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Transcript
One Stop Shop For Educators
The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks,
examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary for the Eighth Grade Social Studies Course.
Eighth Grade Unit #5 – “The Civil War”
Elaborated Unit Focus
This unit will focus on the actions of individuals, groups, and institutions of the
North and South and how they affected society in the United States. Students will realize
that conflict and change was a predominant theme and had a major impact on society
during the Civil War era. Planters struggled to find ways to maintain an established
lifestyle, Others of the south depended upon the success of the planter for their meager
livelihood For many, slavery became a moral struggle. Students will also acknowledge
the economic changes in Antebellum Georgia, during the Civil War, and through
Reconstruction in reference to production, distribution, consumption.
Standards/Elements
History:
SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on
Georgia.
a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include
slavery, states' rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and
the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the
debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens.
b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation
Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia's coast,
Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, Sherman's March to the Sea, and Andersonville.
c. Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states,
emphasizing Freedmen's Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction
plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and
black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan.
Economics:
SS8E1 The student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in
Georgia in different historical periods.
SS8E2 The student will explain the benefits of free trade.
a. Describe how Georgians have engaged in trade in different historical time periods.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 1 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
Enduring Understandings/Essential Questions
Conflict and Change: The student will understand that when there is conflict
between or within societies, change is the result.
• What key events contributed to deepening unrest and hostility in antebellum
America? (H6a)
• What key events were significant to the Civil War? (H6a,b)
• How did Reconstruction efforts and policies impact Georgia and other
southern states? (H6c)
Production, Distribution, Consumption: The student will understand that the
production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the
society are affected by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.
• How did the South’s economy change following the Civil War? (E1, E2a)
• How do sharecropping and tenant farming differ? (H6c)
• How did the Union strategies during the Civil War impact the economy of the
South and its ability to obtain resources? (H6b, E1,E2a)
Individuals, Groups, Institutions: The student will understand that the actions of
individuals, groups, and/or institutions affect society through intended and
unintended consequences.
• How did the KKK intimidate people in the South? (H6c)
• How did the Republicans and the Freedmen’s Bureau affect African
Americans? (H6c)
• How did resentment after the Civil War affect society? (H6c)
• How did the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution
affect all Americans, particularly African Americans? (H6c)
*NOTE: The balanced assessment plan included in this unit is presented as a series of
suggested activities. It is not expected that the teacher complete all assessments for a
successful unit.
Balanced Assessment Plan
Description of Assessment
Standard/
Type of
Element
Assessment
In 1830 Daniel Webster closed a debate with these words:
H6a
Constructed
“Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”
response,
Many issues in antebellum America were challenging these
dialogue
words. Complete the chart “One and inseparable” (Appendix
1) to show how many issues were threatening of liberty and
union and one and inseparable. Once all charts are complete,
share the information you each put on your chart with a partner
(a think-pair-share type activity). Now you are ready to
participate in a full class discussion on how the issues
identified threatened Webster’s words.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 2 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
With the class divided into two groups, proponents and
opponents, students will individually write statements in
support or in opposition to each of these items: slavery, states’
rights, nullification, the Missouri Compromise, the
Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Dred
Scott Decision, the election of 1860, Alexander Stephens, and
secession. Then working with a partner from their own
proponent or opponent group, students will compare their
statements and reword or combine their statements to make
one good statement for each of the events or people above.
They should then print each of their combined statements on
copy or construction paper. This should be large enough to
read from anywhere in the room. Call on a partnership to read
and display one of their statements without identifying the
topic to which it refers. As the class listens, students in the
opposing group should select their statement that shows the
opposite feeling about the subject. Call on several of those
partnerships to read their opposition statements. Use these
statements back and forth to conduct a class discussion
covering the included events and people.
