Download Kennedy and the Cold War

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

United States presidential election, 1968 wikipedia, lookup

United States presidential election, 1972 wikipedia, lookup

History of the United States (1945–64) wikipedia, lookup

History of the United States (1964–80) wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
9:18 AM
Page 876
Page 1 of 9
Kennedy and
the Cold War
Terms & Names
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
MAIN IDEA
The Kennedy administration
faced some of the most
dangerous Soviet confrontations in American history.
America’s response to Soviet
threats developed the United
States as a military superpower.
•John F. Kennedy
•flexible response
•Fidel Castro
•Berlin Wall
•hot line
•Limited Test Ban
Treaty
One American's Story
John F. Kennedy became the 35th president of the United
States on a crisp and sparkling day in January 1961. Appearing
without a coat in freezing weather, he issued a challenge to the
American people. He said that the world was in “its hour of
maximum danger,” as Cold War tensions ran high. Rather than
shrinking from the danger, the United States should confront
the “iron tyranny” of communism.
A PERSONAL VOICE JOHN F. KENNEDY
“ Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and
foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation
of Americans, born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined
by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage, and
unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human
rights to which this nation has always been committed. . . .
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that
we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship,
support any friend, oppose any . . . foe, in order to assure . . .
the survival and the success of liberty.”
—Inaugural Address, January 20, 1961
▼
The young president won praise for his well-crafted speech.
However, his words were put to the test when several Cold War
crises tried his leadership.
John F. Kennedy delivers his inaugural
address on January 20, 1961.
The Election of 1960
In 1960, as President Eisenhower’s second term drew to a close, a mood of restlessness arose among voters. The economy was in a recession. The USSR’s
launch of Sputnik I in 1957 and its development of long-range missiles had sparked
fears that the American military was falling behind that of the Soviets. Further setbacks including the U-2 incident and the alignment of Cuba with the Soviet Union
had Americans questioning whether the United States was losing the Cold War.
876
CHAPTER 28
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
9:18 AM
Page 877
Page 2 of 9
▼
John F. Kennedy
(right) appeared
confident and at
ease during a
televised debate
with his opponent
Richard M. Nixon.
The Democratic nominee for president, Massachusetts senator John Kennedy,
promised active leadership “to get America moving again.” His Republican opponent, Vice President Richard M. Nixon, hoped to win by riding on the coattails of
Eisenhower’s popularity. Both candidates had similar positions on policy issues.
Two factors helped put Kennedy over the top: television and the civil rights issue.
Vocabulary
charismatic:
possessing
personal charm
that attracts
devoted followers
MAIN IDEA
Predicting
Effects
A What effect
do you think the
televised debate
would have on
American politics?
A. Possible
Answer
Voters would
begin making
decisions based
on a candidate’s
perceived image
rather than on
his or her stand
on the issues.
THE TELEVISED DEBATE AFFECTS VOTES Kennedy had a well-organized
campaign and the backing of his wealthy family, and was handsome and
charismatic. Yet many felt that, at 43, he was too inexperienced. If elected, he would
be the second-youngest president in the nation’s history.
Americans also worried that having a Roman Catholic in the White House
would lead either to influence of the pope on American policies or to closer ties
between church and state. Kennedy was able to allay worries by discussing the
issue openly.
One event in the fall determined the course of the election. Kennedy “ That night,
and Nixon took part in the first televised debate between presidential
image replaced the
candidates. On September 26, 1960, 70 million TV viewers watched the
printed word as
two articulate and knowledgeable candidates debating issues. Nixon, an
the natural lanexpert on foreign policy, had agreed to the forum in hopes of exposing
guage of politics.”
Kennedy’s inexperience. However, Kennedy had been coached by televiRUSSELL BAKER
sion producers, and he looked and spoke better than Nixon. A
Kennedy’s success in the debate launched a new era in American politics: the
television age. As journalist Russell Baker, who covered the Nixon campaign, said,
“That night, image replaced the printed word as the natural language of politics.”
KENNEDY AND CIVIL RIGHTS A second major event of the campaign took place
in October. Police in Atlanta, Georgia, arrested the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.,
and 33 other African-American demonstrators for sitting at a segregated lunch
counter. Although the other demonstrators were released, King was sentenced to
months of hard labor—officially for a minor traffic violation. The Eisenhower
administration refused to intervene, and Nixon took no public position.
When Kennedy heard of the arrest and sentencing, he telephoned King’s wife,
Coretta Scott King, to express his sympathy. Meanwhile, Robert Kennedy, his brother and campaign manager, persuaded the judge who had sentenced King to release
the civil rights leader on bail, pending appeal. News of the incident captured the
immediate attention of the African-American community, whose votes would help
Kennedy carry key states in the Midwest and South.
The New Frontier and the Great Society 877
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
9:18 AM
Page 878
Page 3 of 9
The Camelot Years
President and
Mrs. Kennedy
enjoy time with
their children,
Caroline and John,
Jr., while
vacationing in
Hyannis Port,
Massachusetts.
▼
B. Answers
The press portrayed the
Kennedys as a
young, attractive, energetic,
and stylish couple; attention to
arts and culture;
young children;
Kennedy’s eloquence; television; an admiring press.
878
The election in November 1960 was the closest since 1884; Kennedy won by fewer
than 119,000 votes. His inauguration set the tone for a new era at the White
House: one of grace, elegance, and wit. On the podium sat over 100 writers,
artists, and scientists that the Kennedys had invited, including opera singer
Marian Anderson, who had once been barred from singing at Constitution Hall
because she was African American. Kennedy’s inspiring speech called for hope,
commitment, and sacrifice. “And so, my fellow Americans,” he proclaimed, “ask
not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.”
During his term, the president
and his beautiful young wife,
Jacqueline, invited many artists and
celebrities to the White House. In
addition, Kennedy often appeared
on television. The press loved his
charm and wit and helped to bolster
his image.
THE KENNEDY MYSTIQUE Critics
of Kennedy’s presidency argued that
his smooth style lacked substance.
But the new first family fascinated
the public. For example, after learning that JFK could read 1,600 words
a minute, thousands of people
enrolled in speed-reading courses.
The first lady, too, captivated the
nation with her eye for fashion and
culture. It seemed the nation could
not get enough of the first family.
Newspapers and magazines filled
their pages with pictures and stories
about the president’s young daughter Caroline and his infant son John.
With JFK’s youthful glamour and his talented advisers, the Kennedy White
House reminded many of a modern-day Camelot, the mythical court of King
Arthur. Coincidentally, the musical Camelot had opened on Broadway in 1960.
Years later, Jackie recalled her husband and the vision of Camelot.
