:57-­74. Branigan, K. 1987. The economic role of the first palaces. In, R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:245-­9. Cadogan, G. 1994. An Old Palace period Knossos state?. In, D. Evely, H. Hughes-­Brock and N. Momigliano (eds.) Knossos: A Labyrinth of History. Papers Presented in Honour of Sinclair Hood:57-­69. Carinci, F. 2000. Western Mesara and Egypt during the Protopalatial period: a minimalist view. In, A. Karetsou (ed.) Kriti -­ Aigyptos. Politismikoi thesmoi triov chietion. Athens: Archaeological Museum of Heraklion:31-­7. Day, P., M. Relaki and E. Faber. 2006. Pottery making and social reproduction in the Bronze Age Mesara. In, M. Wiener et al. (eds) Pottery and Society. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America:22-­72. Driessen, J. 2012. "A Matrilocal House Society in Pre-­ and Protopalatial Crete?" In, Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen, 358-­383. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Kanta, A. 1999. Monasteraki and Phaistos, elements of Protopalatial history. In, P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur and W.-­D. Niemeier (eds) Meletemata: Studies in Aegean Archaeology presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as he enters his 65th year. Liege:II:387-­93. Knappett, C. 2002. Mind the gap: between pots and politics in Minoan studies. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) /DE\ULQWK5HYLVLWHG5HWKLQNLQJµ0LQRDQ¶DUFKDHRORJ\Oxford: Oxbow Books:167-­88. Knappett, C. 2004. Technological innovation and social diversity at Middle Minoan Knossos. In, G. Cadogan, E. Hatzaki and A. Vasilakis (eds.) Knossos: Palace, City, State. London: British School at Athens:257-­66. Olivier, J.-­P. 1986. Cretan writing in the second millennium BC. World Archaeology 17:377-­89. Peatfield, A.A.D. 1987. Palace and peak: the political and religious relationship between palaces and peak sanctuaries. In, R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:89-­93. Peatfield, A.A.D. 1990. Minoan peak sanctuaries: history and society: Opuscula Atheniensa 17:117-­31. Poursat, J.-­C. 2009. Cult Activity at Malia in the Protopalatial Period. Archaeologies of Cult: Essays on Ritual and Cult in Crete in Honor of Geraldine C. Gesell. In, A.L. D'Agata and A. Van de Moortel (eds.) (Hesperia Supplement 42) Princeton: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens:71-­78. Poursat, J.-­C. 2010. Malia: palace, state, city. In, O. Krzyszkowska (ed.) Cretan Offerings. Studies in Honour of Peter Warren. (BSA Studies 18). London: The British School at Athens:259-­267. Poursat, J.-­C. 2012. "The Emergence of Elite Groups at Protopalatial Malia. A Biography of Quartier Mu." In, Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, edited by I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen, 177-­183. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Relaki, M. 2012. The Social Arenas of Tradition. Investigating Collective and Individual Social Strategies in the Prepalatial and Protopalatial Mesara. In, I. Schoep, P. Tomkins and J. Driessen (eds.) Back to the Beginning: Reassessing Social and Political Complexity on Crete during the Early and Middle Bronze Age. Oxford: Oxbow Books:290±324. Schoep, I. 2004. Assessing the role of architecture in conspicuous consumption in the Middle Minoan I-­II periods. OJA 23:243-­69. Schoep, I. 2009. Social and Political Aspects of Urbanism in Middle Minoan I-­II Crete: Towards a Regional Approach. In, S. Owen and L. Preston (eds.) Inside the City in the Greek World: Studies of Urbanism from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic Period. (University of Cambridge Museum of Classical Archaeology Monographs 1) Oxford: Oxbow Books:27-­40. Schoep, I. 2010. "Making Elites: Political Economy and Elite Culture(s) in Middle Minoan Crete." In, Political Economies of the Aegean Bronze Age. D. J. Pullen (ed.) 66-­85. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Schoep, I. 2010. Middle Bronze Age: Crete. In, E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford: Oxford University Press:113-­25. Watrous, L.V. 1993 Review of Aegean prehistory III: Crete from earliest prehistory through the Protopalatial period. AJA 98:695-­753. Reprinted with update, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1). Watrous, L.V. 1998. Egypt and Crete in the Early Middle Bronze Age: A Case of trade and cultural diffusion. In, EH. Cline and D. Harris-­Cline (eds.) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18) Liège:19-­28. To familiarise yourselves with the main sites you might also look at: Myers, J.W., E.E. Myers and G. Cadogan 1992. The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete. 13 Seminar 5: 19 February Neopalatial Crete: cultural and political dynamics. The Neopalatial period is the most thoroughly explored phase of Cretan prehistory, and that to which the majority of the architecture and museum material that is visible on the island today dates. The data sources available to us will be considered, as well as the nature of the palace-­centred states and the political structure of the island. 7KH3URWRSDODWLDOFHQWUHVRI.QRVVRV3KDLVWRVDQG0DOOLDDSSUR[LPDWHWRWKHµSHHUSROLW\¶
model of equal, politically independent yet culturally inter-­related entities. After the Neopalatial period, in the LM II-­,,,µ0\FHQDHDQ¶SKDVHRQWKHLVODQGWKH/LQHDU%WDEOHWV
reveal that much of the island was controlled from one centre, Knossos. But what of the intervening Neopalatial period, archaeologically one of the most prominent phases on Crete? Here, opinions are strongly divided. We will consider alternative perspectives, involving analyses of settlement, architecture and material culture in its regional context, as well as the evidence for administrative practices. Essential Knappett, C. and I. Schoep 2000. Continuity and change in Minoan palatial power. Antiquity 74:365-­71. IoA Pers;; e-­journal. Warren, P. 2012. The apogee of Minoan civilization: the final Neopalatial period. In, E. Mantzourani and P. Betancourt (eds.) Philistor. Studies in Honor of Costis Davaras. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press:255-­72. IoA DAG 14 Qto MAN. Adams, E. 2006. Social strategies and spatial dynamics in Neopalatial Crete: an analysis of the north-­central area. AJA 110:1-­36. IoA Pers;; e-­Journal. Schoep, I. 1999. Tablets and territories? Reconstructing Late Minoan IB political geography through undeciphered documents. American Journal of Archaeology 103:201-­21. IoA Pers;; e-­Journal. Wiener, M. 2007. Neopalatial Knossos: rule and role. In, P. Betancourt, M. Nelson and H. Williams (eds) Krinoi kai Limenes. Studies in Honor of Joseph and Maria Shaw. Philadelphia:231-­42. IoA DAE 100 BET. Whitelaw, T. In press. Recognising polities in prehistoric Crete. In, M. Relaki and Y. Papadatos (eds) From the Foundation to the Legacy of Minoan Society. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology.) Oxford. PDF on course Moodle site. Recommended Adams, E. 2004. 'Power and ritual in Neopalatial Crete: a regional comparison.' World Archaeology 36:26-­42. Adams, E. 2004. Power relations in Minoan palatial towns: an analysis of Neopalatial Knossos and Malia. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 17:191-­222. Adams, E. 2007. ''Time and Chance': Unraveling Temporality in North-­Central Neopalatial Crete.' American Journal of Archaeology 111:391-­421. Adams, E. 2007. 'Approaching monuments in the prehistoric built environment: new light on the Minoan palaces.' Oxford Journal of Archaeology 26:359-­94. Bennet, J. 1990. 'Knossos in context: comparative perspectives on the Linear B administration of LM II-­III Crete.' American Journal of Archaeology 94:193-­211. %HYDQ $ µ3ROLWLFDO *HRJUDSK\ DQG 3DODWLDO &UHWH¶ Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 23:27-­54. Briault, C. 2007. 'Making mountains out of molehills in the Bronze Age Aegean: visibility, ritual kits and the idea of a peak sanctuary.' World Archaeology 39:122-­41. Buell, M. 2014. The rise of a Minoan city and the (re)structuring of its hinterland. In, A. Creekmore III and K. Fisher (eds.) Making Ancient Cities. Cambridge:257-­91.Cadogan, G. 1976. Palaces of Minoan Crete. London. Cherry, J.F. 1986. Polities and palaces. In, A.C. Renfrew and J.F. Cherry (eds.) Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-­political change:19-­45. Christakis, K. 2008. The politics of storage: storage and sociopolitical complexity in Neopalatial Crete. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press. Christakis, K. 2011. 'Redistribution and political economies in Bronze Age Crete.' AJA 115:197-­
205. Christakis, K. 2012. Petras, Siteia: political, economic and ideological trajectories of a polity. In, M. Tsipopoulou (ed.) Petras, Siteia -­ 25 years of excavations and studies. Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 16, Athens: The Danish Institute at Athens:205-­19. Dimopoulou, N. 1987. Workshops and craftsmen in the harbour-­town of Knossos at Poros-­
Katsambas. In, R. Laffineur and P.P. Betancourt (eds.) TEHNI: Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 16) Liège:II.433-­8. 14 Driessen, J, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23.) Liège. Driessen, J. 2008. Daidalos' designs and Ariadne's threads: Minoan towns as places of interaction. In S. Owen and L. Preston (eds) Inside the City in the Greek World: Studies of Urbanism from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic Period. (University of Cambridge Museum of Classical Archaeology Monographs 1) Oxford:41-­54. Goren, Y. and Panagiotopoulos, D. 2009. 'The 'Lords of the Rings': An Analytical Approach to the Riddle of the 'KnRVVLDQ5HSOLFD5LQJV