H6a
Informal
observation,
dialogue
Secession was not a ‘given’ in Georgia. Read and study the
issue from Georgia’s point of view. Then have students write a
letter to Governor Joseph E. Brown either encouraging him to
support secession or oppose secession. Each student should
mention the Georgia Platform and the Compromise of 1850,
Alexander Stephens, and the positives or negatives of
secession to Georgia.
H6a
Constructed
response.
To better understand the importance of the debate over the
spread of slavery to the West, have students complete a
comparison of the Missouri Compromise, Compromise of
1850, and Kansas-Nebraska Act by completing the “Three
Compromises” activity in Appendix 2. This can be effectively
used if put on butcher paper as the class discusses it after they
have individually complete the activity.
H6a
Constructed
response,
informal
observation,
dialogue
Using an outline map of the Eastern States locate the
following:
1. Antietam,
2. Gettysburg,
3. Chickamauga,
4. the Union blockade of Georgia's coast,
5. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign,
6. Sherman's March to the Sea
H6b
Constructed
response
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 3 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
7. Andersonville
Locate each of the events and create a key to identify each.
Also, create a sidebar that explains the impact and significance
of each event as it relates to the Civil War.
After the Civil War, the South was in shambles. One part of
that shambles related to southern farms without workers.
southern workers (including many former slaves) without jobs,
and a lack of capital for farming. Using the chart
“Sharecropping Vs Tenant Farming” (Appendix 3) compare
and contrast the two. A phrase often used to describe these
types of labor situations was ‘a cycle of poverty”. After
completing the chart, write a paragraph in which you tell
whether you feel sharecropping or tenant farming would most
likely keep a farmer and his family in “a cycle of poverty.”
Support your thoughts with sound reasoning and evidence. Be
prepared to share your thoughts with your classmates or
participate in a debate.
H6c
Constructed
response,
dialogue
Using your text, identify the goods and or services produced
by Georgia during the antebellum and post-bellum period.
Class discussion: discuss the idea of ‘free-trade” students
should speculate as to where these goods might have been
shipped. Remind students of Congress’ restrictions on Slave
imports.
Students should read aloud the 13, 14, 15th Amendments to the
U.S. Constitution. They should then individually write a one
sentence summary of what each amendment provided, then
answer the following questions: 1. Why was the 13th
amendment necessary? Didn’t the Emancipation Proclamation
and the Civil War itself take care of this? 2. How does the 14th
amendment relate to the Bill of rights and the Three-Fifths
Compromise of the Constitutional Convention?
3. How does the 15th amendment fall short of giving all rights
to black women?
Students should make a poster using information found on
charts or graphs. Using a chart or graph found in textbook
resources or on the web, students should study the differences
in resources between the north and the south just before the
Civil War started. This should include manufacturing,
railroads, and agricultural production. Students should make a
poster showing the same information in pictures not charts and
graphs.
SS8E1
E2a
Constructed
response,
dialogue
H6c
Constructed
response
E1
Constructed
response
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 4 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
Teacher prepared objective, short answer, discussion tests
covering the antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction periods.
H6 a,b,c
E1,
E2
Selected
response,
constructed
response,
dialogue
Have students assume the role of a Civil War soldier. They
may be a Georgian in the Confederate army or a Georgian in
the Union army. Either way, Georgia is their home state and
they are fighting with their side in Georgia. As they participate
in military events in Georgia they are to write home a series of
letters. In these letters they are to tell their brother all about
their experiences. He wants very much to be with his brother,
but he has been wounded and is home recuperating. He has
demanded the fighting brother tell him everything. “Don’t
clean up your letters and leave out the awful facts as you do
when you write our mother, “he has told the soldier. So his
brother following his directions and tells him everything. In a
way, this might help the fighting brother, because he might
need to be able to share his feelings and thoughts about the
things that he has experienced. The active brother is now the
eyes and ears to all that is happening. Students should write a
series of letters. One is about Chickamauga, one about
Andersonville. Another is about Atlanta during Sherman’s
campaign; several are from different spots along Sherman’s 60
mile march to the sea, and finally, one from Savannah at the
end of Sherman’s march. The students should talk about the
battles, the people met along the way, the sights seen, and
feelings experienced. The recuperating brother should get a
sense of what the active brother sees, hears, smells, and feels.