A PERSONAL VOICE JACQUELINE KENNEDY
“ At night, before we’d go to sleep, Jack liked to play some records and the song
he loved most came at the very end of [the Camelot] record. The lines he loved to
hear were: ‘Don’t let it be forgot, that once there was a spot, for one brief shining
moment that was known as Camelot.’ There’ll be great presidents again . . . but
there’ll never be another Camelot again.” B
—quoted in Life magazine, John F. Kennedy Memorial Edition
THE BEST AND THE BRIGHTEST Kennedy surrounded himself with a team of
advisers that one journalist called “the best and the brightest.” They included
McGeorge Bundy, a Harvard University dean, as national security adviser; Robert
McNamara, president of Ford Motor Company, as secretary of defense; and Dean
Rusk, president of the Rockefeller Foundation, as secretary of state. Of all the
advisers who filled Kennedy’s inner circle, he relied most heavily on his 35-yearold brother Robert, whom he appointed attorney general.
CHAPTER 28
Background
The fictional King
Arthur was based
on a real fifth- or
sixth-century Celt.
In literature,
Arthur’s romantic
world is marked by
chivalry and
magic.
MAIN IDEA
Developing
Historical
Perspective
B What factors
help explain the
public’s fascination with the
Kennedys?
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
9:18 AM
Page 879
Page 4 of 9
A New Military Policy
Vocabulary
third world:
during the Cold
War, the
developing nations
not allied with
either the United
States or the
Soviet Union
ANOTHER
From the beginning, Kennedy focused on the Cold War. He
thought the Eisenhower administration had not done
enough about the Soviet threat. The Soviets, he concluded,
were gaining loyalties in the economically less-developed
third-world countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. He
blasted the Republicans for allowing communism to develop
in Cuba, at America’s doorstep.
DEFINING A MILITARY STRATEGY Kennedy believed his
most urgent task was to redefine the nation’s nuclear strategy.
The Eisenhower administration had relied on the policy of
massive retaliation to deter Soviet aggression and imperialism.
However, threatening to use nuclear arms over a minor conflict was not a risk Kennedy wished to take. Instead, his team
developed a policy of flexible response. Kennedy’s secretary
of defense, Robert McNamara, explained the policy.
A PERSONAL VOICE ROBERT S. MCNAMARA
“ The Kennedy administration worried that [the] reliance on
nuclear weapons gave us no way to respond to large nonnuclear attacks without committing suicide. . . . We decided
to broaden the range of options by strengthening and modernizing the military’s ability to fight a nonnuclear war.”
—In Retrospect
MAIN IDEA
Summarizing
C What was the
goal of the
doctrine of flexible
response?
C. Answer
To allow the U.S.
to fight limited
wars around the
world while
maintaining a
nuclear balance
of power with
the Soviets.
Vocabulary
guerrilla: a soldier
who travels in a
small group,
harassing and
undermining the
enemy
P E R S P EC T I V E
EISENHOWER’S WARNING
The increase in defense spending
in the 1960s continued the trend
in which Defense Department
suppliers were becoming more
dominant in the American economy. Before leaving office,
President Eisenhower warned
against the dangers of what he
called the “military-industrial complex.” He included in his parting
speech the following comments:
“This conjunction of an
immense military establishment
and a large arms industry is
new in the American experience.
The total influence—economic,
political, even spiritual—is felt
in every city, every statehouse,
every office of the federal government. We recognize the
imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to
comprehend its grave implications. . . . The potential for the
disastrous rise of misplaced
power exists and will persist.”
Kennedy increased defense spending in order to boost
conventional military forces—nonnuclear forces such as
troops, ships, and artillery—and to create an elite branch of
the army called the Special Forces, or Green Berets. He also
tripled the overall nuclear capabilities of the United States. These changes enabled
the United States to fight limited wars around the world while maintaining a
balance of nuclear power with the Soviet Union. However, even as Kennedy
hoped to reduce the risk of nuclear war, the world came perilously close to nuclear
war under his command as a crisis arose over the island of Cuba. C
Crises over Cuba
The first test of Kennedy’s foreign policy came in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast
of Florida. About two weeks before Kennedy took office, on January 3, 1961,
President Eisenhower had cut off diplomatic relations with Cuba because of a revolutionary leader named Fidel Castro. Castro openly declared himself a communist and welcomed aid from the Soviet Union.
THE CUBAN DILEMMA Castro gained power with the promise of democracy.
From 1956 to 1959, he led a guerrilla movement to topple dictator Fulgencio
Batista. He won control in 1959 and later told reporters, “Revolutionaries are not
born, they are made by poverty, inequality, and dictatorship.” He then promised
to eliminate these conditions from Cuba.
The United States was suspicious of Castro’s intentions but nevertheless
recognized the new government. However, when Castro seized three
American and British oil refineries, relations between the United States and
Cuba worsened. Castro also broke up commercial farms into communes that
would be worked by formerly landless peasants. American sugar companies,
The New Frontier and the Great Society 879
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
9:18 AM
Page 880
Page 5 of 9
which controlled 75 percent of the crop land
in Cuba, appealed to the U.S. government for
help. In response, Congress erected trade barriers against Cuban sugar.
Castro relied increasingly on Soviet aid—
and on the political repression of those who did
not agree with him. While some Cubans were
taken by his charisma and his willingness to
stand up to the United States, others saw Castro
as a tyrant who had replaced one dictatorship
with another. About 10 percent of Cuba’s population went into exile, mostly to the United
States. Within the large exile community of
Miami, Florida, a counterrevolutionary movement took shape.
▼
(top) Castro
celebrates after
gaining power in
Cuba.
(above) The Bay
of Pigs mission
was said to have
blown up in
Kennedy’s face.
THE BAY OF PIGS In March 1960, President
Eisenhower gave the CIA permission to secretly
train Cuban exiles for an invasion of Cuba. The
CIA and the exiles hoped it would trigger a mass
uprising that would overthrow Castro. Kennedy
learned of the plan only nine days after his election. Although he had doubts, he approved it.
On the night of April 17, 1961, some 1,300 to 1,500
Cuban exiles supported by the U.S. military landed on the
island’s southern coast at Bahia de Cochinos, the Bay of
Pigs. Nothing went as planned. An air strike had failed to
knock out the Cuban air force, although the CIA reported
that it had succeeded. A small advance group sent to distract Castro’s forces never reached shore. When the main
commando unit landed, it faced 25,000 Cuban troops
backed up by Soviet tanks and jet aircraft. Some of the
invading exiles were killed, others imprisoned.
The Cuban media sensationalized the defeat of “North
American mercenaries.” One United States commentator
observed that Americans “look like fools to our friends, rascals to our enemies,
and incompetents to the rest.” The disaster left Kennedy embarrassed. Publicly, he
accepted blame for the fiasco. Privately, he asked, “How could that crowd at the
CIA and the Pentagon be this wrong.” D
Kennedy negotiated with Castro for the release of surviving commandos and
paid a ransom of $53 million in food and medical supplies. In a speech in Miami,
he promised exiles that they would one day return to a “free Havana.” Although
Kennedy warned that he would resist further Communist expansion in the
Western Hemisphere, Castro defiantly welcomed further Soviet aid.