¶Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 52:257-­58. Hägg, R. (ed.) 1997. 7KH)XQFWLRQRIWKHµ0LQRDQYLOOD¶ Stockholm. (Especially papers by Driessen and Sakellarakis, Betancourt and Marinatos, Tsipopoulou and Papacostopoulou.) Hägg, R. and N. Marinatos (eds) 1981. Sanctuaries and Cults in the Aegean Bronze Age. Stockholm. Hägg, R. and N. Marinatos (eds) 1987. The Function of the Minoan Palaces. Stockholm. (Especially papers by Chrysoulaki and Platon, Moody, Niemeier, and Palyvou.) Hallager, B.P. and E. Hallager 1995. The Knossian Bull -­ Political Propaganda in Neo-­Palatial Crete?. In, R. Laffineur and W-­D. Niemeier (eds.) POLITEIA. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 12) Liège:II.547-­56. Hallager, E. 1985. The Master Impression (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 69.) Hamilakis, Y. 2002. Too many chiefs? Factional competition in Neopalatial Crete. In, J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces (Aegaeum 23) Liège:179-­99. Immerwahr, S. 1991. Aegean Painting ,the Bronze Age. Lupack, S. 2010. 'Minoan religion.' In, E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford:251-­62. Macdonald, C.F. 2002. The Neopalatial palaces of Knossos. In, J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Liège:35-­
54. Marinatos, N. 1993. Minoan Religion: Ritual, Image and Symbol. Marinatos, N. 2010. Minoan kingship and the solar goddess: a Near Eastern koine. Urbana. McEnroe, J. 2010. Architecture of Minoan Crete: Constructing Identity in the Aegean Bronze Age. Austin. Niemeier, W-­D. 1994 Knossos in the New Palace period (MM III -­ LM IB). In, D. Evely, H. Hughes-­
Brock and N. Momigliano (eds) Knossos: A Labyrinth of History. Oxford:71-­88. 3HDWILHOG $$' µ3DODFH DQG SHDN WKH SROLWLFDO DQG UHOLJLRXV UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ SDODFHV
DQGSHDNVDQFWXDULHV¶In, R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. Stockholm:89-­93. 3HDWILHOG $$' µ0LQRDQ SHDN VDQFWXDULHV KLVWRU\ DQG VRFLHW\¶ Opuscula Atheniensa 17:117-­31. 5HKDN3-*<RXQJHUµ1HRSDODWLDO)LQDO3DODWLDODQG3RVWSDODWLDO&UHWH¶American Journal of Archaeology 102: 91-­173. Reprinted with update, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1). 5HKDN 3 DQG -* <RXQJHU µ1HRSDODWLDO )LQDO 3DODWLDO DQG 3RVWSDODWLDO &UHWH¶ American Journal of Archaeology 102:91-­173. [<www>] Reprinted with update, in T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1.) Rutkowski, B. 1986. Cult Places of the Aegean. Schoep, I. 2001. Managing the hinterland: the rural concerns of urban administration. In, K. Branigan (ed.) Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 4) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:87-­102. Schoep, I. 2002. The state of the Minoan palaces or the Minoan palace-­state? In, J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Liège:15-­33. 6FKRHS,µ5LWXDOSROLWLFVDQGVFULSWRQ0LQRDQ&UHWH¶Aegean Archaeology 1: 7-­25. Schoep, I. 2002. The administration of Neopalatial Crete: a critical assessment of the Linear A tablets and their role in the administrative process. (Minos Supplement 17). Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. Schoep, I. 2010. The Minoan 'Palace-­Temple' Reconsidered: A Critical Assessment of the Spatial Concentration of Political, Religious and Economic Power in Bronze Age Crete. JMA 23(2):219-­
243. Shaw, J. 2003. Palatial proportions: a study of the relative proportions between Minoan palaces and their settlements. In, K. Foster and R. Laffineur (eds.) METRON. Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 24) Liège:239-­46. Thomas, H. 2010. 'Cretan Heiroglyphic and Linear A.' In, E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford:340-­55. Tsipopoulou, M. 1999. From Local Centre to Palace: the Role of Fortification in the Economic Transformation of the Siteia Bay Area, East Crete. In, R. Laffineur (ed.) POLEMOS: Le contexte guerrier en Égée á l'âge du Bronze. (Aegaeum 19) Liège:I.179-­89. 15 Tsipopoulou, M. 2002. Petras, Siteia: the palace, the town, the hinterland and the Protopalatial background. In, J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Liège:133-­44. Tsipopoulou, M. 1997. 'Palace-­Centered Polities in Eastern Crete: Neopalatial Petras and Its Neighbors.' In, W. Aufrecht, N. Mirau and S. Gauley (eds) Urbanism in Antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete. Sheffield:263-­77. Tyree, E.L. 2001. 'Diachronic changes in Minoan cave cult.' In, R. Laffineur and R. Hägg (eds) POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 22) Liège:39-­50. Van de Moortel, A. 2002. Pottery as a barometer of economic change from the Protopalatial to the Neopalatial society in central Crete. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Revisited. Rethinking µ0LQRDQ¶DUFKDHRORJ\Oxford: Oxbow Books:189-­211. Warren, P.M. 1988. Minoan Religion as Ritual Action. (SIMA-­PB 72) Gotenborg. :DUUHQ30³7HUUDFRJQLWD´7KHWHUULWRU\DQGERXQdaries of the early Neopalatial Knossian state. In, G. Cadogan, E. Hatzaki and A. Vasilakis (eds.) Knossos: Palace, City, State. London: British School at Athens:159-­68. Watrous, L.V., et al. 2012. An archaeological survey of the Gournia landscape. Philadelphia. Watrous, L.V., Hadzi-­Vallianou, D. and Blitzer, H. 2004. The Plain of Phaistos. Cycles of complexity in the Mesara region of Crete. Los Angeles. :HLQJDUWHQ-µ6HDO-­use at Late Minoan IB Ayia Triada: a Minoan elite in action. I. adminsWUDWLYHFRQVLGHUDWLRQV¶Kadmos 26: 1-­38. :HLQJDUWHQ - µ7KUHH XSKHDYDOV LQ 0LQRDQ VHDOLQJ DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ HYLGHQFH IRU UDGLFDO
FKDQJH¶ In, T.G. Palaima (ed.) Aegean Seals, Sealing and Administration (Aegaeum 5) Liège:106-­20. Weingarten, J. 2010. 'Corridors of Power: A Social Network Analysis of the Minoan 'Replica Rings'.' In, W. Müller (ed.) Die Bedeutung der minoischen und mykenischen Glyptik: VI. (CMS Beiheft 8.) Mainz am Rhein:395-­412. Institute of Classical Studies Whitelaw, T. 2001. From sites to communities: defining the human dimensions of Minoan urbanism. In, K. Branigan (ed.) Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 4) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press:15-­37. Whitelaw, T. 2004. Estimating the population of Neopalatial Knossos. In, G. Cadogan, E. Hatzaki and A. Vasilakis (eds.) Knossos: Palace, City, State. London: British School at Athens:147-­58. Younger, J. and Rehak, P. 2008. 'Minoan culture: religion, burial customs and administration.' In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge:165-­85. Younger, J. and Rehak, P. 2008. 'The material culture of Neopalatial Crete.' In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge:140-­64. Seminar 6: 23 February Material culture, art, ritual and power in palatial Crete. The Neopalatial period presevres the widest range of Minoan material culture, and witnessed a tremendous expansion of representational art in various media, which very much frames our interpretation of Minoan culture. Usually assessed aesthetically and interpreted within a framework of uncritical assumptions going back to Evans, this seminar asks how we can use evidence from images and the archaeological remains of elite and cult contexts to understand performance and ritual behaviour, and its role in the exercise and negotiation of social and political power in palatial Crete. Essential Davis, E.N. 1995. Art and politics in the Aegean: the missing ruler. In, P. Rehak (ed.) The Role of the Ruler in the Prehistoric Aegean. (Aegaeum 11) Liège:11-­19. TC 2189;; DAE Qto REH. Cain, C.D. 2001. Dancing in the dark: deconstructing a narrative of epiphany on the Isopata ring. AJA 105:27-­49. TC 2595;; IoA Pers;; e-­journals. Logue, W. 2004. Set in stone: the role of relief-­carved stone vessels in Neopalatial Minoan elite propaganda. BSA 99:149-­72. IoA Pers;; e-­journals. Haysom, M. 2010. The double-­axe: a contextual approach to the interpretation of a Cretan symbol in the Neopalatial period. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 29:35-­55. IoA Pers;; e-­
journal. Adams, E. 2007. Approaching monuments in the prehistoric built environment: new light on the Minoan palaces. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 26:359-­94. IoA Pers;; e-­journal. Recommended $OEHUWL%µ*HQGHUDQGWKHILJXUDWLYHDUWRI/DWH%URQ]H$JH.QRVVRV¶. In, Y. Hamilakis (ed.) Labyrinth Re-­YLVLWHG5HWKLQNLQJµ0LQRDQ¶$UFKDHRORJ\, 98-­117. 16 Adams, E. 2004. Power and ritual in Neopalatial Crete: a regional comparison. World Archaeology 36:26-­42. Bennet, J. 2008. 'Now You See It;; Now You Don't! The Disappearance of the Linear A Script on Crete.' In, J. Baines, J. Bennet and S. Houston (eds) The Disappearance of Writing Systems. Perspectives on Literacy and Communication. London:1-­29. Bevan, A. 2007. Stone Vessels and Values in the Bronze Age Mediterranean. Cambridge. Briault, C. 2007. Making mountains out of molehills in the Bronze Age Aegean: visibility, ritual kits and the idea of a peak sanctuary. World Archaeology 39:122-­41. Briault, C. 2007. High fidelity or Chinese whispers? Cult symbols and ritual transmission in the Bronze Age Aegean. JMA 20:239-­65. &DPHURQ0$67KHµSDODWLDO¶WKHPDWLFV\VWHPLQWKH.QRVVRVPXUDOV/DVWQRWHVRQ
Knossos frescoes. In, R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:320-­8. Chapin, A. 2007. 'A Man's World? Gender and Male Coalitions in the West House Miniature Frescoes.' In, P. Betancourt, M. Nelson and H. Williams (eds.) Krinoi kai Limenes: Studies in Honor of Joseph and Maria Shaw. (Prehistory Monographs 22.) Philadelphia:139-­44. Chapin, A. 2008. 'The Lady of the Landscape: An Investigation of Aegean Costuming and the Xeste 3 Frescoes.' In, C. Colburn and M. Heyn (eds) Reading a Dynamic Canvas: Adornment in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Newcastle:48-­83. Chapin, A. 2009. 'Constructions of male youth and gender in Aegean art: the evidence from Late Bronze Age Crete and Thera.' In, K. Kopaka (ed.) Fylo: Engendering Prehistoric 'Stratigraphies' in the Aegean and the Mediterranean. (Aegaeum 30.) Liège:175-­82.Davis, E.N. 1987. The Knossos miniature frescoes and the function of the central courts. In, R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:157-­61. Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. Comments on a popular model of Minoan religion. OJA 13:173-­84. 'ULHVVHQ-
µ7KH.LQJPXVWGLH
