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m 4ruumra \I r r m
Ms. O'Rourke
October 22,2010
gutline- 3 Phases of the French Revolution
to Up bprench Rewlu&&[Class
Notes 9/23/10)
-French King was in debt-lackfng funds (becausethey had helped out during the American Revolution); deficit spending
-Famine- poor harvest; cost of bread was rising
-Failed tax system/ economlc plan: thethlrd Estate had to pay all the taxes; whlle the First and Second Estate were
exempted from it
-Nobles threatened
-Peasant Problems
I. Great b a r 1789-1792: PHASE I
-Coincided with a famine: unemployment rates were increasing, while prices of bread were soaring; many peasants
barely earned enough to pay for food for their family.
A. A desperate period of time where rumors ran wild Instilling "feaf throughout the provinces of France.
1. 'Tales of attacks on villages and towns spread panic." (Textbook p. 473)
a, Angered peasants lashed out their anger on nobles who tried to Impose medieval dues
i. Attacked the homes of nobles
li. Set fire to manor records
Ill.Stole grain from storehouses
2. Rumors of government troops seizing crops belonging to peasants were being spread
3. France was in a chaotic state; people were scared and antlclpathg for what Is to become of the
0. Reforms of the National Assembly
-The call for the meeting of the General Estates, in hop= of reformation for the downfall of France, eventually led to the
formation of the National Assembly, as the Third Estate realized that their chance a t voicing their opinlons were limited
due to block voting.
1.A group formed by the f hird Estate in which they claimed to represent the people of France.
2. Polltical Reforms
a. Declaration of the Rights of Man
I."First step towards wrltlng a constltutlon" jTeKtbook p, 474)
Ii.All male citlzens were declared equal before the law.
ill.The right to hold a position in the public office was based upon virtue and talent
rather than social status.
Iv. Revived beliefs of natural rights, similar to the ideas of John Locke during the
b. Constitutlon of 1791
I.Established a limited monarchy in place of the absolute monarchy reign which rules
France for centuries. (Textbook p.475)
ii. Established Legislative Assembly
-"power to make Laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues of war and peace"
(Textbook p.475)
- all male citizens who pald thelr tares were allowed to elect the members of the
LegblaUve Assembly; but there was often competition for power wlthin
iii.Tried to form a more efficient government
- abolished the old provinces and reforms
3. Economic Reforms
a, To pay off the huge government debt, it was voted for Church lands to be sold
b. Taxes were lwled according to the citizens' ability to pay
c. Supported free trade
4. Social Reforms
a. Special privileges of the nobllity were abolished
b. Called for an end to feudalism
c. Urban workers were forbidden to organize labor unions
d. Protected private property
5. Religious Reforms
a. Freedom of rellglon was Imposed.
b. Civil Constitution of the Clergy
i. Issued in 1790
II. Ended papal authority over the French Church
ill. Put the French Church under state control
Iv. Priests and bishops were to be elected, and only received government salary
c. Reaction to the CCC
i. Many were angered and refused to accept this constitution
ii. The pope had condemned this constitution which caused many conservative/religious
peasants to also reject this constitution and rebel against the National Assembly.
iii.The clergy who refused to accept the CCC were punished by the gwernment
iv. Many commoners who were devoted and religious were doubtful of what was
happening because it their religion/ beliefs on the lines; many changes were
brought upon the French Church.
C. Women's' March on VersaHles
1. 'Thousands of women streamed down the road that led from Paris to Versailles" (Textbook
b. The purpose of this revolt was to bring King Louis XVI to Parls, where he could no longer
Ignore the people's sufferings.
D. Louis's Failed Flight- - - Reactions from Outslde of France
1.His failed attempt to escape Paris showed that he was a traitor to the revolution.
2. Declaration of Pilink
a. The king of Prussia and the emperor of Austria "threatened to intervene to protect the
French monarchy." (Textbook p. 477)
b. Caused uproar for the rwolutionarles since they toot the declaration seriously and
were prepared for war.
II. Reim of Terror: 1792-1m
-Terror was the new feeling being instilled, as there was a lack of control over the people, by the government.
A. Leading up to the Relgn of Terror
1. Peasants wanted more money
a. Wanted to be able to vote for legislature
2. Church upset by loss of land and status
3. Aristocraw was upset a t loss of privileges
4. Women, In general were upset by the fact that they did not have any son of rights
0. National Convention
1.Abolished the French monarchy and declared France a republic
2. Jacoblns
a. Controlled the Convention
b. Determined to erase all traces of the old order.
i. Seized the lands of the nobles and abolished their title.
C. The king and queen ( Louis and Marie Antoinette) were executed, beheaded.
0. Players (class notes 10/5/10)
1.Jacobins- urban, well educated, liberals, left-wing extremists
2, Girdondists- townspeople, well educated, moderate, left-wing
3. Sans Culottes- urban working class
4. Royalists- those loyal to the old order
E. Committee of Public Safety
1.It was created to deal wlth the threats to France
2.12 member committee who strived to save the revolution
3. Issued the Lwee en Masse
a. "Mass levy that required all citizen t o contribute to the war effom.*(Textbook p, 480)
f. Maximitien Robespierre 1758-1794
1.Was elected into the General Estates, where he began his rwolutlonary career
2. "Embraced Rousseau's idea of the general wilt as the source of all legltlmate law." (Textbook p. 480)
3. Promoted religious toleration
4. Wanted to abolish slavery
5.Believed that France could only reach a 'republic of virtue" through the use of terror {Textbook p. 480)
a. He defined terror as nothing more than " prompt, severe, inflexible injustice."
b. His idea of instilling terror, lead to more rebellion and revolts which resulted in the loss of
many lives.
i. Some died due to false accusations and mistaken identity
6. His own idea of instilling "terror" amongst the people soon backfired as he was eventually arrested
and executed.