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS Castro had a powerful ally in Moscow: Soviet
Premier Nikita Khrushchev, who promised to defend Cuba with Soviet arms.
During the summer of 1962, the flow to Cuba of Soviet weapons—including
nuclear missiles—increased greatly. President Kennedy responded with a warning
that America would not tolerate offensive nuclear weapons in Cuba. Then, on
October 14, photographs taken by American planes revealed Soviet missile bases
in Cuba—and some contained missiles ready to launch. They could reach U.S.
cities in minutes.
On October 22, Kennedy informed an anxious nation of the existence of
Soviet missile sites in Cuba and of his plans to remove them. He made it clear that
any missile attack from Cuba would trigger an all-out attack on the Soviet Union.
880
CHAPTER 28
Vocabulary
political
repression:
government
intimidation of
those with
different political
views
Skillbuilder
Answers
1. Between 10
and 15 minutes
2. Because
power,
resources, and
wealth are concentrated in
these places.
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Effects
D What were the
consequences of
the failed invasion
for the United
States?
D. Answers
Failure to oust
Castro, loss of
world prestige,
embarrassment
for JFK, ransom
for captured
commandos.
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
9:18 AM
Page 881
Page 6 of 9
Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962
Missile complex
Possible missile path *
Range of quarantine
U.S. military installation
0
0
200
200
400 miles
400 kilometers
17
M
IN
UT
ES
)
40°N
New York
N
Chicago
E
W
Denver
LE
Atlanta
S(
12
M
S)
TE
ES
1,259 MIL
U
IN
LES
U N I T E D S TAT E S
S
1,0
00
MI
LE
30°N
Gulf
of
Mexico
M
ILES
1,0
20
Houston
ILE
S
T r o pi c of C a n c e r
110°W
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
837 M
PACIFIC
OCEAN
1,432 MILES
MI
MI
1,5
00
MI
LE
S(
S
98
54
15
M
IN
UT
ES
)
1,8
1 ,5
2,0
00
MI
LE
S(
Washington, D.C.
CUBA
90°W
Havana
80°W
Guantanamo
Caribbean Sea
U.S. spy planes reveal nuclear
missile sites in Cuba.
O C T. 1 4
*Missile path times and distances
are approximate.
Khrushchev announces
plan to remove missiles
from Cuba.
Kennedy tells the nation
of his intention to halt
the missile buildup.
O C T. 2 2
O C T. 2 4
O C T. 2 5
Kennedy implements a naval
“quarantine” of Cuba, blocking
Soviet ships from reaching the
island. (below) A U.S. patrol plane
flies over a Soviet freighter.
O C T. 2 8
Soviet ships
approaching Cuba
come to a halt.
GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER
1. Movement About how long would it have
taken for a missile launched from Cuba to
reach New York?
2. Human-Environment Interaction
Why do you think it may have been important
for Soviet missiles to reach the U.S. cities
shown above?
The New Frontier and the Great Society 881
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
9:18 AM
Page 882
KEY PLAYERS
JOHN F. KENNEDY
1917–1963
NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV
1894–1971
John F. “Jack” Kennedy grew
up in a politically powerful
family that helped make his
dreams possible. His parents
instilled in him the drive to
accomplish great things.
During World War II he
enlisted in the navy and was
decorated for heroism. In
1946, he won his first seat in
Congress from a Boston district where he had never
lived. While a senator, he won
a Pulitzer Prize for his book
Profiles in Courage.
Although he radiated selfconfidence, Kennedy suffered
many ailments, including
Addison’s disease—a debilitating condition that he
treated with daily injections
of cortisone. “At least one
half of the days that he spent
on this earth were days of
intense physical pain,”
recalled his brother Robert.
“No matter how humble a
man’s beginnings,” boasted
Nikita Khrushchev, “he
achieves the stature of the
office to which he is elected.”
Khrushchev, the son of a
miner, became a Communist
Party organizer in the 1920s.
Within four years of Stalin’s
death in 1953, Khrushchev
had consolidated his power in
the Soviet Union.
During his regime, which
ended in 1964, Khrushchev
kept American nerves on
edge with alternately conciliatory and aggressive behavior.
During a 1959 trip to the
United States, he met for
friendly talks with President
Eisenhower. The next year, in
front of the UN General
Assembly, he took off his
shoe and angrily pounded it
on a desk to protest the U-2
incident.
Page 7 of 9
For the next six days, the world
faced the terrifying possibility of
nuclear war. In the Atlantic Ocean,
Soviet ships—presumably carrying
more missiles—headed toward
Cuba, while the U.S. Navy prepared to quarantine Cuba and prevent the ships from coming within
500 miles of it. In Florida, 100,000
troops waited—the largest invasion force ever assembled in the
United States. C. Douglas Dillon,
Kennedy’s secretary of the treasury
and a veteran of nuclear diplomacy, recalled those tension-filled
days of October.
A PERSONAL VOICE
C. DOUGLAS DILLON
“ The only time I felt a fear of
nuclear war or a use of nuclear
weapons was on the very first day,
when we’d decided that we had to
do whatever was necessary to get
the missiles out. There was
always some background fear of
what would eventually happen,
and I think this is what was
expressed when people said they
feared they would never see
another Saturday.”
—quoted in On the Brink
The first break in the crisis
occurred when the Soviet ships
stopped suddenly to avoid a confrontation at sea. Secretary of State
Dean Rusk said, “We are eyeball
to eyeball, and the other fellow just
blinked.” A few days later,
Khrushchev offered to remove the
missiles in return for an American pledge not to invade Cuba. The United States also
secretly agreed to remove missiles from Turkey. The leaders agreed, and the crisis
ended. “For a moment, the world had stood still,” Robert Kennedy wrote years later,
“and now it was going around again.”
KENNEDY AND KHRUSHCHEV TAKE THE HEAT The crisis severely damaged
Khrushchev’s prestige in the Soviet Union and the world. Kennedy did not escape
criticism either. Some people criticized Kennedy for practicing brinkmanship
when private talks might have resolved the crisis without the threat of nuclear
war. Others believed he had passed up an ideal chance to invade Cuba and oust
Castro. (It was learned in the 1990s that the CIA had underestimated the numbers of Soviet troops and nuclear weapons on the island.)
The effects of the crisis lasted long after the missiles had been removed. Many
Cuban exiles blamed the Democrats for “losing Cuba” (a charge that Kennedy
had earlier leveled at the Republicans) and switched their allegiance to the GOP.
882
CHAPTER 28
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Effects
E What were the
results of the
Cuban missile
crisis?
E. Answers
Kennedy staved
off war;
Khrushchev’s
prestige tarnished; many
Cuban exiles
blamed
Democrats for
“losing Cuba”
and switched
allegiance to
GOP; Castro limited exiles’ access
to Cuba.