6RPHREVHUYDWions on the use of Minoan court compounds.' In, J. Driessen, I. Schoep and R. Laffineur (eds) Monuments of Minos. Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. (Aegaeum 23) Liège:1-­13. Hägg, R. 1985. Pictorial programmes in the Minoan palaces and villas. In, P. Darcque and J.-­C. Poursat (eds.) L'Iconographie Minoenne. (BCH Supplément 11) Athens: École française d'Athènes:219-­42. Hallager, E. 1985. The Master Impression (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 69). Hallager, B.P. and E. Hallager 1995. The Knossian Bull -­ Political Propaganda in Neo-­Palatial Crete?. In, R. Laffineur and W-­D. Niemeier (eds.) POLITEIA. Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age. (Aegaeum 12) Liège:II.547-­56. Haysom, M. 2011. Fish and ships: Neopalatial seascapes in context. In, G. Vavouranakis (ed.) The seascape in Aegean Prehistory. Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 14, Athens: The Danish Institute at Athens:139-­160. Haysom, M. 2013. Cacophony and Silence: The Place of Religion in Neopalatial Crete. BICS 56(1):125-­26. Herva, V.-­P. 2006. Flower lovers, after all? Rethinking religion and human-­environment relations in Minoan Crete. World Archaeology 38:586-­98. Koehl, R.B. 1986. The chieftain cup and a Minoan rite of passage. JHS 106:99-­110. Letesson, Q. 2012. 'Open Day Gallery' or 'Private Collections'? An Insight on Neopalatial Wall Paintings in their Spatial Context. In, D. Panagiotopoulos and U. Günkel-­Maschek (eds.) Minoan Realities: Approaches to Images, Architecture, and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. Louvain-­
la-­Neuve: Presses universitaires de Louvain:27-­61. Letesson, Q. and K. Vansteenhuyse. 2006. Towards an Archaeology of Perception: 'Looking' at the Minoan Palaces. JMA 19(1):91-­119. Lupack, S. 2010. 'Minoan religion.' In, E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford:251-­62.Niemeier, W.-­D. 1987. On the function of the µWKURQHURRP¶LQWKHSDODFHDW.QRVVRV,Q5+lJJDQG10DULQDWRVHGVThe Function of the Minoan Palaces. (Quarto Series 35) Stockholm: Swedish Institute in Athens:163-­8. Marinatos, N. 2010. Minoan kingship and the solar goddess: a Near Eastern koine. Urbana. Niemeier, W.-­'µ7KH³SULHVW-­NLQJ´IUHVFRIURP.QRVVRVDQHZUHFRQVWUXFWLRQDQG
LQWHUSUHWDWLRQ¶. In, E. French & K.A. Wardle (eds.) Problems in Greek Prehistory. Morgan, L. 1985. Idea, idiom and iconography. In, P. Darcque and J.-­C. Poursat (eds.) L'Iconographie Minoenne. (BCH Supplément 11) Athens: École française d'Athènes:5-­19. Panagiotopoulos, D. 2012. Aegean Imagery and the Syntax of Viewing. In, D. Panagiotopoulos and U. Günkel-­Maschek (eds.) Minoan Realities: Approaches to Images, Architecture, and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age. Louvain-­la-­Neuve: Presses universitaires de Louvain:63-­82. Peatfield, A.A.D. 1987. µ3DODFHDQGSHDNWKHSROLWLFDODQGUHOLJLRXVUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQ
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variously explained through the acculturation of local societies or as indicative of Cretan FRORQLHV RU UXOH SHUKDSV HYHQ WKH µWKDODVVRFUDF\¶ ± political domination from Crete -­ mentioned in later Greek traditions. In addition to the well-­explored Cycladic instances, new evidence is emerging from the eastern Aegean as well as Kythera and the southern mainland. This seminar explores the diversity of the patterns and variety of explanatory models. Essential Wiener, M. 2013. Realities of power: the Minoan thalassocracy in historical perspective. In, R. Koehl (ed.) Amilla : the quest for excellence : studies presented to Guenter Kopcke in celebration of his 75th birthday. Philadelphia:149-­73. IoA DAG 100 KOE. Broodbank, C. 2004. Minoanisation. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 50:46-­91. Main: CLASSICS Journals;; e-­journal;; PDF on course Moodle. Davis, J. and E. Gorogianni 2008. Potsherds from the edge: the construction of identities and the limits of Minoanized areas of the Aegean. In, N. Brodie et al. (eds) Horizon. Cambridge:339-­48. IoA TC 3719;; IoA DAG 10 BRO Knappett, C., T. Evans and R. Rivers. 2008. Modelling maritime interaction in the Aegean Bronze Age. Antiquity 82:1009-­24. IoA Pers;; e-­journal. Maran, J. 2011. Lost in translation: the Early Mycenaean culture as a phenomenon of glocalization. In, T. Wilkinson, S. Sherratt and J. Bennet (eds) Interweaving worlds: systemic interactions in Eurasia, 7th to 1st millennia BC. Oxford:282-­94. IoA Issue Desk WIL 1;; INST ARCH DA 150 WIL. Recommended Barber, R.L.N. 1987. The Cyclades in the Bronze Age. London. (Chapter 7.) Berg, I. 1999. 'The Southern Aegean System.' Journal of World Systems Research 5: 475-­84;; e-­
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Archaeology 1:9-­25. 6FKRILHOG(µ7KH0LQRDQ(PLJUDQW¶In, O. Krzyszkowska and L. Nixon (eds) Minoan Society. Bristol:293-­301. Stos-­Gale, Z. 2001. 'Minoan foreign relations and copper metallurgy in Protopalatial and Neopalatial Crete.' In, A. Shortland (ed.) The Social Context of Technological Change. Egypt and the Near East, 1650-­1550 BC. Oxford:195-­210. Whitelaw, T. 2005 A tale of three cities: chronology and Minoanisation at Phylakopi on Melos. In, A. Dakouri-­Hild and E.S. Sherratt (eds) Autochthon, 37-­69. :LHQHU 0 µ7KH LVOHV RI &UHWH" 7KH 0LQRDQ 7KDODVVRFUDF\ UHYLVLWHG¶ In, D.A. Hardy (ed.) Thera and the Aegean World III: Archaeology, 128-­61. :LHQHU 0 µ3UHVHQW DUPVRDUVLQJRWV VHDrching for evidence of military or maritime DGPLQLVWUDWLRQLQ/0,%¶In, R. Laffineur (ed.) Polemos: Le contexte guerrier en Égée á l'âge du Bronze (Aegaeum 19), 411-­423. The Greek mainland: Briault, C. 2007. High fidelity or Chinese whispers? Cult symbols and ritual transmission in the Bronze Age Aegean. JMA 20:239-­65. Burns, B. 2010. Mycenaean Greece, Mediterranean Commerce and the Formation of Identity. Cambridge. Cadogan, G. and K. Kopaka. 2010. 'Coping with the offshore giant: Middle Helladic interactions with Middle Minoan Crete.' In, A. Philippa-­Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds) Mesohelladika. The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age. (BCH Suppl. 52.) Athens:847-­58. Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1977. The Origins of Mycenaean Civilisation. Goteborg. (Chapters 2, 3, 8.) 'LFNLQVRQ273.µ&UHWDQFRQWDFWVZLWKWKHPDLQODQGGXULQJWKHSHULRGRIWKHVKDIWJUDYHV¶
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comparatiYHH[DPLQDWLRQRIWKHHYLGHQFH¶American Journal of Archaeology 95:403-­40. Kiriatzi, E. 2010. 'Minoanising' pottery traditions in southwest Aegean during the Middle Bronze Age: understanding the social context of technological and consumption practices.' In, A. Philippa-­Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds) Mesohelladika. The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age. (BCH Suppl. 52.) Athens:683-­99. Niemeier, W.-­' µ$HJLQDILUVW $HJHDQ³VWDWH´RXWVLGHRI&UHWH"¶ In, R. Laffineur and W.-­D. Niemeier (eds) Politeia: Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age (Aegaeum 12), 73-­80. Parkinson, W. and Galaty, M. 2007. 'Secondary states in perspective: an integrated approach to state formation in the prehistoric Aegean.' American Anthropologist 109:113-­29. 5XWWHU - DQG & =HUQHU µ(DUO\ +HOODGR-­0LQRDQ FRQWDFWV¶ In, R. Hägg & N. Marinatos (eds) The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth and Reality. Stockholm:75-­83. Institute of Classical Studies 5XWWHU-%µ5HYLHZRI$HJHDQ3UHKLVWRU\ II: the prepalatial Bronze Age of the southern and FHQWUDO *UHHN PDLQODQG¶ American Journal of Archaeology 97: 745-­97 Reprinted in T. Cullen [ed.] Aegean Prehistory: A Review, 95-­155. 20 9RXWVDNL 6 µ0RUWXDU\ GLVSOD\ SUHVWLJH DQG LGHQWLW\ LQ WKH VKDIW JUDYH HUD¶ In, I. Kilian-­
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6KDIW *UDYHV¶ In, J. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited (Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology), 127-­44. Wright, J. 1995. From chief to king in Mycenaean Greece. In, P. Rehak (ed.) The Role of the Ruler in the Prehistoric Aegean (Aegaeum 11), 63-­80. :ULJKW-µ(DUO\0\FHQDHDQ*UHHFH¶,Q, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge:230-­57. Wright, J. 2010. 'Towards a social archaeology of Middle Helladic Greece.' In, A. Philippa-­Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds) Mesohelladika. The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age. (BCH Suppl. 52.) Athens:803-­15. Seminar 8: 8 March Minoan Crete in its East Mediterranean context. Recent years have seen a marked increase in the quantity and variety of evidence for interactions between palatial Crete and the Near East, generating renewed speculation as to the forms of exchange that were involved and the economic, social and political scenarios that may lie behind the material remains of interaction in both regions. While relative chronology remains a major focus of reserahc, attention is increasingky focusing on the process of interaction,a and their significance, in both directions. Increasingly questioned are the traditional diffusionist assumptions about the impact and significance of such contacts of most earlier research. Essential Sherratt, A.G. and E.S. Sherratt 1991. From luxuries to commodities: the nature of Mediterranean Bronze Age trading systems. In, N. Gale (ed.) Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 90), 351-­86. TC 507;; Issue desk DAG Qto STU 90. Watrous, L.V. 1998. Egypt and Crete in the Early Middle Bronze Age: A Case of Trade and Cultural Diffusion. In, E. Cline and D. Harris-­Cline (eds) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18) Liège:19-­28. IoA Issue Desk IoA CLI Warren, P.M. 1995. Minoan Crete and pharaonic Egypt. In, W.V. Davies and L. Schofield (eds.) Egypt, the Aegean and the Levant: Interconnections in the Second Millennium BC. London:1-­18. TC 2188;; IoA Issue Desk DAV 5;; Egyptology Qto A6 DAV. Bevan, A. 2003. Reconstructing the role of Egyptian culture in the value regimes of the Bronze Age Aegean: stone vessels and their social contexts. In, R. Matthews and C. Roemer (eds) Ancient Perspectives on Egypt. London: UCL Press:57-­74. IoA Issue Desk IOA MAT 7;; EGYPTOLOGY B 20 MAT Feldman, M. 2007. Frescoes, exotica, and the reinvention of the northern Levantine kingdoms during the second millennium BCE. In, M. Heinz and M. Feldman (eds) Representations of political power. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns:39-­65. IoA DBA 100 HEI Recommended Barber, E.J.W. 1991. Prehistoric Textiles (esp. Chapter 15). Bell, C. 2012. The merchants of Ugarit: oligarchs of the Late Bronze Age trade in metals? In, V. Kassianidou and G. Papasavvas (eds) Eastern Mediterranean Metallurgy and Metalwork in the Second Millennium BC: A conference in honour of James D. Muhly. Oxford:180-­87. Bevan, A. 2003. 'Reconstructing the role of Egyptian culture in the value regimes of the Bronze Age Aegean: stone vessels and their social contexts.' In, R. Matthews and C. Roemer (eds) Ancient Perspectives on Egypt. London:57-­74. Bevan, A.H. 2007. Stone Logics: Vessels and Values in the Bronze Age East Mediterranean. Cambridge. %HYDQ $ µ0DNLQJ DQG PDUNLQJ UHODWLRQVKLSV %URQ]H $JH EUDQGLQJV DQG 0HGLWHUUDQHDQ
