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5.3

Summarize United States foreign policies in
different regions of the world during the early
twentieth century, including the purposes and
effects of the Open Door policy with China, the
United States role in the Panama Revolution,
Theodore Roosevelt’s “big stick diplomacy,”
William Taft’s “dollar diplomacy,” and Woodrow
Wilson’s “moral diplomacy” and changing
worldwide perceptions of the United States.
FOREIGN POLICY AFTER THE SPANISHAMERICAN WAR
 ***The
end of the 19th century (1800s)
marked a new era in U.S. foreign policy or
relations with foreign nations.
 The
United States really wanted to be able
to trade with China, but other European
imperialist nations had carved China into
“spheres of influence” and the U.S was
locked out of this trade.
 The
United States soon began to insist on
an ***Open Door Policy. This would
leave Chinese ports open to trade with any
nation.
***THE OPEN DOOR POLICY WAS
NOT DESIGNED TO HELP CHINA
JUST OPEN UP NEW ECONOMIC
MARKETS FOR US GOODS
THE BOXER REBELLION
A
group of Chinese nationalists who
wanted to rid China of everything
western. They called themselves the “fists
of righteous harmony”
 The
Boxers killed 300 foreigners and over
300 Chinese Christians and forced the
U.S. to send troops to stop the rebellion.
 This
allowed the U.S. to reaffirm the Open
Door Policy.
THE BOXER REBELLION
DEALING WITH JAPAN
 Between
1894 and 1905 Japan began
asserting itself in Southeast Asia.
 The Japanese successfully launched wars
against both Russia and China.
 President Roosevelt felt that the Japanese
could not be trusted so he sent a show of
strength (the United States Navy) with the
ships painted white made ports of call
around the Pacific including Japan.
Roosevelt wanted the Japanese to see U.S.
strength and think twice about aggressive
moves against the Philippines.
THE PANAMA CANAL
***Roosevelt envisioned a canal through
Central America that would allow the United
States to move its warships from one Ocean to
the next. It would also serve U.S. economic
interests as ships would not have to go
around South America.
 Unfortunately, the Colombian government refused
to lease or sell the land necessary for the project.
 Then in 1903, the Panamanian people revolted
against the Colombians and Roosevelt responded
by providing U.S. naval support that helped the
Panamanians win their independence.
 ***In return the Panamanians allowed the
U.S. to lease land needed for the canal.
Construction got underway in 1905 and the
Panama Canal was completed in 1914.

THE ROOSEVELT COROLLARY OR
“BIG STICK DIPLOMACY”

Many nations in the Caribbean and Central and South
America owed money to European nations. Roosevelt
was afraid that the European nations would take over
this nations for debt collection.
Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
Doctrine. The doctrine ***said, that the United States
had the right to intervene in any nation militarily
with any country in the region that could not pay
its debts.
 ***Because Roosevelt’s aggressive actions in foreign
policy the newspapers began calling his policies, Big
Stick Diplomacy.
 ***The name came from a West African Proverb that
Roosevelt once used, “Speak softly and carry a big
stick, and you will go far.”

WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT AND
DOLLAR DIPLOMACY
***Taft wanted to encourage foreign countries to
be friendly with the U.S. by buying influence. His
foreign policy became known as Dollar Diplomacy.
 The United States would maintain order in
nations abroad and control by investing heavily
in key businesses.
 Taft encouraged American businesses to invest in
Latin America and the Caribbean and wired money to
China to pay for railroads.
 Taft’s policies often caused huge losses for American
businesses and hard feeling in countries who resented
U.S. presence.

WOODROW WILSON &
MORAL/MISSIONARY DIPLOMACY
 In
1913 Woodrow Wilson became
President and renounced dollar
diplomacy.
 ***Wilson thought the U.S. should base
its foreign policy on the idealistic view
that it was the role of the United
States to promote democracy and
moral progress in the world.
 While this is what Wilson claimed he
wanted, he sent troops to protect U.S.
interests many times including a raid into
Mexico to a punish Mexican Rebel named
Pancho Villa.
ALL OF THESE POLICIES GOT THE
US MORE DEEPLY INVOLVED IN
AFFAIRS IN THE WESTERN
HEMISPHERE