6. Guillotine
1. Machine used in beheading/execution.
2. Bmame a symbol of horror.
3. Robespierrefelt the guillotine was necessary to achiwe the goals of the revolution. (Text. P. 481)
H. Religious Terror
1.De-Christianizatlon - replaced wlth nationalism
I. In piace of the National Convention, the Directory had been created. (1795-1799)
1.5-man Directory
2.2-houselegislature elected by male citizens who owned property.
3. Suppressed riots from the hungry sans-culottes
4. Faced threats due to revival of the royalist feelings
5. The Dir&ory was corrupt.
111. Napoleonic Era
- France was in a turmoil and a "Messianic" leader was needed
1.The economy was in a disaster
2. The Directory was being corrupt
3. There was no sense of control over the people.
A. Napoleon Bonaparte
I. Popular military hero who had won a series of victories
2. Keen insight into human nature, ambitious
3. Declared as "Man of Destiny"; believed he was destined to greatness
B. Reforms
l."Order, security, and efficiency replaced liberty, equality, and fraternity as the slogans ofthe new
regime." (Textbook p. 485)
2. Restored economic prosperity
a. Napoleon controlled prices, encouraged new industry, bult roads and canals. (p. 485)
b. Set up system of public school, under strict government control
c. Concordat of 1801- made peace with the Catholic Church
d, Recognized the rights of the peasants, and how their land got taken away from them by the
nobles and the Church.
e. Provided work,by openingjobs to all talents
C. Napoleonic Code (Textbook p. 4861
1.Positive-Included Enlightenment principles
a. equality for all citizens before the law
b. religious toleration
c. advancement based on merit
2. Negatives
a. Undid certain reforms of the French Rwolution
b. Women lost rights that they galned; did not have rights of citizenship
-Napoleon valued order and authority over Indlvldual rights.
D. Napoleon's Continental System
1.Closed European ports to Brltlsh goods.
2. An attempt to decrease the British resources
3. In the end, it failed to sabotage the British
E. Building an Empire
1.Controlled majority of Europe due to forceful diplomacy.
2. Napoleon put his friends and relativeson the throne.
a. Placed his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte on the throne
3. Forced alllances on European powers
4. Rapid movement and conqueringof land due to his large army
a. Developed new plans of attacks, that would not be anticipated.
F. Challenges to Napoleon's Empire
I. Nationalism was resented because peopk saw Napoleon's army as foreign oppressors and the
Continental System t o be a harmful damage to their country.
2. Resistance in Spain, war wlth Austria, and defeat in Russia all contributed to Napoleon's downfall.
3. Defeat in Trafalgar+ContinentaI System+Peninsula Campaign (nationalists drove the French
out)+Defeat in Russia+Wars of Liberation+Abdicate; exiled to Elba but he returned-+ I00
days+Waterloo+St. Helena.
G.Congress of Vienna Ifextbook p.472)
1.Diplomats and heads of state gathered to face the task of restoring stability in Europe after the
revolution and war
2. Goals
a. Y o create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of
3. Outcomes
a. Peacemakers reconstructedthe map of Europe, to balance power
b. Promoted the principle of legitimacy, by restoringthe hereditary monarch
c, Austria, Russla, Prussia, and Great Britain all signed the Quadruple Alliance
i. "Pledged to act together to maintain the balance of power and to suppress
revolutionary uprisings.
4. Leaders of the Vienna Meeting (ClassNotes 10/19/10)
a. Prince Klemens von Metternich [Austria)
b. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand {France)
c. Vlscount Castlereagh (Britain)
d. Tsar Alexander I [Russia)
e. King Frederick William Ill (Prussia)
5. Austria
a. Goals
-restore Status Quo of 1792
-has a key role in Congress of Vienna
- did not want another Napoleonic Europe
-gained land- expansion to Northern Italy
b. Outcome
-created Confederation wlth German states
-reconstructed map of Europe
-developed a power of balance
-gained back most of their land form Germany/ltaly
6. Prussia
a Goals
-wanted to obtain a harsh settle for the French
-main goal was to restore their poputation
b Outcome
-gained part of Poland
7. Russia
a Goals
-Holy Alliance-guide for rulers as to how to treat their subjects
-get a port In warmer water to boost industry
b Outcomes
-Joined Quadruple Alliance
8. France
a. Goals
-maintain peace
-restore the original boundarles and border
b. Outcomes
-created 2- house legislature
9. Britain
a. Goals
-limit Russla's power by limiting their land (prevent Russian expansion)
-prwent revival of military power
-balance of power
-unite Europe under British rule
b. Outcomes
-gained parts of West Indies
-became part of the Quadruple Alliance