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5HYLVLWHG 0DLQVWUHDP 3HULSKHU\ RU 0DUJLQ"¶ In, W. Parkinson and M. Galaty (eds) Archaic State Interaction: The Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age. Santa Fe:161-­80. Cline, E. 2009. Sailing the Wine-­Dark Sea: International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean (second ed.). (BAR IS 591). Oxford. Cline, E. and D. Harris-­Cline (eds) 1998. The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium (Aegaeum 18). Feldman, M. 2006. Diplomacy by Design: LX[XU\ $UWV DQG DQ µ,QWHUQDWLRQDO 6W\OH¶ LQ WKH $QFLHQW
Near East, 1400-­1200 BCE. Feldman, M. 2014. Beyond Iconography: Meaning-­Making in Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean Visual and Material Culture. In, A.B. Knapp and P. van Dommelen (eds.) The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean. New York: Cambridge University Press:337-­351. Feldman, M. and C. Sauvage. 2010. Objects of prestige? Chariots in the Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean and Near East. Egypt and the Levant 20:67-­181. Gale, N. (ed.) 1991. Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 90). Gale, N. and Z.A. Stos-­*DOH µ&RSSHU R[KLGH LQJRWV DQG WKH $HJHDQ PHWDOV WUDGH QHZ
SHUVSHFWLYHV¶ In, P.P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur, and W.-­D. Niemeier (eds) Meletemata (Aegaeum 20). Liege:267-­77. Höflmayer, F. 2009. Aegean-­Egyptian synchronisms and radiocarbon chronology. In, D. Warburton (ed.) Time's Up! Dating the Minoan eruption of Santorini. Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 10, Athens: The Danish Institute at Athens:187-­195. Höflmayer, F. 2012. Die Synchronisierung der minoischen Alt-­ und Neupalastzeit mit der ägyptischen Chronologie,. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 73. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Jasink, A.M. 2005. Mycenaean means of communication and diplomatic relations with foreign royal courts. In, R. Laffineur and E. Greco (eds) Emporia. Aegeans in the central and eastern Mediterranean. (Aegaeum 25). Liege:59-­68. Kemp, B. and R.S. Merrillees 1980. Minoan Pottery in Second Millennium Egypt. Knapp, A.B. 1993. Thalassocracies in Bronze Age East Mediterranean trade: making and breaking a myth. World Archaeology 24:332-­47. Knapp, A.B. 1998. 'Mediterranean Bronze Age trade: distance, power and place.' In, E. Cline and D. Harris-­Cline (eds) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18) Liège:193-­210. Knapp, A.B. 2008. Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus: Identity, Insularity, and Connectivity. Knapp, B. 2013. The Archaeology of Cyprus: From Earliest Prehistory through the Bronze Age. Cambridge. Laffineur, R. and E. Greco (eds) 2005. Emporia: Aegeans in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean (Aegaeum 25). 22 Legarra Herrero, B. 2011. New kid on the block: the nature of the first systemic contacts between Crete and the eastern Mediterranean around 2000 BC. In, Interweaving worlds: systemic interactions in Eurasia, 7th to 1st millennia BC. T. Wilkinson, S. Sherratt and J. Bennet (eds.), 266-­281. Oxford: Oxbow books. Liverani, M. 2001. International Relations in the Ancient Near East, 1600-­1100 BC. Liverani, M. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Abingdon: Routledge. 0DQQLQJ 6: DQG / +XOLQ µ0DULWLPH FRPPHUFH DQG JHRJUDSKLHV RI PRELOLW\ LQ WKH /DWH
%URQ]H $JH RI WKH HDVWHUQ 0HGLWHUUDQHDQ SUREOHPDWL]DWLRQV¶ In, E. Blake and A. B. Knapp (eds). The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory, 270-­302. Monroe, C. 2009. Scales of Fate: Trade, Tradition and Transformation in the Eastern Mediterranean, ca. 1350-­1175 BCE. Münster. 0RQURH & µ6XQN FRVWV DW /DWH %URQ]H $JH 8OXEXUXQ¶ Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 357:19-­33. Morris, S. 2003. Islands in the sea: Aegean polities as Levantine neighbors. In, W. Dever and S. Gitin (eds) Symbiosis, Symbolism and the Power of the Past. Winona Lake:3-­15. Niemeier, B. and W.-­D. Niemeier. 2000. Aegean Frescoes in Syria-­Palestine: Alalakh and Tel Kabri. In, E.S. Sherratt (ed.) The Wall Paintings of Thera. Athens: Thera Foundation:2.763-­802. Panagiotopoulos, D. 2001. 'Keftiu in context: Theban tomb-­paintings as a historical source.' Oxford Journal of Archaeology 20:263-­83. Panagiotopoulos, D. 2011. The Stirring Sea. Conceptualising Transculturality in the Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean. In, K. Duistermaat and I. Regulski (eds.) Intercultural Contacts in the Ancient Mediterranean. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 202, Leuven: Peeters:31±51. Parkinson, W. and M. Galaty (eds) 2009. Archaic State Interaction: The Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age. Santa Fe. Pulak, C. 1998. The Uluburun shipwreck: an overview. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Excavation 27:188-­224. 3XODN & µ7KH FDUJR RI WKH 8OXEXUXQ VKLS DQG HYLGHQFH IRU WUDGH ZLWK WKH $HJHDQ DQG
EH\RQG¶ In, L. Bonifante and V. Karageorghis (eds) Italy and Cyprus in antiquity: 1500-­450 BC., 13-­60. 6KHUUDWW $ DQG 6 6KHUUDWW µ6PDOO :RUOds: Interaction and Identity in the Ancient 0HGLWHUUDQHDQ¶In, E. Cline and D. Harris-­Cline (eds) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. (Aegaeum 18). Liège: 329-­43.IoA Issue Desk CLI 6KHUUDWW $ DQG 6 6KHUUDWW µ7HFKQRORJLFDO FKDQJH in the east Mediterranean Late Bronze $JH FDSLWDO UHVRXUFHV DQG PDUNHWLQJ¶ In, A.J. Shortland (ed.) The Social Context of Technological Change: Egypt and the Near East 1650-­1550 BC. Oxford:15-­38. 6KHUUDWW 6 µE pur si muove: pots, markets and values in the second millennium 0HGLWHUUDQHDQ¶In, J.P. Crielaard, V. Stissi and G.J. van Wijngaarden (eds), The Complex Past of Pottery: Production, Circulation and Consumption of Mycenaean and Greek Pottery, 163-­211. Sherratt, S. 2009. The Aegean and the Wider World: Some Thoughts on a World-­Systems Perspective. In, W. Parkinson and M. Galaty (eds) Archaic State Interaction: The Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age. Santa Fe:81-­106. Shortland, A.J. (ed.) 2001. The Social Context of Technological Change: Egypt and the Near East, 1650-­1550 BC. Steel, L. 2013. Materiality and Consumption in the Bronze Age Mediterranean. Abingdon: Routledge. Stos-­Gale, Z. 2000. 'Trade in metals in the Bronze Age Mediterranean: an overview of lead isotope data for provenance studies.' In, C. Pare (ed.) Metals Make the World Go Round. Oxford:56-­69. Van de Mieroop, M. 2007. The Eastern Mediterranean in the Age of Ramesses II. Oxfrod: Blackwell. Van de Mieroop, M. 2007 A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-­323 BC. Oxford: Blackwell. Wachsmann, S. 1987. Aegeans in the Theban Tombs. (Chapters 1, 6-­7.) Wachsmann, S. 1998. Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. Warburton, D. 2011. What might the Bronze Age World-­System Look Like? Interweaving Worlds: Systemic Interactions in Eurasia, 7th to 1st Millennia BC. In, T. Wilkinson, S. Sherratt and J. Bennet (eds.) Oxford: Oxbow Books:120-­34. Warren, P. 2005. A Model of Iconographical Transfer. The Case of Crete and Egypt. Kris Technitis. L'Artisan Crétois. In, I. Bradfer-­Burdet, B. Detournay and R. Laffineur (eds.) Liège, Université de Liège (Aegaeum 26):221-­227. Yalcin, U., C. Pulak and R. Slotta (eds) 2005. Das Schiff von Uluburun. Bochum. Seminar 9: 15 March The end of Neopalatial Crete. The eruption of the volcanic island of Thera (Santorini) in the mid 2nd millennium BC is linked to two debates in Aegean archaeology. One concerns the association between the 23 eruption and the end of Neopalatial Crete (attested by widespread destructions at the end of LM IB). The other concerns Aegean absolute chronology, for radiocarbon dates and other scientific data attributed to the eruption have been used to argue that traditional chronologies were too late by ca. 100 years. This would have important ramifications for rates of cultural change in the Aegean as well as correlations with the east Mediterranean and Europe. More generally, attention is beginning to recognize that the widespread destructions on &UHWHDWWKHHQGRIWKH1HRSDODWLDOSHULRGDUHQRWVRHDVLO\DWWULEXWHGWRDVLQJOHµHYHQW¶
as most discussions over many decades have assumed, whether long term consequences of the Theran eruption, an island-­wide earthquake(s), or an invasion from the Mycenaean mainland. It is beginning to be looked at as the consequence of longer-­term difficulties, thoough quite what these were, are just as hotly debated. Essential Driessen, J. and C.F. MacDonald 2000. The eruption of the Santorini volcano and its effects on Minoan Crete. In, W.J. McGuire, D.R. Griffiths, P.L. Hancock and I.S. Stewart (eds) The Archaeology of Geological Catastrophes. (Geological Society Special Publication 171), 81-­93. IoA Issue Desk MCG. Knappett, C., Rivers, R. and Evans, T. 2011. The Theran eruption and Minoan palatial collapse: new interpretations gained from modelling the maritime network. Antiquity 85:1008-­23. IoA Pers;; e-­Journals. Cunningham, T. 2007. Havoc: the destruction of power and the power of destruction in Minoan Crete. In, J. Bretschneider, J. Driessen and K. van Lerberghe (eds.) Power and Architecture. Monumental public architecture in the Bronze Age Near East and Aegean, 23-­43. IoA DBA 100 BRE. Christakis, K. 2008. The Politics of Storage: Storage and Sociopolitical Complexity in Neopalatial Crete,. Prehistory Monographs 25, Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press:119-­46. IoA DAG 14 CHR Wright, J.C. 1984. Umpiring the Mycenaean empire. Temple University Aegean Symposium 9:58-­70. IoA DAG 10 TEM Recommended The end of Neopalatial Crete: Brogan, T. and E. Hallager (eds.). 2011. LM IB pottery: relative chronology and regional differences. Athens: Danish Institute at Athens. Brogan, T., R.A.K. Smith and J.S. Soles. 2003. Mycenaeans at Mochlos? Exploring culture and identity in the Late Minoan IB to IIIA1 transition. Aegean Archaeology 6:89-­118. Bruins, H., J.A. MacGillivray, C. Synolakis, C. Benjamini, J. Keller, H. Kisch, A. Klugel and J. van der 3OLFKWµ*HRDUFKDHRORJLFDOWVXQDPLGeposits at Palaikastro (Crete) and the Late Minoan IA HUXSWLRQRI6DQWRULQL¶Journal of Archaeological Science 35:191-­212. 'LFNLQVRQ 273. µ0LQRDQV LQ PDLQODQG *UHHFH 0\FHQDHDQV LQ &UHWH"¶ Cretan Studies 5:63-­71. Institute of Classical Studies Pers. Driessen, J. and C. Langohr. 2007. 5DOO\LQJµURXQGDµ0LQRDQ¶SDVWWKHOHJLWLPDWLRQRISRZHUDW