H6b
Constructed
response
Performance Task
Conflict and Change: The student will understand that when there is conflict
between or within societies, change is the result.
Production, Distribution, Consumption: The student will understand that the
production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the society are
affected by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.
Individuals, Groups, Institutions: The student will understand that the actions of
individuals, groups, and/or institutions affect society through intended and unintended
consequences
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 5 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
On the 19th of April 1861, only six days after the fall of Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln
issued a proclamation declaring the blockade of the Southern States from South Carolina
southward along the coast of Georgia, around the peninsula of Florida and up the Gulf Coast to
Texas. On April 27th the blockade was extended to Virginia and North Carolina. Lincoln declared
that for the purpose of the blockade…”a competent force will be posted so as to prevent entrance
and exit of vessels from the ports aforesaid. If, therefore, with a view to violate such blockade, a
vessel shall approach or shall attempt to leave any of the said ports, she will be duly warned by
the commander of one of the blockading vessels, who will endorse on her register the fact and
date of such warning, and if the same vessel shall again attempt to enter or leave the blockaded
port, she will be captured, and sent to the nearest convenient port for such proceedings against
her, and her cargo as prize, as may he deemed advisable."
That was over 140 years ago. Today you are an importer/exporter of goods. You are also a
renowned expert on the American Civil War, especially the Union blockade of Georgia. Even
in the 21st Century several nations are experiencing Civil Wars. One such nation, Eorgiaga,
has hired you to analyze their 100 miles of coastline and advise them on the affects of a naval
blockade from the military faction of the warring parties. You will meet with them and give
them a history lesson in the Civil War blockade of Georgia and discuss with them the
consequences of that blockade. You should have your facts presented on a large poster
showing location of the blockade and using symbols identifying the goods denied to Georgia
and the products that were not allowed to be shipped from Georgia. Explain to the
Eorgiagaians the hardships or consequences to the civilian and military population if such an
event occurs. Finally, having synthesized this material, you should present to the Eorgiagaians
possible ways of preventing a blockade of their coastline.
BUT, you know that your knowledge and advice cannot guarantee the Eorgiagaian coastline
will not suffer from blockade activity. Therefore, you want to give them additional help. You
decide that they must know the importance of land transportation. As a second part of your
presentation you should discuss the importance of Atlanta as a transportation center during the
Civil War. To this point your speech has been very factual. Now you should give your
audience an impassioned plea to protect their railroads. Give them information about
Georgia’s railroads during the Civil War with Atlanta as a hub. Then discuss Sherman’s
Atlanta Campaign and the devasting affect it had on the Confederate’s transportation system.
You will need a map showing Sherman’s advance from North Georgia to Atlanta. The purpose
of this part of your presentation is to urge diligence in protection of land transportation should
a Naval blockade become a reality.
Have all of your information visually presented as well as in a written report or speech to be
left with the Eorgiagaian government.
Map and Globe Skills:
2, 4, 8, 12
Information Processing Skills:
1,3, 4, 5, 6, 11,
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 6 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
*Note concerning rubrics: Each performance task is accompanied by two rubrics. The first is
designed to address content and understanding of the standards in terms of the enduring
understandings. The second rubric focuses on the product of the performance task. This is where
students are scored on items involving grammar, punctuation, spelling, creativity, presentation, etc. It
is NOT intended that each rubric counts for 50% of the assessment. Teachers should weigh each
section of the rubric according to the areas they wish to emphasize.
Content Rubric for Performance Task
Does Not Meet
Needs
Meets
Expectation
Improvement
Expectation
(Getting There!)
Exceeds
Expectation
Clearly analyzes and
explains the historical
background of the
Union Naval Blockade
of Georgia and other
parts of the southern
coastline and relates it
to the overall military
picture at that time.