9:18 AM
Page 883
Page 8 of 9
Meanwhile, Castro closed Cuba’s doors to the exiles in November 1962 by banning all flights to and from Miami. Three years later, hundreds of thousands of
people took advantage of an agreement that allowed Cubans to join relatives in
the United States. By the time Castro sharply cut down on exit permits in 1973,
the Cuban population in Miami had increased to about 300,000. E
Crisis over Berlin
One goal that had guided Kennedy through the Cuban missile crisis was that of
proving to Khruschev his determination to contain communism. All the while,
Kennedy was thinking of their recent confrontation over Berlin, which had led to
the construction of the Berlin Wall, a concrete wall topped with barbed wire
that severed the city in two.
THE BERLIN CRISIS In 1961, Berlin was a city in great turmoil. In the 11 years since the Berlin Airlift, almost 3 million
East Germans—20 percent of that country’s population—had
fled into West Berlin because it was free from Communist
rule. These refugees advertised the failure of East Germany’s
Communist government. Their departure also dangerously
weakened that country’s economy.
LD STAGE
W OR
THE BERLIN WALL, 1961
In 1961, Nikita Khrushchev, the
Soviet premier, ordered the Berlin
Wall built to stop the flow of
refugees from East to West Berlin.
Most were seeking freedom from
Communist rule.
The wall isolated West Berlin
from a hostile German Democratic
Republic (GDR). Passing from East
to West was almost impossible
without the Communist government's permission.
During the 28 years the wall was
standing, approximately 5,000 people succeeded in fleeing. Almost
200 people died in the attempt;
most were shot by the GDR border
guards. In 1989, East Germany
opened the Berlin Wall to cheering
crowds. Today the rubbled concrete
is a reminder of the Cold War tensions between East and West.
The “death strip” stretched like a barren
moat around West Berlin, with patrols,
floodlights, electric fences, and vehicle
traps between the inner and outer walls.
Walls and other barriers 10–15 feet
high surrounded West Berlin. The
length of the barriers around the city
totaled about 110 miles.
Guard dogs and machine guns disuaded most people from crossing
over illegally, yet some still dared.
0
4 miles
0 4 kilometers
French
East
Zone
Berlin
Brandenburg
West
Gate
Berlin
British
Checkpoint
Zone
Charlie
American
Zone
BALTIC SEA
NORTH
SEA
West Berlin
FED. REP.
OF GERMANY
Bonn
The Berlin Wall was first made of brick and barbed wire,
but was later erected in cement and steel.
0
100 miles
0
100 kilometers
POL.
East
Berlin
GER. DEM.
REPUBLIC
CZECH.
The New Frontier and the Great Society 883
p0876-884aspe-0828s1
10/17/02
9:18 AM
Page 884
Page 9 of 9
“ I want peace.
But, if you want
war, that is your
problem.”
Khrushchev realized that this problem had to be
solved. At a summit meeting in Vienna, Austria, in
June 1961, he threatened to sign a treaty with East
Germany that would enable that country to close all
the access roads to West Berlin. When Kennedy refused
SOVIET PREMIER
to give up U.S. access to West Berlin, Khrushchev furiNIKITA KHRUSHCHEV
ously declared, “I want peace. But, if you want war,
that is your problem.”
After returning home, Kennedy told the nation in a televised address that Berlin was “the great testing place of
Western courage and will.” He pledged “[W]e cannot and will
Reading from this note card during a
not permit the Communists to drive us out of Berlin.”
speech in West Berlin, Kennedy
Kennedy’s determination and America’s superior nuclear proclaimed “Ich bin ein Berliner” (“I am
striking power prevented Khrushchev from closing the air and a Berliner”).
land routes between West Berlin and West Germany. Instead, the Soviet premier surprised the world with a shocking decision. Just after midnight on August 13, 1961,
East German troops began to unload concrete posts and rolls of barbed wire along
the border. Within days, the Berlin Wall was erected, separating East Germany from
F. Answer
West Germany.
Communists
The construction of the Berlin Wall ended the Berlin crisis but further aggrawanted to stop
vated Cold War tensions. The wall and its armed guards successfully reduced the
MAIN IDEA
the flow of East
German
flow of East German refugees to a tiny trickle, thus solving Khrushchev’s main Analyzing
refugees into
problem. At the same time, however, the wall became an ugly symbol of Motives
West Berlin and
F What led
Communist oppression. F
further isolate
▼
the thriving city.
SEARCHING FOR WAYS TO EASE TENSIONS Showdowns between Kennedy and
Khrushchev made both leaders aware of the gravity of split-second decisions that
separated Cold War peace from nuclear disaster. Kennedy, in particular, searched for
ways to tone down his hard-line stance. In 1963, he announced that the two nations
had established a hot line between the White House and the Kremlin. This dedicated phone enabled the leaders of the two countries to communicate at once should
another crisis arise. Later that year, the United States and Soviet Union also agreed
to a Limited Test Ban Treaty that barred nuclear testing in the atmosphere.
Khrushchev to
erect the Berlin
Wall?
1. TERMS & NAMES For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its
significance.
•John F. Kennedy
•flexible response
•Fidel Castro
•Berlin Wall
•hot line
•Limited Test Ban Treaty
MAIN IDEA
CRITICAL THINKING
2. TAKING NOTES
Using diagrams such as the one
below, list two outcomes for each of
these events: first Kennedy-Nixon
debate, Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuban
missile crisis, and construction of
the Berlin Wall.
Outcome
Event
3. EVALUATING DECISIONS
How well do you think President
Kennedy handled the Cuban missile
crisis? Justify your opinion with specific examples from the text.
Think About:
• Kennedy’s decision to impose a
naval “quarantine” of Cuba
• the nuclear showdown between
the superpowers
• Kennedy’s decision not to invade
Cuba
Outcome
Which of these outcomes led
directly to other events listed here
or described in this section?
884
CHAPTER 28
4. ANALYZING VISUAL SOURCES
Examine the cartoon above of
Kennedy (left) facing off with
Khrushchev and Castro. What do
you think the cartoonist was trying
to convey?
5. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
What kind of political statement was
made by the United States’ support
of West Berlin?
10/29/02
12:37 PM
Page 885
Page 1 of 5
The New Frontier
MAIN IDEA
While Kennedy had trouble
getting his ideas for a New
Frontier passed, several goals
were achieved.
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Kennedy’s space program
continues to generate scientific
and engineering advances that
benefit Americans.
Terms & Names
•New Frontier
•mandate
•Peace Corps
•Alliance for
Progress
•Warren
Commission
One American's Story
On May 5, 1961, American astronaut Alan Shepard climbed
into Freedom 7, a tiny capsule on top of a huge rocket booster. The capsule left the earth’s atmosphere in a ball of fire and
returned the same way, and Shepard became the first
American to travel into space. Years later, he recalled his
emotions when a naval crew fished him out of the Atlantic.
A PERSONAL VOICE ALAN SHEPARD
“ Until the moment I stepped out of the flight deck . . .
I hadn’t realized the intensity of the emotions and feelings that so many people had for me, for the other
astronauts, and for the whole manned space program.
. . . I was very close to tears as I thought, it’s no
longer just our fight to get ‘out there.’ The struggle
belongs to everyone in America. . . . From now on
there was no turning back.”
—Moon Shot: The Inside Story of America’s Race to the Moon
The entire trip—which took only 15 minutes from
liftoff to splashdown—reaffirmed the belief in American ingenuity.
John F. Kennedy inspired many Americans with the same kind of belief.
▼
p0885-889aspe-0828s2
Astronaut Alan Shepard
(inset) prepares to enter
the space capsule for his
Mercury flight.
The Promise of Progress
Kennedy set out to transform his broad vision of progress into what he called the
New Frontier. “We stand today on the edge of a New Frontier,” Kennedy had
announced upon accepting the nomination for president. He called on Americans
to be “new pioneers” and explore “uncharted areas of science and space, . . .
unconquered pockets of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of
poverty and surplus.”
Kennedy had difficulty turning his vision into reality, however. He offered
Congress proposals to provide medical care for the aged, rebuild blighted urban
areas, and aid education, but he couldn’t gather enough votes. Kennedy faced the
same conservative coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats that had
The New Frontier and the Great Society 885
p0885-889aspe-0828s2
10/29/02
12:37 PM
ECONOMIC
WHAT IS A RECESSION?
A recession is, in a general sense,
a moderate slowdown of the economy marked by increased unemployment and reduced personal
consumption. In 1961, the
nation's jobless rate climbed from
just under 6 percent to nearly 7
percent. Personal consumption of
several major items declined that
year, as people worried about job
security and spent less money.
Car sales, for example, dropped
by more than $1 billion from the
previous year, while fewer people
took overseas vacations. Perhaps
the surest sign that the country
had entered a recession was the
admission by government officials
of how bleak things were. “We are
in a full-fledged recession,” Labor
Secretary Arthur Goldberg
declared in February of 1961.
(See recession on page R44 in
the Economics Handbook.)
▼
A Peace Corps
volunteer gives a
ride to a Nigerian
girl.
886
Page 886
blocked Truman’s Fair Deal, and he showed little skill in pushing
his domestic reform measures through Congress. Since Kennedy
had been elected by the slimmest of margins, he lacked a popular
mandate—a clear indication that voters approved of his plans.
As a result, he often tried to play it safe politically. Nevertheless,
Kennedy did persuade Congress to enact measures to boost the
economy, build the national defense, provide international aid,
and fund a massive space program. A
STIMULATING THE ECONOMY One domestic problem the
Kennedy team tackled was the economy. By 1960 America was
in a recession. Unemployment hovered around 6 percent, one
of the highest levels since World War II. During the campaign,
Kennedy had criticized the Eisenhower administration for failing to stimulate growth. The American economy, he said,
was lagging behind those of other Western democracies and
the Soviet Union.
Kennedy’s advisers pushed for the use of deficit spending, which had been the basis for Roosevelt’s New Deal. They
said that stimulating economic growth depended on increased
government spending and lower taxes, even if it meant that
the government spent more than it took in.
Accordingly, the proposals Kennedy sent to Congress in
1961 called for increased spending. The Department of
Defense received a nearly 20 percent budget increase for new
nuclear missiles, nuclear submarines, and an expansion of the
armed services. Congress also approved a package that
increased the minimum wage to $1.25 an hour, extended
unemployment insurance, and provided assistance to cities
with high unemployment.
ADDRESSING POVERTY ABROAD One of the first campaign promises
Kennedy fulfilled was the creation of the Peace Corps, a program of volunteer
assistance to the developing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Critics in
the United States called the program “Kennedy’s Kiddie Korps” because many volunteers were just out of college. Some foreign observers questioned whether
Americans could understand
other cultures.
Despite these reservations,
the Peace Corps became a huge
success. People of all ages and
backgrounds signed up to work
as agricultural advisers, teachers, or health aides or to do
whatever work the host country needed. By 1968, more
than 35,000 volunteers had
served in 60 nations around
the world.
A second foreign aid
program, the Alliance for
Progress, offered economic
and technical assistance to
Latin American countries.
Between 1961 and 1969, the
United States invested almost
CHAPTER 28
Page 2 of 5
MAIN IDEA
Identifying
Problems
A Why did
Kennedy have
difficulty achieving
many of his New
Frontier goals?
A. Answer
He lacked the
votes in
Congress and a
popular mandate.
Background
See deficit
spending on page
R39 in the
Economics
Handbook.
p0885-889aspe-0828s2
10/29/02
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Motives
B Why did
Kennedy want to
invest in foreign
aid?
B. Answer
To help developing countries
and to create a
strong U.S.
presence to
counter communist influence.
12:37 PM
Page 887
Page 3 of 5
$12 billion in Latin America, in part to deter these countries
from picking up Fidel Castro’s revolutionary ideas. While the
money brought some development to the region, it didn’t
bring fundamental reforms. B
RACE TO THE MOON On April 12, 1961, Soviet cosmonaut
Yuri A. Gagarin became the first human in space. Kennedy saw
this as a challenge and decided that America would surpass the
Soviets by sending a man to the moon.
In less than a month the United States had duplicated the
Soviet feat. Later that year, a communications satellite called
Telstar relayed live television pictures across the Atlantic Ocean
from Maine to Europe. Meanwhile, America’s National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had begun to
construct new launch facilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida, and a
mission control center in Houston, Texas. America’s pride and
prestige were restored. Speaking before a crowd at Houston’s Rice
University, Kennedy expressed the spirit of “the space race.”
A PERSONAL VOICE PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY
“ We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the
other things, not because they are easy, but because they are
hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the
best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one
that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.”
—Address on the Nation’s Space Effort, September 12, 1962
Analyzing
Effects
C What effect
did the space
program have on
other areas of
American life?
C. Answer
It improved education, particularly in science
and math, and
spurred many
businesses
and industries.
JOHNSON AND
MISSION CONTROL
President Kennedy appointed
Vice President Johnson as chairman of the National Aeronautics
and Space Council shortly after
they assumed office in 1961.
The chairman’s duties were
vague, but Johnson spelled them
out: “He is to advise the president of what this nation’s space
policy ought to be.” And
Johnson’s advice was to land a
man on the moon.
A new home for the moon program’s Manned Spacecraft
Center was created. Some NASA
administrators had wanted to
consolidate the center and the
launch site in Florida. However,
when Johnson’s friends at
Humble Oil donated land to Rice
University, which sold 600 acres
to NASA and donated the rest,
the debate was over. Houston
became the center of the new
space program.
U.S. Space Race Expenditures, 1959–1975
Government Expenditures
for Space Activities
8
7
Geographical Distribution of
NASA Contracts (1961–1975)
California 39%
$15.4 billion
Texas 6%
$2.5 billion
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
’59 ’61 ’63 ’65 ’67 ’69 ’71 ’73 ’75
Skillbuilder
Answers
1. 1965
2. California
S P O TLIG H T
Seven years later, on July 20, 1969, the U.S. would achieve
its goal. An excited nation watched with bated breath as U.S.
astronaut Neil Armstrong took his first steps on the moon.
As a result of the space program, universities expanded their science programs. The huge federal funding for research and development gave rise to new
industries and new technologies, many of which could be used in business and
industry and also in new consumer goods. Space- and defense-related industries
sprang up in the Southern and Western states, which grew rapidly. C
Spending (in billions of dollars)
MAIN IDEA
HISTORICAL
Other
States 39%
$15.6 billion
New York 9%
$3.4 billion
Florida 7%
$2.8 billion
Source: NASA
SKILLBUILDER Interpreting Graphs and Charts
1. In which year did the federal government spend the most money on the space race?
2. What state benefited the most?
The New Frontier and the Great Society 887
p0885-889aspe-0828s2
10/29/02
12:37 PM
Page 888
ADDRESSING DOMESTIC PROBLEMS While progress was being made on the
new frontiers of space exploration and international aid, many Americans
suffered at home. In 1962, the problem of poverty in America was brought to
national attention in Michael Harrington’s book The Other America. Harrington
profiled the 50 million people in America who scraped by each year on less than
$1,000 per person. The number of poor shocked many Americans.
While Harrington awakened the nation to the nightmare of poverty, the fight
against segregation took hold. Throughout the South, demonstrators raised their
voices in what would become some of the most controversial civil rights battles of
the 1960s. (See Chapter 29.) Kennedy had not pushed aggressively for legislation
on the issues of poverty and civil rights, although he effected changes by executive action. However, now he felt that it was time to live up to a campaign promise.
In 1963, Kennedy began to focus more closely on the issues at home. He called
for a “national assault on the causes of poverty.” He also ordered Robert Kennedy’s
Justice Department to investigate racial injustices in the South. Finally, he presented Congress with a sweeping civil rights bill and a proposal to cut taxes by over
$10 billion. D
Tragedy in Dallas
In the fall of 1963, public opinion polls showed that Kennedy was losing popularity because of his advocacy of civil rights. Yet most still supported their beloved
president. No one could foresee the terrible national tragedy just ahead.
Page 4 of 5
MAIN IDEA
Making
Inferences
D In what
directions did
President Kennedy
seem to be taking
his administration
in 1963?
D. Answer
Toward taking
more action on
domestic problems, including
poverty, civil
rights, and the
economy.
FOUR DAYS IN NOVEMBER On the sunny morning of November 22, 1963, Air
Force One, the presidential aircraft, landed in Dallas, Texas. President and Mrs.
Kennedy had come to Texas to mend political fences with members of the state’s
Democratic Party. Kennedy had expected a cool reception from the conservative
state, but he basked instead in warm waves of applause from crowds that lined the
streets of downtown Dallas.
Jacqueline and her husband sat in the back seat of an open-air limousine. In
front of them sat Texas Governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie. As the car
approached a state building known as the Texas School Book Depository, Nellie
Connally turned to Kennedy and said, “You can’t say that Dallas isn’t friendly to you
today.” A few seconds later, rifle shots
rang out, and Kennedy was shot in the
head. His car raced to a nearby hospital,
where doctors frantically tried to revive
him, but it was too late. President
Kennedy was dead.
As the tragic news spread through
America’s schools, offices, and homes,
Image not available
people reacted with disbelief. Questions
for use on CD-ROM.
were on everyone’s lips: Who had killed
the president, and why? What would
Please refer to the
happen next?
image in the textbook.
p0885-889aspe-0828s2
10/29/02
E. Answer
It declared that
Oswald acted
alone, while others claimed a
conspiracy.
Vocabulary
conspiracy: an
agreement by two
or more persons
to take illegal
political action
MAIN IDEA
Contrasting
E How did
the Warren
Commission’s
findings differ from
other theories?
12:37 PM
Page 889
Page 5 of 5
During the next four days, television became “the window
of the world.” A photograph of a somber Lyndon Johnson taking the oath of office aboard the presidential airplane was
broadcast. Soon, audiences watched as Dallas police charged
Lee Harvey Oswald with the murder. His palm print had been
found on the rifle used to kill John F. Kennedy.
The 24-year-old Marine had a suspicious past. After receiving a dishonorable discharge, Oswald had briefly lived in the
Soviet Union, and he supported Castro. On Sunday, November
24, as millions watched live television coverage of Oswald
being transferred between jails, a nightclub owner named Jack
Ruby broke through the crowd and shot and killed Oswald.
The next day, all work stopped for Kennedy’s funeral as
America mourned its fallen leader. The assassination and
televised funeral became a historic event. Americans who
were alive then can still recall what they were doing when
they first heard about the shooting of their president.
N OW
THEN
KENNEDY’S ASSASSINATION
From the beginning, people have
questioned the Warren Commission report. Amateur investigators have led to increasing public
pressure on the government to
tell all it knows about the assassination.
In response, Congress passed
the JFK Records Act in 1992,
which created a panel to review
government and private files and
decide which should be part of
the public record.
Since the law was enacted,
newly declassified information has
added some weight to a body of
evidence that JFK was shot from
the front (the Warren Commission
had concluded that a single bullet
struck the president from behind)
and that Oswald, thus, could not
have acted alone. While such evidence challenges the Warren
Commission’s report, no information has yet surfaced that conclusively disproves its findings.
UNANSWERED QUESTIONS The bizarre chain of events
made some people wonder if Oswald was part of a conspiracy.
In 1963, the Warren Commission investigated and concluded that Oswald had shot the president while acting on his
own. Later, in 1979, a reinvestigation concluded that Oswald
was part of a conspiracy. Investigators also said that two persons may have fired at the president. Numerous other people
have made investigations. Their explanations have ranged
from a plot by anti-Castro Cubans, to a Communist-sponsored attack, to a conspiracy by the CIA. E
What Americans did learn from the Kennedy assassination was that their system of government is remarkably sturdy. A crisis that would have crippled a dictatorship did not prevent a smooth transition to the presidency of Lyndon Johnson. In a speech to Congress, Johnson
expressed his hope that “from the brutal loss of our leader we will derive not
weakness but strength.” Not long after, Johnson drove through Congress the
most ambitious domestic legislative package since the New Deal.
1. TERMS & NAMES For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance.
•New Frontier
•mandate
•Peace Corps
•Alliance for Progress
•Warren Commission
MAIN IDEA
CRITICAL THINKING
2. TAKING NOTES
Re-create the web shown and fill it in
with programs of the New Frontier.
3. ANALYZING MOTIVES
Why do you think Congress was so
enthusiastic about allocating funds
for the space program but rejected
spending in education, social
services, and other pressing needs?
The New Frontier
4. MAKING INFERENCES
Why do you think Kennedy lost
popularity for supporting civil rights?