Knossos during the Late Bronze Age. In, M.L. Galaty and W.A. Parkinson (eds) Rethinking Mycenaean Palaces II, 178-­89. Driessen, J. and C. Macdonald 1997. The Troubled Island: Minoan Crete Before and After the Santorini Eruption (Aegaeum 17), especially Chapters 5-­6. Driessen, J. and I. Schoep. 1999. 'The Stylus and the Sword: The Roles of Scribes and Warriors in the Conquest of Crete.' In, R. Laffineur (ed.) POLEMOS: Le contexte guerrier en Égée á l'âge du Bronze. (Aegaeum 19) Liège:389-­401. Hardy, D.A. (ed.) 1990. Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume II: Earth Sciences. Hood, M.S.F. 1985. Warlike Destruction in Crete c. 1450 B.C. In, T. Detorakis (ed.) Pepragmena tou E' Diethnous Kritologikou Synedriou. Heraklion: Etairia Kritikon Istorikon Meleton:A.170-­
78. Institute of Classical Studies. Marinatos, S. 1939. The volcanic destruction of Minoan Crete. Antiquity 13:425-­39. Niemeier, W.-­D. 1983. The nature of the Knossian palace society in the second half of the fifteenth century BC: Mycenaean or Minoan?. In, O. Krzyszkowska and L. Nixon (eds) Minoan Society. Bristol:217-­236. Niemeier, W.-­D. 1984. The end of the Minoan thalassocracy. In, R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds), The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth and Reality: 205-­15. Institute of Classical Studies Preston, L. 2008. 'Late Minoan II to IIIB Crete.' In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge:310-­26. 24 Puglisi, D. 2013. The view from the day after. In, J. Driessen (ed.) Destruction: archaeological, philological and historical perspectives. Louvain-­le-­Neuve: UCL Press:171-­82. 6ROHV - µ7KH FROODSVH RI 0LQRDQ FLYLOL]DWLRQ WKH HYLGHQFH RI WKH EURNHQ DVKODU¶ In, R. Laffineur (ed.) 3ROHPRV/HFRQWH[WHJXHUULHUHQHJHHDO¶DJHGXEURQ]H (Aegaeum 19), 57-­63. The dating controversy: Manning, S. 2010. 'Eruption of Thera/Santorini.' In, E. Cline (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford:457-­74. :LHQHU0µ7LPHVFKDQJHWKHFXUUHQWGHEDWHLQ2OG:RUOGFKURQRORJ\¶ In, M. Bietak and E. Czerny (eds) The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the second millennium B.C. III, 25-­47. %XFNODQG3&DQG$-'XJPRUHDQG.-(GZDUGVµ%URQ]H$JHP\WKV"9ROFDQLFDFWLYLW\DQG
KXPDQUHVSRQVHLQWKH0HGLWHUUDQHDQDQG1RUWK$WODQWLFUHJLRQV¶Antiquity 71:581-­93. Driessen, J. and C. MacDonald 1997. The Troubled Island: Minoan Crete Before and After the Santorini Eruption (Aegaeum 17.) Liège. (Especially Chapters 4-­6.) Friedrich, W.L. 2009. Santorini: geology, natural history, mythology. Aarhus. Friedrich, W., B. Kromer, M. Friedrich, J. Heinemeier, T. Pfeiffer and S. Talamo. 2014. The olive branch chronology stands irrespective of tree-­ring counting. Antiquity 88(339):274-­76. Hardy, D.A. (ed.) 1990. Thera and the Aegean World III, Volume III: Chronology. Höflmayer, F. 2009. Aegean-­Egyptian synchronisms and radiocarbon chronology. In, D. Warburton (ed.) Time's Up! Dating the Minoan eruption of Santorini. Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 10, Athens: The Danish Institute at Athens:187-­195. Kitchen, K. 2007. 'Egyptian and related chronologies -­ look, no science, no pots!' In, M. Bietak and E. Czerny (eds) The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. II. Vienna:163-­71. 0DQQLQJ 6 &ODULI\LQJ WKH KLJK¶ Y ORZ
$HJHDQ&\SULRW FKURQRORJ\ IRU WKH PLG VHFRQG
millennium BC: assessing the evidence, interpretive frameworks, and current state of the debate.' In, M. Bietak and E. Czerny (eds) The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. II. Vienna:101-­37. Manning, S.W. 2000. A Test of Time: The Volcano of Thera and the Chronology and History of the Aegean and East Mediterranean in the Mid Second Millennium BC. Manning, S.W. W. Bronk Ramsey, C. Kutschera, T. Higham, B. Kromer, P. Steier, and E. M. Wild. µ&KURQRORJ\ for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-­%&¶Science 312:565-­569. Manning, S. and M. Bruce (eds) 2009. Tree-­rings, kings, and Old World archaeology and environment: papers presented in honor of Peter Ian Kuniholm. Oxford. Warburton, D. (ed.) 2009. Time's Up! Dating the Minoan eruption of Santorini. (Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens 10.) Athens. Warren, P. 2006. 'The date of the Thera eruption in relation to Aegean-­Egyptian interconnections and the Egyptian historical chronology.' In, E. Czerny et al. (eds) Timelines. Studies in honour of Manfred Bietak, Vol. 2. Leuven:305-­21. :LHQHU 0+ µ7LPH RXW WKH FXUUHQW LPSDVVH LQ%URQ]H$JHDUFKDHRORJLFDOGDWLQJ¶ In, K. Foster and R. Laffineur (eds) METRON: Measuring the Aegean Bronze Age (Aegaeum 24), 363-­99. Wiener, M. 2009. The state of the debate about ther date of the Theran erupton. In, D. Warburton (ed.) 7LPH¶V 8S 'DWLQJ WKH 0LQRDQ HUXSWLRQ RI 6DQWRULQL (Monographs of the Danaish Institute at Athens, 10). Athens:197-­206. )RU DQ\RQH XQIDPLOLDU ZLWK EDVLF GDWLQJ WHFKQLTXHV & 5HQIUHZ DQG 3 %DKQ¶V WH[WERRN
Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice has a good summary of key principles. Seminar 10: 22 March Crete within the Mycenaean Aegean. Viewed as following the apogee of Minoan civilisation, LMII-­III Crete remained neglected until the 1960s, when interest increased in the context of debates over the date of the final destruction of the palace at Knossos, which preserved the largest collection of Linear B tablets. Since then, studies of LMII-­III Crete have expanded, though it still receives less attention than the Neopalatial period, when the attention of most Aegean prehistorians shifts to the mainland-­based Mycenaean civilisation. While administrators at Knossos and Khania were writing their accounts in early Greek using the Linear B script, and some mainland customs appear to have been adopted on Crete, the culture largely continues Minoan traditions, challenging the traditional invasion/conquest account. The palace-­centred state, at leats at Knossos, seems to have cllapsed in LMIIIA2, significantly before yhe comparable collapses on the Greek mainland, though the reasons receive little attention. The seminar will focus on the nature of the 'Mycenaeanisation' of Crete, and the transformations in society until the end of the Bronze Age. 25 Essential Preston, L. 2008. Late Minoan II to IIIB Crete. In, C. Shelmerdine (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge:310-­26. IoA Issue Desk SHE 16;; IoA DAG 100 SHE;; On-­line. Bennet, J. 1985. The structure of the Linear B administration at Knossos. American Journal of Archaeology 89:231-­49. IoA TC 540;; e-­Journal. Driessen, J. and C. Langohr. 2007. 5DOO\LQJµURXQGDµ0LQRDQ¶SDVWWKHOHJLWLPDWLRQRI
power at Knossos during the Late Bronze Age. In, M.L. Galaty and W.A. Parkinson (eds) Rethinking Mycenaean Palaces II, 178-­89. IoA Issue Desk GAL 1. Brogan, T., R.A.K. Smith and J.S. Soles. 2003. Mycenaeans at Mochlos? Exploring culture and identity in the Late Minoan IB to IIIA1 transition. Aegean Archaeology 6:89-­118. IoA Pers. Feuer, B. 2011. Being Mycenaean: A View from the Periphery. AJA 115:507-­36. IoA Pers;; e-­Journals. Recommended Bennet, J. µ2XWVLGHLQWKHGLVWDQFH¶SUREOHPVLQXQGHUVWDQGLQJ the economic geography of Mycenaean palatial territories. In, J.-­P. Olivier and T.G. Palaima, eds. Texts, Tablets and Scribes. (Minos Supplement 10) Salamanca:19-­41. Bennet, J. 1990. 'Knossos in context: comparative perspectives on the Linear B administration of LM II-­III Crete.' American Journal of Archaeology:193-­211. Bennet, J µ&ROOHFWRUV¶ RU µRZQHUV¶ VRPH WKRXJKWV RQ WKHLU OLNHO\ IXQFWLRQV ZLWKLQ WKH
palatial economy of LM III Crete. In, J.-­P. Olivier (ed.) Mykenaïka: Actes due IXe colloque international sur les textes mycéniens et égéens. (BCH Supplément 25) Athènes:65-­101. %HQQHW - µ´1RZ \RX VHH LW QRZ \RX GRQ
W´ WKH GLVDSSHDUDQFH RI WKH /LQHDU $ VFULSW RQ
&UHWH¶ In, J. Baines, S. Houston, and J. Bennet (eds), The Disappearance of Writing Systems: Perspectives on Literacy and Communication, 1-­29. %HQQHW - µ7KH JHRJUDSK\ RI WKH 0\FHQDHDQ NLQJGRPV¶ In, Y. Duhoux and A. Morpurgo Davies (eds). A Companion to Linear B Mycenaean Greek Texts and their World, Vol. 2. Louvain-­
la-­Neuve:137-­168. Burke, B. 2005. Materialization of Mycenaean ideology and the Ayia Triadha sarcophagus. AJA 109:403-­22. Cline, E.H. 1999. 'The Nature of the Economic Relations of Crete with Egypt and the Near East during the Late Bronze Age.' In, A. Chaniotis (ed.) From Minoan Farmers to Roman Traders: Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete. Stuttgart:115-­44. '¶$JDWD $/ &HQWUDO VRXWKHUQ &UHWH DQG LWV UHODWLRQV ZLWK WKH *UHHN PDLQODQG LQ WKH
Postpalatial period. In, $/ '¶$JDWa and J. Moody (eds) $ULDGQH¶V 7KUHDGV &RQQHFWLRQV
between Crete and the Greek Mainland in Late Minoan III (LM IIIA2 to LM IIIC). Athens:109-­43. '¶$JDWD $/ DQG - 0RRG\ HGV $ULDGQH¶V 7KUHDGV &RQQHFWLRQV EHWZHHQ &UHWH DQG WKH *UHHN
Mainland in Late Minoan III (LM IIIA2 to LM IIIC). Athens. Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1996. Minoans in Mainland Greece, Mycenaeans in Crete? Cretan Studies 5:63-­71. ICS Periodicals Doxey, D. 1987. Causes and Effects of the Fall of Knossos in 1375 B.C. OJA 6:301-­24. Driessen, J. 1998-­1999. Kretes and Iawones: Some Observations on the Identity of Late Bronze Age Knossians. In, J. Bennet and J. Driessen (eds) A-­na-­qo-­ta. Studies Presented to J. T. Killen. Minos 33-­34:83-­105. Driessen, J. 2000. The Scribes of the Room of the Chariot Tablets at Knossos: Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of a Linear B Deposit. (Minos Supplement 15) Salamanca. Main ANCIENT HISTORY Driessen, J. 2001. 'Centre and periphery: some observations on the administration of the kingdom of Knossos.' In, S. Voutsaki and J.T. Killen (eds) Economy and Politics in the Mycenaean Palace States. (Supplementary Volume 27) Cambridge:96-­111. Driessen, J. and A. Farnoux. 1994. Mycenaeans at Malia? Aegean Archaeology 1:54-­64. Driessen, J. and A. Farnoux (eds). 1997. La Crète mycénienne. (BCH Supplément 30) Athènes. 'ULHVVHQ-DQG$)DUQRX[µ/D&UHWHYDXWELHQXQHPHVVH¶'RPLQDWLRQDQGµFROODERUDWLRQ¶
on Mycenaean Crete. Pepragmena tou H' Diethnous Kritologikou Synedriou. A1.431-­8. Institute of Classical Studies. Driessen, J. and C. MacDonald. 1984. Some Military Aspects of the Aegean in the Late Fifteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries B.C. BSA 79:49-­74. Driessen, J. and I. Schoep. 1999. 'The Stylus and the Sword: The Roles of Scribes and Warriors in the Conquest of Crete.' In, R. Laffineur (ed.) POLEMOS: Le contexte guerrier en Égée á l'âge du Bronze. (Aegaeum 19) Liège:389-­401. Hallager, E. 1978. The history of the palace at Knossos in the Late Minoan period. SMEA 19:17-­
33. Main COMP PHIL Hallager, E. 1987. The Inscribed Stirrup Jars: Implications for Late Minoan IIIB Crete. AJA 91:171-­
90. 26 Hallager, E. 2005. The uniformity in seal use and sealing practice during the LH/LM III period. In, $/'¶$JDWDDQG-0RRG\HGV$ULDGQH¶V7KUHads: Connections between Crete and the Greek Mainland in Late Minoan III (LM IIIA2 to LM IIIC). Athens:243275. Haskell, H. 1997. Mycenaeans at Knossos: patterns in the evidence. In, J. Driessen, and A. Farnoux (eds.) La Crète mycénienne. (BCH Supplément 30) Athènes:187-­93. Haskell, H. 2005. Region to region export of transport stirrup jars from LM IIIA2/B Crete. In, A.L. '¶$JDWD DQG - 0RRG\ HGV $ULDGQH¶V Threads: Connections between Crete and the Greek Mainland in Late Minoan III (LM IIIA2 to LM IIIC). Athens:205-­41. Haskell, H., R. Jones, P. Day and J. Killen. 2011. Transport Stirrup Jars of the Bronze Age Aegean and East Mediterranean, (Prehistory Monographs 33) Philadelphia. Hatzaki, E. 2004. From Final palatial to Postpalatial Knossos: a view from the Late Minoan II to Late Minoan IIIB town. In, G. Cadogan, E. Hatzaki and A. Vasilakis (eds.) Knossos: Palace, City, State. London:121-­6. Hatzaki, E. 2005. Postpalatial Knossos: town and cemeteries from LMIIIA to LMIIIC. In, A.-­L. D'Agata and J. Moody (eds) Ariande's threads. Athens:65-­97. Langohr, C. 2009. ƴİǏLjijƿǏİLjĮeWXGHUpJLRQDOHGHOD&UqWHDX[0LQRHQ5pFHQW,,-­IIIB (1450-­1200 av. J.-­C.), Volume 1. La Crète centrale et occidentale. Louvain-­la-­Neuve. Niemeier, W.-­D. 1982. Mycenaean Knossos and the Age of Linear B. SMEA 23:219-­88. Main COMP PHIL B25 STU;; ICS Periodicals Niemeier, W.-­D. 1983. The character of the Knossian palace society in the second half of the fifteenth century B.C.: Mycenaean or Minoan? Minoan Society. Proceedings of the Cambridge Colloquium 1981. O. Krzyszkowska and L. Nixon (eds) Bristol:217-­36. Nowicki, K. 2000. Defensible sites in Crete c. 1200-­800 BC. (Aegaeum 21). Liege. Palaima, T.G. 1984. Inscribed stirrup jars and regionalism in Linear B Crete. SMEA 25:189-­203. Main COMP PHIL B25 STU;; ICS Periodicals Pantou, P. 2015. (De)constructing identities through architecture I LMIII Crete. In, S. Cappel, U. Gunkel-­Maschek and D. Panagiotopoulos (eds.) Minoan Archaeology. Perspectives for the 21 st century. Leuven:135-­48. Peatfield, A. 1994. After the `Big Bang' -­ What? Or Minoan Symbols and Shrines beyond Palatial Collapse. In, S. Alcock and R. Osborne (eds) Placing the Gods. Sanctuaries and Sacred Space in Ancient Greece. Clarendon Press, Oxford:19-­36. Perna, K. 2009. Cultural identity and social interaction in Crete at the end of the Bronze Age (LM IIIC). In, C. Bachhuber and R.G. Roberts (eds) Forces of transformation: the end of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean. Oxford:39-­43. Popham, M. 1980. Cretan Sites Occupied between c. 1450 and 1400 B.C. BSA 75:163-­7. Popham, M. 1994. Late Minoan II to the end of the Bronze Age. In, D. Evely, H. Hughes-­Brock and N. Momigliano (eds) Knossos: A Labyrinth of History. Papers in Honour of Sinclair Hood. Oxford:89-­102. 3UHVWRQ / µ0RUWXDU\ SUDFWLFHV DQG WKH QHJRWLDWLRQ RI VRcial identities at Late Minoan II .QRVVRV¶BSA 94:131-­143. Preston, L. 2004. 'A mortuary perspective on political changes in Late Minoan II-­IIIB Crete.' American Journal of Archaeology 108:321-­48. 5HKDN 3 DQG -* <RXQJHU µ1HRSDODWLDO )LQDO 3DODWLDO DQG 3RVWSDODWLDO &UHWH¶ American Journal of Archaeology 102:91-­173. Reprinted with update. In, T. Cullen (ed.) 2001. Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1.) Rutter, J. 1999. Cretan external relations during LMIIIA2-­B (ca. 1370-­1200 BC): a view from the Mesara. In, W. Phelps, Y. Lolos and Y. Vichos (eds) The Point Iria wreck: interconnections in the Mediterranean, ca. 1200 BC. Athens:139-­186. Rutter, J. 2005. Southern triangles revisited: Lakonia, Messenia, and Crete in the 14th-­12th Centuries BC. In, $/ '¶$JDWD DQG - 0RRG\ HGV $ULDGQH¶V 7KUHDGV &RQQHFWLRQV EHWZHHQ
Crete and the Greek Mainland in Late Minoan III (LM IIIA2 to LM IIIC). Athens:17-­64. Shelmerdine, C. 1992. Historical and Economic Considerations in Interpreting Myceneaen Texts. In, J.-­P. Olivier (ed.) Mykenaïka. Actes du IXe Colloque international sur les textes mycéniens et égéens. (BCH Suppl. 25.) Paris:569-­90. Smith, R.A. 2005. Minoans, Mycenaeans and Mokhlos: the formation of regional identity in Late Minoan III Crete. In, $/'¶$JDWDDQG-0RRG\HGV$ULDGQH¶V7KUHDGV&RQQHFWLRQVEHWZHHQ
Crete and the Greek Mainland in Late Minoan III (LM IIIA2 to LM IIIC). Athens:185-­204. 6ROHV-7KH5LWXDOµ.LOOLQJ¶RI3RWWHU\DQGWKH'LVcovery of a Mycenaean Telestas at Mochlos. In, P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur, and W.-­D. Niemeier (eds) Meletemata: Studies in Aegean Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as He Enters His 65th Year. Vol. III. Liège:787-­92. 7VLSRSRXORX 0 µ0\FHQRDQV¶ DW WKH LVWKPXV RI ,HUDSHWUD VRPH SUHOLPLQDU\ WKRXJKWV RQ
the foundation of the (Eteo)Cretan cultural identity. In, $/ '¶$JDWD DQG - 0RRG\ (eds) $ULDGQH¶V 7KUHDGV &RQQHFWLRQVEHWZHHQ&UHWHDQGWKH*UHHN0DLQODQGLQ/DWH0LQRDQ,,,/0
IIIA2 to LM IIIC). Athens:303-­52. Wallace, S.. 2006. The gilded cage? Settlement and socioeconomic change after 1200 BC: a comparison of Crete and other Aegean regions. In, S. Deger-­Jalkotzy and I. Lemos (eds) 27 Ancient Greece: from the Mycenaean palaces to the Age of Homer. (Edinburgh Leventis Studies 3). Edinburgh:619-­64. Wallace, S. 2010. Ancient Crete. From successful collapse to democracy's alternatives, twelfth to fifth centuries BC. Cambridge. Watrous, L.V., and H. Blitzer. 1997. Central Crete in LM II-­IIIB1: The Archaeological Background of the Knossos Tablets. In, J. Driessen, and A. Farnoux (eds.) La Crète mycénienne. (BCH Supplément 30) Athènes:511-­6. 4 On-­line and other resources Course administration Further important information relating to all courses at the Institute of Archaeology is to be found on the Institute website and in your degree handbook. It is your responsibility to read and if relevant act on it. On-­line support The on-­line Moodle site for this course (accessed as ARCLG195) will eventually have the course handbook, the Powerpoints used in the seminars, Powerpoints used in the past in parallel undergraduate lectures, which assemble a wide range of relevant images, and pdfs of less readily accessible essential readings. Please use normal e-­mail, not via Moodle, for communication with the Course Co-­ordinator. Intercollegiate students should contact the Academic Administrator (Judy Medrington <[email protected]>;; room 411a) to be registered for a college IS username and password to be able to access on-­line resources. Information for intercollegiate and interdepartmental students Students enrolled in Departments outside the Institute should collect hard copy of the ,QVWLWXWH¶V FRXUVHZRUN JXLGHOLQHV IURP WKH RIILFH RI WKH $FDGHPLF $GPLQLVWUDWRU -XG\
Medrington) 411a. General resources The following information can help you to become familiar with the scope of the subject and some of the questions and sites that we shall be exploring, and help you explore more widely in the field. Introductory volumes: Warren, P.M. 1989. The Aegean Civilisations (revised edition;; short book-­length introduction). Issue desk WAR;; DAG 10 Qto WAR;; YATES Qto A 22 WAR Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age (long the standard textbook, organised by themes rather than periods). IoA Issue Desk DIC;; DAE 100 DIC. Fitton, J.L. 2002. Minoans. London: British Museum. DAG 14 FIT. Bennet, J. 2014. A Short History of the Minoans. London: I.B. Tauris On order. Schofield, L. 2007. The Mycenaeans. London: British Museum. DAE 100 SCH. Runnels, C. and P. Murray. 2001. Greece Before History: An Archaeological Companion and Guide. [DAE 100 RUN] Bintliff, J.L. 2012. The Complete Archaeology of Greece. From hunter-­gatherers to the 20th century A.D. Oxford: Wiley-­Blackwell. DAE 100 BIN. An overview of the broader chrconological context. Recent short surveys of the field %HQQHW - µ7KH $HJHDQ %URQ]H $JH¶ LQ : 6FKHLGHO , 0RUULV DQG 5 6DOOHU HGV The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-­Roman World:175-­210. [TC 3635;; Main ANCIENT HISTORY M 64 SCH] 7DUWDURQ 7 µ$HJHDQ SUHKLVWRU\ DV ZRUOG DUFKDHRORJ\ UHFHQW WUHQGV LQ WKH DUFKDHology of %URQ]H$JH*UHHFH¶Journal of Archaeological Research 16: 83-­161. [INST ARCH Pers;; <www>] Historiographical surveys Fitton, J.L. 1995. The Discovery of the Greek Bronze Age. [DAE 100 FIT] McDonald, W.A. and C. Thomas 1990. Progress into the Past: The Rediscovery of Mycenaean Civilization. (2nd edition.) [DAG 100 MAC] Cherry, J.F., D. Margomenou and L. Talalay (eds) 2005. Prehistorians Round the Pond: Reflections on Aegean Prehistory as a Discipline. 28 Darcque, P., Fotiadis, M, and O. Polychronopoulou (eds) 2006. Mythos. La préhistoire égéene du XIXe au XXIe siècle après J.-­C. (Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique Supplement 46.) Athens. Hamilakis, Y. and N. Momigliano (eds) 2006. Archaeology and European Modernity. Producing and consuming the Minoans. (Creta Antica 7.) Padua. Recent handbooks Cline, E. (ed.) 2010. The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-­1000 BC). Oxford: OUP. [ISSUE DESK IoA CLI 2] Shelmerdine, C. (ed.) 2008. The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge: CUP. [ISSUE DESK IoA SHE 16;; DAG 100 SHE] Collections of high-­quality photographs of Aegean material culture and sites: Buchholz, H.