Clearly evaluates and
explain s the impact of
the naval blockade on
Georgia and other
areas of the southern
coastline.
Analyzes and
explains the
historical
background of
the Union Naval
Blockade of
Georgia.
Does not analyze
and explain the
historical
background of
the Union Naval
Blockade of
Georgia
Partially analyzes and
explains the historical
background of the
Union Naval Blockade
of Georgia...
Clearly analyzes
and explains the
historical
background of the
Union Naval
Blockade of
Georgia.
Evaluates and
explains the
impact of the
naval blockade
on the civilian
population.
Does not
evaluate nor
explain the
impact of the
naval blockade
on the civilian
population.
Does not
evaluate nor
explain the
consequences of
the Naval
blockade on the
military.
Partially evaluates and
explains the impact of
the naval blockade on
the civilian population.
Clearly evaluates
and explains the
impact of the naval
blockade on the
civilian population.
Partially evaluates and
explains the
consequences of the
Naval blockade on the
military.
Clearly evaluates
and explains the
consequences of
the Naval blockade
on the military.
Clearly Evaluates and
explains the
consequences of the
Naval blockade on the
military within
Georgia and in other
areas of the South.
Partially synthesizes
and proposes a means
of prevention of a
Naval blockade.
Clearly shows a
synthesis of the
naval blockade and
proposes means for
possibly
prevention a Naval
blockade.
Clearly shows a
synthesis of the naval
blockade and proposes
means for possibly
prevention a Naval
blockade ways to
overcome the
blockade should one
occur.
Evaluates and
explains the
consequences of
the Naval
blockade on the
military.
Synthesizes and
proposes possible
means of
preventions of a
Naval blockade.
Does not
synthesize and
propose a means
of prevention of
a Naval
blockade.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 7 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
Analyzes and
explains the
importance of
Atlanta as a
transportation
center during the
Civil War.
Does not analyze
or explain the
importance of
Atlanta as a
transportation
center during the
Civil War.
Partially explains the
importance of Atlanta
as a transportation
center during the Civil
War.
Clearly and
completely
explains the
importance of
Atlanta as a
transportation
center during the
Civil War.
Clearly explains the
importance of Atlanta
as a transportation
center and evaluates
the problems that
could occur should
such a center of
activity be destroyed.
Analyzes and
evaluates the
impact of
Sherman’s
Atlanta
Campaign.
Does not analyze
and evaluate the
impact of
Sherman’s
Atlanta
Campaign.
Partially analyzes and
evaluates the impact of
Sherman’s Atlanta
Campaign.
Clearly and
completely
analyzes and
evaluates the
importance of
Sherman’s Atlanta
Campaign.
Clearly analyzes and
evaluates the impact
of Sherman’s Atlanta
Campaign and relates
that possibility and it’s
consequences to
another setting
(Eorgiaga).
Product Rubric
Scale
Criteria
Students produce a
product that is
attractive and
creative.
Below Expectation
Use of font, color,
graphics, effects, etc.
is evident, but these
often distract from the
presentation of
content.
Students produce a
product that is
organized.
There was no clear or
logical organizational
structure, just lots of
facts.
Students produce a
product that
exhibits proper
mechanics.
More than 4 errors are
spelling or grammar.
Needs Improvement
Makes use of font,
color, graphics,
effects, etc., but
occasionally these
detract from the
presentation of
content.
Content is logically
organized for the
most part.
Four misspellings
and/or grammatical
errors.
Meets Expectation
Exceeds Expectation
Makes good use of
font, color, graphics,
effects etc. to
enhance the
presentation.
Makes excellent use
of font, color,
graphics, effects, etc.
to enhance the
presentation.
Uses headings or
bulleted lists to
organize, but the
overall organization
of topics appears
flawed.
Three or fewer
misspellings and/or
grammatical errors.