5. EVALUATING LEADERSHIP
Do you think President Kennedy was
a successful leader? Explain your
viewpoint. Think About:
• the reasons for his popularity
• the goals he expressed
• his foreign policy
• his legislative record
Which do you think was most
successful? Why?
The New Frontier and the Great Society 889
p0892-899aspe-0828s3
10/17/02
9:19 AM
Page 892
Page 1 of 8
The Great Society
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
MAIN IDEA
The demand for reform helped
create a new awareness of
social problems, especially on
matters of civil rights and the
effects of poverty.
Reforms made in the 1960s
have had a lasting effect on
the American justice system
by increasing the rights of
minorities.
Terms & Names
•Lyndon Baines
Johnson
•Economic
Opportunity Act
•Great Society
•Medicare and
Medicaid
•Immigration Act
of 1965
•Warren Court
•reapportionment
One American's Story
LBJ’s Path to Power
By the time Lyndon Baines Johnson, or LBJ, as he was called, succeeded to the
presidency, his ambition and drive had become legendary. In explaining his frenetic energy, Johnson once remarked, “That’s the way I’ve been all my life. My
daddy used to wake me up at dawn and shake my leg and say, ‘Lyndon, every boy
in town’s got an hour’s head start on you.’”
FROM THE TEXAS HILLS TO CAPITOL HILL A fourth-generation Texan,
Johnson grew up in the dry Texas hill country of Blanco County. The Johnsons
never knew great wealth, but they also never missed a meal.
892
CHAPTER 28
▼
In 1966, family finances forced Larry Alfred to drop out of high
school in Mobile, Alabama. He turned to the Job Corps, a federal
program that trained young people from poor backgrounds. He
learned to operate construction equipment, but his dream was to
help people. On the advice of his Job Corps counselor, he joined
VISTA—Volunteers in Service to America—often called the “domestic Peace Corps.”
Both the Job Corps and VISTA sprang into being in 1964, when
President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Economic Opportunity Act.
This law was the main offensive of Johnson’s “war on poverty” and
a cornerstone of the Great Society.
VISTA assigned Alfred to work with a community of poor farm
laborers in Robstown, Texas, near the Mexican border. There he found
a number of children with mental and physical disabilities who had
no special assistance, education, or training. So he established the
Robstown Association for Retarded People, started a parents education program, sought state funds, and created a rehabilitation center.
At age 20, Larry Alfred was a high school dropout, Job Corps graduate, VISTA
volunteer, and in Robstown, an authority on people with disabilities. Alfred
embodied Johnson’s Great Society in two ways: its programs helped him turn his
life around, and he made a difference in people’s lives.
VISTA volunteers
worked in a variety of
capacities. This
woman is teaching
art to young pupils.
p0892-899aspe-0828s3
10/17/02
9:19 AM
Page 893
Page 2 of 8
LBJ entered politics in 1937 when he won a special election to fill a vacant seat in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Johnson styled himself as a “New Dealer” and spokesperson
for the small ranchers and struggling farmers of his district.
He caught the eye of President Franklin Roosevelt, who took
Johnson under his wing. Roosevelt helped him secure key
committee assignments in Congress and steer much-needed
electrification and water projects to his Texas district. Johnson,
in turn, idolized FDR and imitated his leadership style.
Once in the House, Johnson eagerly eyed a seat in the
Senate. In 1948, after an exhausting, bitterly fought campaign, he won the Democratic primary election for the
Senate by a margin of only 87 votes out of 988,000.
A MASTER POLITICIAN Johnson proved himself a master
of party politics and behind-the-scenes maneuvering, and
he rose to the position of Senate majority leader in 1955.
People called his legendary ability to persuade senators to
support his bills the “LBJ treatment.” As a reporter for the
Saturday Evening Post explained, Johnson also used this
treatment to win over reporters.
A PERSONAL VOICE STEWART ALSOP
“ The Majority Leader [Johnson] was, it seemed, in a
relaxed, friendly, reminiscent mood. But by gradual stages
this mood gave way to something rather like a human hurricane. Johnson was up, striding about his office, talking
without pause, occasionally leaning over, his nose almost
touching the reporter’s, to shake the reporter’s shoulder or
grab his knee. . . . Appeals were made, to the Almighty, to
the shades of the departed great, to the reporter’s finer
instincts and better nature, while the reporter, unable to
get a word in edgewise, sat collapsed upon a leather sofa,
eyes glazed, mouth half open.”
—“The New President,” Saturday Evening Post, December 14, 1963
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Motives
A Why did
Kennedy choose
Johnson to be his
running mate?
A. Answer
Johnson
brought balance
to the ticket
because of his
experience and
influence in
Congress and
his Southern
Protestant background.
KEY PLAYER
LYNDON B. JOHNSON
1908–1973
LBJ received his teaching degree
from Southwest Texas State
Teachers College in 1930. To finance his own education, Johnson
took a year off from college to
work at a Mexican-American
school in Cotulla, Texas. He later
taught public speaking and
debate at the Sam Houston High
School in Houston. At age 26, he
became the state director of the
National Youth Administration, a
New Deal agency.
As president, Johnson pushed
hard for the passage of the
Elementary and Secondary
Education Act. In 1965, he
signed the act at the one-room
schoolhouse near Stonewall,
Texas, where his own education
had begun. Johnson later wrote,
“My education had begun with
what I learned in that schoolroom. Now what I had learned
and experienced since that time
had brought me back to fulfill a
dream.”
Johnson’s deft handling of Congress led to the passage
of the Civil Rights Act of 1957, a voting rights measure that
was the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction.
Johnson’s knack for achieving legislative results had captured John F. Kennedy’s attention, too, during Kennedy’s
run for the White House. To Kennedy, Johnson’s congressional connections and his Southern Protestant background compensated for his
own drawbacks as a candidate, so he asked Johnson to be his running mate.
Johnson’s presence on the ticket helped Kennedy win key states in the South,
especially Texas, which went Democratic by just a few thousand votes. A
Johnson’s Domestic Agenda
In the wake of Kennedy’s assassination, President Johnson addressed a joint session of Congress. It was the fifth day of his administration. “All I have I would
have given gladly not to be standing here today,” he began. Kennedy had inspired
Americans to begin to solve national and world problems. Johnson urged Congress
to pass the civil rights and tax-cut bills that Kennedy had sent to Capitol Hill.
The New Frontier and the Great Society
893
p0892-899aspe-0828s3
10/17/02
9:19 AM
LD STAGE
W OR
CHINA
NORTH
VIETNAM
Hanoi
LAOS
Gulf of
Tonkin
17th Parallel
THAILAND
SOUTH
CAMBODIA VIETNAM
Gulf
of
Thailand
Saigon
South
China Sea
THE WAR IN VIETNAM
As LBJ pushed through his
domestic programs, the U.S. grew
more interested in halting the
spread of communism around the
world. In Vietnam, antiCommunist nationalists controlled
South Vietnam while Communist
leader Ho Chi Minh had taken
over North Vietnam. The Geneva
Accords had temporarily provided
peace, dividing Vietnam along the
17th parallel into two distinct
political regions. Despite this
treaty, the North was supporting
Communist rebels who were trying to take over the South.