-­G. and V. Karageorghis 1973. Prehistoric Greece and Cyprus: An Archaeological Handbook. [DAG 100 BUC] Marinatos, S. and M. Hirmer 1960. Crete and Mycenae. [DAG 100 Qto MAR] Myers, J.W., E.E. Myers and G. Cadogan 1992. The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete. [DAG 14 Qto MYE;; YATES Qto E 10 MYE] Surveys of Aegean art and related material Betancourt, P. 2007. Introduction to Aegean Art. [DAG 300 BET] Doumas, C. 1992. The Wall Paintings of Thera. [ISSUE DESK IoA THE] Higgins, R. 1997. Minoan and Mycenaean Art. [YATES A 22 HIG] Krzyszkowska, O. 2005. Aegean Seals: An Introduction. [ISSUE DESK IoA KRZ;; INST ARCH KG KRZ]] Preziosi, D. and L.A. Hitchcock 1999. Aegean Art and Architecture. [DAG 100 PRE] McEnroe, John C. 2010. Architecture of Minoan Crete: Constructing Identity in the Aegean Bronze Age. Austin: University of Texas Press. [INST ARCH DAG 14 Qto MCE] Poursat, Jean-­Claude. 2008. L'art égéen,. Volume 1: Grèce, Cyclades, Crète jusqu'au milieu du IIe millénaire av. J.-­C. Les manuels d'art d'archéologie antiques Paris: Picard. [INST ARCH DAG 100 Qto POU] Pottery handbooks Betancourt, P. 1985. The History of Minoan Pottery. [DAG 14 BET;; YATES Qtos P 20 BET] Momigliano, N. (ed.) 2007. Knossos Pottery Handbook. Neolithic and Bronze Age (Minoan). [DAG 14 Qto MOM] Macdonald, C. and C. Knappett (eds.) Intermezzo: intermediacy and regeneration in Middle Minoan III palatial Crete. Athens: British School at Athens. [INST ARCH DAG 14 Qto MAC] Brogan, T. and E. Hallager (eds.) 2011. LMIB pottery: relative chronology and regional differences. Athens: Danish Institute at Athens. [INST ARCH DAG 14 BRO] Hallager, E. and B. Hallager (eds.) 1997. Late Minoan III pottery: chronology and terminology. Athens: Danish Institute at Athens. [YATES Qto P 20 HAL] Mountjoy, P.-­A. 1999. Regional Mycenaean Decorated Pottery. Rahden: Marie Leidorf. [INST ARCH DAE Qto MOU] Mountjoy, P.-­A. 1993. Mycenaean Pottery: an introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology. [INST ARCH DAG 300 MOU] Mountjoy, P.-­A. 1986. Mycenaean Decorated Pottery: a guide to identification. Goteborg: Astroms Forlag. [INST ARCH DAG Qto Series STU 73] The following UK museums have major holdings of prehistoric Aegean material: ‡ %ULWLVK 0XVHXP WKH $HJHDQ JDOOHU\ WR WKH OHIW RI WKH PDLQ HQWUDQFH, past the shop and coat check. ‡ $VKPROHDQ 0XVHXP 2[IRUG H[FHOOHQW FROOHFWLRQV EDVHG RQ $UWKXU (YDns' personal collection, recently re-­displayed. ‡)LW]ZLOOLDP0XVHXP&DPEULGJHPRUHPRGHVWEXWXVHIXOLI\RXDUHLQWKHDUHD ‡,QDGGLWLRQWKHUHLVDVPDOOFROOHFWLRQRIPDWHULDOKHOGZLWKLQWKH,QVWLWXWHVRPHRQGLVSOD\LQWKH
Leventis Gallery on the ground floor. Additional resources on the prehistoric Aegean The American Journal of Archaeology published seven reviews of Aegean prehistory, region-­by-­
region. These are excellent sources of information and have been brought together and importantly, each up-­dated with an addendum. In T. Cullen (ed.) 2001 Aegean Prehistory: A Review (American Journal of Archaeology Supplement 1) [ISSUE DESK CUL 4;; DAG 100 CUL]. The original individual reviews are listed below, and can be accessed in the journal [STORES], or via e-­journal. 'DYLV-/µ5HYLHZRI$HJHDQ3UHKLVWRU\,7KHLVODQGVRIWKH$HJHDQ¶ American Journal of Archaeology 96:699-­756. TC 500. 29 5XWWHU-%µ5HYLHZRI$HJHDQ3UHKLVWRU\,,7KHSUHSDODWLDO%URQ]H$JHRIWKHVRXWKHUQDQG
ceQWUDO*UHHNPDLQODQG¶American Journal of Archaeology 97:745-­97. TC 538. :DWURXV /9 µ5HYLHZ RI $HJHDQ 3UHKLVWRU\ ,,, &UHWH IURP HDUOLHVW SUHKLVWRU\ WKURXJK WKH
3URWRSDODWLDOSHULRG¶American Journal of Archaeology 98:695-­753. Runnels, C. 1995. µ5HYLHZRI$HJHDQ3UHKLVWRU\,97KH6WRQH$JHRI*UHHFHIURPWKH3DODHROLWKLF
WRWKHDGYHQWRIWKH1HROLWKLF¶American Journal of Archaeology 99:699-­728. $QGUHRX60)RWLDGLVDQG..RWVDNLVµ5HYLHZRI$HJHDQ3UHKLVWRU\97KH1HROLWKLFDQG
BrRQ]H$JHRI1RUWKHUQ*UHHFH¶American Journal of Archaeology 100:537-­97. 6KHOPHUGLQH&:µ5HYLHZRI$HJHDQ3UHKLVWRU\9,7KHSDODWLDO%URQ]H$JHRIWKHVRXWKHUQ
DQGFHQWUDO*UHHNPDLQODQG¶American Journal of Archaeology 101:537-­85. Rehak, P. aQG-*<RXQJHUµ5HYLHZRI$HJHDQ3UHKLVWRU\9,,1HRSDODWLDO)LQDO3DODWLDODQG
3RVWSDODWLDO&UHWH¶American Journal of Archaeology 102:91-­173. Overall bibliographies with topic-­oriented subdivisions Dickinson, O.T.P.K. 1994. The Aegean Bronze Age. ISSUE DESK DIC;; DAE 100 DIC. Feuer, B. 2004. Mycenaean Civilization: A Research Guide (Second edition.) INST ARCH DAE 100 FEU. Nestor, produced by the Department of Classics at Cincinnati, is a monthly list of publications in Aegean prehistory and related areas. It is available as an extremely useful on-­line searchable cumulative index (see below) for 1956-­2013. The issues for 2009-­13 can be down-­loaded from: <http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/index.php/issues>. Site gazetteers Hope Simpson, R. and O.T.P.K. Dickinson 1979. A Gazetteer of Aegean Civilisation in the Bronze Age: Volume 1, The Mainland and Islands. DAG Qto STU 52. Myers, J.W., E.E. Myers and G. Cadogan 1992. The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete. DAG 14 Qto MYE;; YATES Qto E 10 MYE. Simantoni-­Bourina, E and L. Mendoni 1999. Archaeological Atlas of the Aegean: From Prehistory to Late Antiquity. DAG 100 DOU. Bibliographies for many sites may be chased through the now dated but still useful volumes produced by Noyes Press: Leekley, D. and Noyes, R. 1976. Archaeological Excavations in Southern Greece. DAE 10 LEE Leekley, D. and Noyes, R. 1976. Archaeological Excavations in the Greek Islands. DAE 10 LEE Leekley, D. and Efstratiou, N. 1976. Archaeological Excavations in Central and Northern Greece. DAE 10 LEE Reports on recent archaeological work Archaeological Reports INST ARCH Pers and <http://uk.jstor.org/journals/05706084.html> and the µ&KURQLTXH GHV )RXLOOHV¶ LQFOXGHG LQ WKH Bulletin de correspondance héllenique summarise work in Greece each year. Inst Arch Periodicals and, for BCH: <http://www.efa.gr/> follow links to CEFAEL and BCH;; Archaeological Reports ZDV SXEOLVKHG XQWLO FD DV µ$UFKDHRORJ\ LQ
*UHHFH¶ LQ WKH Journal of Hellenic Studies Main CLASSICS Periodicals and <http://uk.jstor.org/journals/00754269.html>. Both institutions now jointly produce Archaeology in Greece Online: < http://chronique.efa.gr/?cat_id=27>. Series Several conference or monograph series focus on Aegean prehistory. The Swedish Institute at Athens organised thematic conferences, many on prehistoric themes, most edited by Robin Hägg and co-­editors. These are somewhat superseded by the biennial conferences organised by Robert Laffineur and colleagues, and published in the series Aegaeum;; other conferences and monographs are also published in this series. For more than a decade, an excellent series of thematic volumes have come out of an annual Round Table at Sheffield University. A series of conferences have been organised around the site of Akrotiri on Thera, and its interconnections with the rest of the Aegean. Finally, the Mycenaean Seminar of the University of London has run an annual series of lectures for 60 years;; abstracts appear in the Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies <www>. In addition to the Aegaeum series, many Aegean prehistory volumes have been published as Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology (SIMA) or SIMA-­Pocket Books, or over the last three decades by British Archaeological Reports (BAR). Monograph series have been established by various institutions and journals, such as the Institute for Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP), British School at Athens, Archaeological Society of Athens, Hesperia, American Journal of Archaeology, and Bulletin de correspondance héllenique. Most are indexed and shelved in the Institute library individually as books. Electronic journals Most of the journals from which readings have been prioritised, are available in the library of the Institute. For most only the last 20 years are on the shelves;; earlier volumes can be requested 30 from store, on-­line through UCL Explore. The location of holdings for each journal can be ascertained using Explore. Journals which have articles on the reading lists are generally available on-­line, which you will have access to (short of the last 2-­5 years) if you locate them via the UCL library web-­site and your UCL account. The most recent issues (not available on-­line for some journals) are held physically in the library. Websites and other internet resources An increasing number of resources are available on the web, but should be used with caution;; PDQ\DUHHQWKXVLDVWV¶VLWHVZLWKKROLGD\VQDSVDQGVRPHDUHZRUVHQRWHWKDWWKHUHLVQRYHWWLQJ