Content is well
organized using
headings or bulleted
lists to group related
material.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 8 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
No misspellings or
grammatical errors.
One Stop Shop For Educators
Resources for Unit 5
Georgia Economic History Project: Georgia Council on Economic Education
www.unitedstreaming.com
http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories
Eighth Grade Social Studies Program for Georgia: Georgia and the American Experience
History Highlights
Novels: Numbering the Bones (A young black girl helping Clara Barton count the dead at
Andersonville.)
Turn Homeward, Hannalee by Patricia Beatty (Young Georgia textile mill
worker sent to the North by Sherman is trying to get back to Georgia.) Also, Be Ever
Hopeful, Hannalee.
Eben Tyne, Powdermonkey by Patricia Beatty. (A thirteen year old powder
carrier aboard the Confederate Merrimack)
Across Five Aprils by Irene Hunt (A divided family and the Civil War through
the eyes of a 9 year old).
www.georgiaencyclopedia.org Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction,
http://www.civilwar.com/
http://www.civil-war.net/ Battle of Antietam, Andersonville, Dred Scott Decision
Gettysburg, Atlanta, Sherman
http://www.civilwaralbum.com/atlanta/ The Atlanta Campaign.
http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/resources/overview.htm ( collection of political
cartoons)
http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus. The University of Virginia
Library has a historical census browser as part of its Geostat Center, which not only
provides the census data but also enables teachers and students to manipulate the data to
produce maps and tables, create ratios, and compare data across multiple census years
http://www.maritimeheritage.org/ports/naEastcoast/georgia.html Short narrative
explaining Georgia’s exports throughout the 1800’s.
http://www.pbs.org/civilwar
http://www.wideopenwest.com/~jenkins/ironclads/ironclad.htm naval blockade
Many cites for Civil War, Naval blockade, battles, etc.
*This unit was created by Faye Smith and Evie Stephens with additional input from Dr. Bill Cranshaw,
Chris Cannon, Marlo Mong, Sarah Brown, and the Social Studies Advisory Council. It was last updated
11/30/07.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 9 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
Appendix 1
“One and Inseparable”
Directions: Complete the following chart and be prepared to share your ideas and
information with a partner and then with the entire class as you participate in a class
discussion.
Date What it was or
How did it
Item or issue
Seen by whom
to be
what did it do?
as a threat to
threaten the
considered
the union?
union?
Slavery
States’ Rights
Nullification
Missouri
Compromise
Compromise of
1850
KansasNebraska Act
Dred Scott
Case
Election of
1860
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 10 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
Appendix 2
I.
II.
III.
Three Compromises
Missouri Compromise:
When?
What territory was involved?
Background information:
What did the compromise do?
Who supported it?
Who opposed it?
What was the result of the compromise?
The Compromise of 1850:
When?
What territory was involved?
Background information:
What did the compromise do?
Who supported it?
Who opposed it?
What was the result of the compromise?
The Kansas-Nebraska Act:
When?
What territory was involved?
Background information:
What did the act do?
Who supported it?
Who opposed it?
What was the result of the act?
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 11 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
Appendix 3
Sharecropping VS Tenant Farming
Directions: In each box, write either ‘the farmer’ or ‘the landowner’. When you have
completed the chart, respond to the following:
A phrase often used to describe these types of labor situations was ‘a cycle of poverty”.
After completing the chart, write a paragraph in which you tell whether you feel
sharecropping or tenant farming would most likely keep a farmer and his family in “a
cycle of poverty.” Support your thoughts with sound reasoning and evidence. Be
prepared to share your thoughts with your classmates or participate in a debate.
Who
Who
Who
provided provided
provided the
the land? the
home?
equipment?
Who
Who
provided the provided
household
the labor?
good?
Sharecropping
Tenant
Farming
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Eighth Grade Social Studies Framework Unit 5
UPDATED 11/30/2007 y Page 12 of 12
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved