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Transcript
DISORDERS AND CONDITIONS
OF
THE EYE
Dr.Mohamed Medhat – Pediatric clinical pharmacy specialist
Dr.Shaimaa Mahmoud - Pediatric clinical pharmacy specialist
1
Eyes
• Anatomy of Eye
– Housed in a cone of fatty tissue
Eyeball
– Three layers
– External fibrous layer
– Middle vascular layer
– Inner sensory
layer of nerve tissue.
2
Anatomy of the Eye
3
4
External Fibrous Layer
• Sclera ‫الصلبة = البياض حول العين‬
– “white of eye’
• Protective & supportive outer layer
• is the white outer coat of the eye that acts as a tough
protection from injury, and provides attachment for the
extraocular muscles that move the eye
• Cornea ‫القرنية‬
– Dense fibrous connective tissue
• Must be transparent to allow light
• The main purpose of the cornea is to help focus light
that is entering the eye
5
• Eyelids ‫الجفون‬
• The eyelids serve to protect the eye from foreign matter, such
as dust, dirt, and other debris, as well as bright light that might
damage the eye. When you blink, the eyelids also help spread
tears over the surface of your eye, keeping the eye moist and
comfortable
6
EYE DISORDERS
• REFRACTIVE ERRORS
• MUSCULAR DISORDERS
• DISORDERS OF THE EYELID
• DISORDERS OF THE GLOBE
OF THE EYE
7
Common eye disorder
1. Dry Eye
2. Viral conjunctivitis
3. Chemical burn – minor eye irritation – loosen
foreign body inside eye
8
Dry Eye
Dry eyes is a common condition that occurs when your tears
aren't able to provide adequate lubrication for your eye
• The eye depends on the flow of tears to provide constant
moisture and lubrication to maintain vision and comfort.
• Tears are a combination of water, for moisture; oils, for
lubrication; mucus, for even spreading; and antibodies
and special proteins, for resistance to infection.
• These components are secreted by special glands located
around the eye(Lacrimal gland ).
• When there is an imbalance in this tear system, a person
may experience dry eyes.
9
Dry Eye pathophysiology
Tear secretion is controlled by the lacrimal functional
unit consisting of the ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva,
accessory lacrimal glands,
Causes of Dry Eye
dry eyes can be caused by situations that dry out the tear film
This can be due to dry air from air conditioning, heat, or other
environmental conditions. Other conditions that may cause dry
eyes are:
1.The natural aging process, especially menopause
2.Side effects of certain drugs such as antihistamines and birth
control pills
3.Diseases that affect the ability to make tears, such as
rheumatoid arthritis,
4.Structural problems with the eyelids that don't allow them to
close properly.
11
Tears and tear film
• Function :
1.Cleaning
2.Wetting ocular surface
3.Bacteriostasis = retardation of growth of bacteria
4.Supporting the cornea (oxygen supply)
12
Treatment of Dry eye and minor
eye irritation
• Nonpharmacologic Therapy :
• avoiding environments that increase evaporation of the tear
film.
• 1. avoid dry or dusty places.
• 2. avoiding prolonged view of computers screens and
wearing eye protection
• Pharmacologic Therapy :
• alleviate and control the dryness of the ocular surface by
using ocular lubricants and others interventions.
1.Artificial tear drops
2. omega-3 via diet or supplement is very helpful to those
suffering with dry eye.
13
3. Non medicated ointment contains white petrolatum
Artificial tear drops
• Lubricants that are formulated as artificial tear solutions
consist of preservatives, inorganic electrolyte to achieve
tonicity and maintain pH, and water-soluble polymeric
systems.
14
If both drop and
ointment therapy are
indicated, instill the
drops at least 10
minutes before the
ointment so that the
ointment does not
become a barrier to the
drops' penetrating
the tear film or cornea.
1.Tilt your head back.
2.Pull your lower lid away from your eye to form a "pocket"
3.Hold the bottle upside-down with the other hand, and let a drop fall into
the "pocket."
4.Don't let the tip of the bottle touch your eye or eyelid.
5.Close your eyes (don't blink) and apply light pressure to the point where
your lids meet your nose. Hold for two to three minutes.
Allergic Conjunctivitis
• Definitions:
Allergic conjunctivitis refers to eye inflammation resulting
from an allergic reaction to substances like pollen or mold
spores.
• Sings and symptoms:
1.Red,
2.itchy, watery,
3.Burning eyes.
4.You may also wake up in the morning with puffy eyes
16
Nonpharmacologic Therapy :
(1) remove or avoid the allergen, (2) limit or reduce the
severity of the allergic reaction, (3) provide symptomatic
relief, and (4) protect the ocular Surface.
A. applying cold compresses co the eyes three to four
times per day will help reduce redness and itching
B. Removal or avoidance of the responsible allergen.
Pharmacologic Therapy :
1. Ocular antihistamine..
2.Oculr decongestant
3. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
LOOSE FOREIGN SUBSTANCES IN THE
EYE & Chemical burn
• The goal in treating loose foreign substances in the eye is
to remove the irritant by irrigating the eye.
• If reflex tearing does not remove the foreign substance, the
eye may need to be flushed.
• Chemical bums may occur from exposure to alkali (e.g.,
oven cleaners), acids (e.g., battery acid or vinegar),
detergents.
• Pharmacologic Therapy :
Ocular lrrigants: An ocular irrigating is used to clean
ocular tissues while maintaining their moisture; these
solutions must be physiologically balanced with respect to19
pH and osmolaliry.
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