system on the web (unlike academic publications). You should be extremely cautious about relying on information from web-­sites, and should not, normally, use them as citation sources for your essays. If you feel information from a website is essential and you cannot track it back to an original printed source, ask the Course Co-­ordinator whether it is reputable, before relying on it it. Many current field projects maintain their own websites, which may provide more up-­to-­date information than has appeared in print. These can be found by Googling the site name (beware of alternative spellings, particularly transliterations of Greek names). Many museums are increasingly putting images and details of their holdings on the web -­ VHDUFKIRUWKHVSHFLILFPXVHXP¶VZHE-­site to see what is available. General sites with useful links are: Aegean Prehistory: lots of relevant links: <http://www.geocities.com/andreavi/frame.htm> Mediterranean Archaeology Resources: useful set of links to journals and organisations <http://www.geocities.com/i_georganas/main.html> Internet Resources for Classics: <http://www.sms.org/mdl-­indx/internet.htm> Hellenic Ministry of Culture: <http://www.culture.gr/> links for individual sites and museums. Nestor: <http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/>. Home site, with links < http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/index.php/links> and bibliographic database search < http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/index.php/nestorbib>. Classics and Mediterranean Archaeology: <http://classics.lsa.umich.edu/welcome.html>. Kapatija: <http://www.people.ku.edu/~jyounger/Kapatija/> is a collection of web links, relevant to Aegean prehistory, Classics, and Near Eastern Archaeology. American School of Classical Studies: <http://www.ascsa.edu.gr/> with links to projects <http://www.ascsa.edu.gr/Excavations/Exc_links.htm>. Perseus: <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/> a Classics teaching resource;; maps and images. INSTAP East Crete Study Centre: <http://www2.forthnet.gr/instapec/>. Metis: < http://www.stoa.org/metis/> interactive panoramic views of sites. Jeremy Rutter has introductory material by topic for his Dartmouth College undergraduate course available at: <http://projectsx.dartmouth.edu/history/bronze_age/>. Each lesson/topic has attached a useful bibliography and range of images. The Nestor website has a search facility < http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/index.php/nestorbib> which can be extremely useful for finding references for Aegean publications from 1956-­2008;; it is not comprehensive, but is strong for the English language literature, and can be searched by author, title words, journal, book title or year. It adds 500-­800 publications per year. The issues for 2009-­11 can be down-­loaded from: <http://classics.uc.edu/nestor/index.php/issues>. Studies in Mycenaean Inscriptions and Dialect: A collection of resources on Aegean scripts: <http://paspserver.class.utexas.edu/> External seminars and lectures A wide range of lectures and seminars takes place in the Institute, or at venues nearby in Bloomsbury (e.g. Institute of Classical Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, British Museum). Approximately monthly within the academic teaching year, the Mycenaean Seminar takes place in the Institute of Classical Studies. These are held in Senate House South Block Ground Floor G22/26 at 3:30 unless otherwise stated. The schedule for the rest of this year is: 20 January Peter Tomkins (Leuven) Title to be confirmed 17 February Dimitri Nakassis (Toronto) Digital Nestor: Aegean scripts in the 21st century 16 March Birgitta Eder (Vienna) Kakovatos in Triphylia (Peloponnese): rise and fall of an Early Mycenaean site 18 May Georgia Flouda (Herakleion) Title to be confirmed 31 5 Additional information Libraries In addition to the Library of the Institute of Archaeology, other libraries in UCL with holdings of particular relevance to this degree are the UCL Main Library (specifically in Ancient History or Classics) and the DMS Watson Science Library. It is also worth obtaining access to the library of the Institute of Classical Studies (ICS) in Senate House in Malet Street, a 5-­minute walk away. Collect a registration fRUPIURPWKH,&6/LEUDU\¶V
front desk and bring it to the Course Co-­ordinator for signing, by which he vouches for WKHUHDGHU¶VJRRGFRQGXFW Information for intercollegiate and interdepartmental students Students enrolled in Departments outside the Institute should collect hard copy of the ,QVWLWXWH¶V FRXUVHZRUN JXLGHOLQHV IURP WKH office of the Academic Administrator (Judy Medrington) 411A. Feedback In trying to make this degree as effective as possible, we welcome feedback during the course of the year. Students will be asked to fill-­in Progress Forms at the end of each term, which the Degree Co-­ordinator will discuss with them. These forms include space for comment on each of their courses. At the end of each course all students are asked to give their views on the course in an anonymous questionnaire, which will be distributed at one of the last sessions of the course. These questionnaires are taken seriously and help the Course Co-­
ordinator to develop the course. The summarised responses are considered by the Course Co-­ordinator, Degree Co-­RUGLQDWRU WKH ,QVWLWXWH¶V 6WDII-­Student Consultative Committee, Teaching Committee, and by the Faculty Teaching Committee. If students are concerned about any aspect of a specific course, we hope they will feel able to talk to the Course Co-­ordinator, but if they feel this is not appropriate or have more general concerns, they should consult their Degree Co-­ordinator or the Graduate Tutors (Andrew Bevan and Kathy Tubb). They may also consult the Academic Administrator (Judy Medrington), the Chair of Teaching Committee (Karen Wright), or the Director (Sue Hamilton). Tutor The Course Co-­ordinator is Todd Whitelaw (room 207;; 020 7679 7534;; [email protected];; e-­mail for appointment). He prefers to be contacted by e-­mail, NOT by telephone except in emergencies (he is in and out of his office much of the day). Please use normal e-­mail, not via Moodle. 32 A PP E N D I X : P O L I C I ES A N D PR O C E D U R ES 2015-16 (P L E ASE R E A D C A R E F U L L Y)
This appendix provides a short précis of policies and procedures relating to courses. It is not a substitute for the
full documentation, with which all students should become familiar. For full information on Institute policies and
procedures, see the following website: http://wiki.ucl.ac.uk/display/archadmin.
For UCL policies and procedures, see the Academic Regulations and the UCL Academic Manual:
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/srs/academic-regulations; http://www.ucl.ac.uk/academic-manual/.
G E N E R A L M A T T E RS
A T T E N D A N C E: A minimum attendance of 70% is required. A register will be taken at each class. If you are
unable to attend a class, please notify the lecturer by email.
D YSL E X I A: If you have dyslexia or any other disability, please discuss with your lecturers whether there is any
way in which they can help you. Students with dyslexia should indicate it on each coursework cover sheet.
C O U RSE W O R K
SU B M ISSI O N PR O C E D U R ES: You must submit a hard copy of coursework to the Co-ordinator's pigeonhole via the Red Essay Box at Reception by the stated deadlines. Coursework must be stapled to a completed
coversheet (available from the IoA website, the rack outside Room 411A, or the Library). You should put your
C andidate Number (a 5 digit alphanumeric code, found on Portico; please note that this number changes each
year) and Course Code on all coursework. It is also essential that you put your C andidate Number at the
start of the title line on T urnitin, followed by a short identifier for the coursewor k (example: YBPR6
_G193_Assessment_1).
L A T E SU B M ISSI O N: Late submission is penalized in accordance with UCL regulations, unless permission for
late submission has been granted. The penalties are as follows: i) A penalty of 5 percentage marks should be
applied to coursework submitted the calendar day after the deadline (calendar day 1); ii) A penalty of 15
percentage marks should be applied to coursework submitted on calendar day 2 after the deadline through to
calendar day 7; iii) A mark of zero should be recorded for coursework submitted on calendar day 8 after the
deadline through to the end of the second week of third term. Nevertheless, the assessment will be considered to
be complete provided the coursework contains material than can be assessed; iv) Coursework submitted after the
end of the second week of third term will not be marked and the assessment will be incomplete.
G R A N T I N G O F E X T E NSI O NS: New UCL-wide regulations with regard to the granting of extensions for
coursework have been introduced with effect from the 2015-16 session. Full details will be circulated to all
students and will be made available on the IoA intranet. Note that Course Coordinators are no longer permitted
to grant extensions. All requests for extensions must be submitted on a new UCL form, together with supporting
documentation, via -XG\0HGULQJWRQ¶VRIILFHDQG will then be referred on for consideration. Please be aware that
the grounds that are now acceptable are limited. Those with long-term difficulties should contact UCL Student
Disability Services to make special arrangements.
T U R N I T I N: Date-stamping is via Turnitin, so in addition to submitting hard copy, you must also submit your
wor k to T urnitin by midnight on the deadline day. If you have questions or problems with Turnitin, contact
[email protected]
R E T U R N O F C O U RSE W O R K A N D R ESU B M ISSI O N: You should receive your marked coursework within
four calendar weeks of the submission deadline. If you do not receive your work within this period, or a written
explanation for the delay, notify the Academic Administrator. When your marked essay is returned to you, return
it to the Course Co-ordinator within two weeks. You must retain a copy of all coursework submitted.
W O R D L E N G T H: Essay word-lengths are normally expressed in terms of a recommended range. Not included
in the word count are the bibliography, appendices, tables, graphs, captions to figures, tables, graphs. You must
indicate word length (minus exclusions) on the cover sheet. Exceeding the maximum word-length expressed for
the essay will be penalized in accordance with UCL penalties for over-length work.
C I T I N G O F SO U R C ES and A V O I D I N G P L A G I A R ISM : Coursework must be expressed in your own words,
citing the exact source (author, date and page number; website address if applicable) of any ideas, information,
diagrams, etc., that are taken from the work of others. This applies to all media (books, articles, websites, images,
figures, etc.). A ny direct quotations from the wor k of others must be indicated as such by being placed
between quotation mar ks, and the original source indicated. Plagiarism is a very serious examination
irregularity, which can carry heavy penalties. It is your responsibility to abide by requirements for presentation,
referencing and avoidance of plagiarism. Make sure you understand definitions of plagiarism and the procedures
and penalties as detailed in UCL regulations: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/current-students/guidelines/plagiarism R ESO U R C ES
M O O D L E: Please ensure you are signed up to the course on Moodle. For help with Moodle, please contact
Judy Medrington, Room 411a ([email protected]).
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