Though Presidents Eisenhower
and Kennedy had provided economic and military aid to South
Vietnam, soon the U.S. would be
directly involved in fighting the war.
▼
Campaign
buttons like this
one capitalized on
the nation’s
growing liberal
democratic
sentiments.
894
Page 894
In February 1964 Congress passed a tax reduction of
over $10 billion into law. As the Democrats had hoped, the
tax cut spurred economic growth. People spent more,
which meant profits for businesses, which increased tax
revenues and lowered the federal budget deficit from $6 billion in 1964 to $4 billion in 1966.
Then in July, Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of
1964 through Congress, persuading Southern senators to
stop blocking its passage. It prohibited discrimination based
on race, religion, national origin, and sex and granted the
federal government new powers to enforce its provisions.
THE WAR ON POVERTY Following these successes, LBJ
pressed on with his own agenda—to alleviate poverty. Early
in 1964, he had declared “unconditional war on poverty in
America” and proposed sweeping legislation designed to
help Americans “on the outskirts of hope.”
In August 1964, Congress enacted the Economic
Opportunity Act (EOA), approving nearly $1 billion
for youth programs, antipoverty measures, small-business
loans, and job training. The EOA legislation created:
• the Job Corps Youth Training Program
• VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)
• Project Head Start, an education program for underprivileged preschoolers
• the Community Action Program, which encouraged
poor people to participate in public-works programs. B
THE 1964 ELECTION In 1964, the Republicans nominated conservative senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona to
oppose Johnson. Goldwater believed the federal government had no business trying to right social and economic
wrongs such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of opportunity. He attacked such long-established federal programs
as Social Security, which he wanted to make voluntary, and
the Tennessee Valley Authority, which he wanted to sell.
In 1964, most American people were in tune with
Johnson—they believed that government could and should
help solve the nation’s problems. Moreover, Goldwater had
frightened many Americans by suggesting that he might use nuclear weapons on
Cuba and North Vietnam. Johnson’s campaign capitalized on this fear. It produced
a chilling television commercial in which a picture of a little girl counting the petals
on a daisy dissolved into a mushroom cloud created by an
atomic bomb. Where Goldwater advocated intervention in Vietnam, Johnson assured the American people that sending U.S. troops there “would offer no
solution at all to the real problem of Vietnam.”
LBJ won the election by a landslide, winning 61 percent of the popular vote and 486
electoral votes, while Senator Goldwater won
only 52. The Democrats also increased their
majority in Congress. For the first time since
1938, a Democratic president did not need the
votes of conservative Southern Democrats in order
to get laws passed. Now Johnson could launch his
reform program in earnest.
CHAPTER 28
Page 3 of 8
Background
See poverty on
page R43 in the
Economics
Handbook.
MAIN IDEA
Identifying
Problems
B What
problems in
American society
did the Economic
Opportunity Act
seek to address?
B. Answer
Poverty and lack
of opportunity.
10/17/02
9:19 AM
Page 895
Page 4 of 8
▼
p0892-899aspe-0828s3
Building the Great Society
In May 1964, Johnson had summed up his vision for America in a phrase: the
Great Society. In a speech at the University of Michigan, Johnson outlined a
legislative program that would end poverty and racial injustice. But, he told an
enthusiastic crowd, that was “just the beginning.” Johnson envisioned a legislative program that would create not only a higher standard of living and equal
opportunity, but also promote a richer quality of life for all.
A PERSONAL VOICE LYNDON B. JOHNSON
“ The Great Society is a place where every child can find knowledge to enrich his
These
preschoolers in
a Head Start
classroom are
among the
millions of
Americans whose
daily lives have
been affected by
Great Society
programs.
mind and to enlarge his talents. It is a place where leisure is a welcome chance
to build and reflect, not a feared cause of boredom and restlessness. It is a place
where the city of man serves not only the needs of the body and the demands of
commerce but the desire for beauty and the hunger for community. It is a place
where man can renew contact with nature. It is a place which honors creation for
its own sake and for what it adds to the understanding of the race.”
—“The Great Society,” May 22, 1964
Like his idol FDR, LBJ wanted to change America. By the time Johnson left
the White House in 1969, Congress had passed 206 of his measures. The president
personally led the battle to get most of them passed.
EDUCATION During 1965 and 1966, the LBJ administration introduced a flurry
of bills to Congress. Johnson considered education “the key which can unlock
the door to the Great Society.” The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of
1965 provided more than $1 billion in federal aid to help public and parochial
schools purchase textbooks and new library materials. This was the first major
federal aid package for education in the nation’s history.
The New Frontier and the Great Society
895
p0892-899aspe-0828s3
10/17/02
9:19 AM
Page 896
Page 5 of 8
Great Society Programs, 1964–1967
POVERTY
1964 Tax Reduction Act cut corporate and
individual taxes to stimulate growth.
1964 Economic Opportunity Act created Job
Corps, VISTA, Project Head Start, and other
programs to fight the “war on poverty.”
1965 Medicare Act established Medicare and
Medicaid programs.
1965 Appalachian Regional Development Act
targeted aid for highways, health centers,
and resource development in that
economically depressed area.
CITIES
1965 Omnibus Housing Act provided money
for low-income housing.
1965 Department of Housing and Urban
Development was formed to administer
federal housing programs.
1966 Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan
Area Redevelopment Act funded slum
rebuilding, mass transit, and other
improvements for selected “model cities.”
EDUCATION
1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act
directed money to schools for textbooks,
library materials, and special education.
1965 Higher Education Act funded scholarships
and low-interest loans for college students.
1965 National Foundation on the Arts and the
Humanities was created to financially assist
painters, musicians, actors, and other artists.
1967 Corporation for Public Broadcasting was
formed to fund educational TV and radio
broadcasting.
DISCRIMINATION
1964 Civil Rights Act outlawed discrimination in
public accommodations, housing, and jobs;
increased federal power to prosecute civil
rights abuses.
1964 Twenty-Fourth Amendment abolished the
poll tax in federal elections.
1965 Voting Rights Act ended the practice of
requiring voters to pass literacy tests and
permitted the federal government to monitor
voter registration.
1965 Immigration Act ended national-origins
quotas established in 1924.
ENVIRONMENT
1965 Wilderness Preservation Act set aside over
9 million acres for national forest lands.
1965 Water Quality Act required states to clean
up their rivers.
1965 Clean Air Act Amendment directed the
federal government to establish emission
standards for new motor vehicles.
1967 Air Quality Act set federal air pollution guidelines and extended federal enforcement power.
CONSUMER ADVOCACY
1966 Truth in Packaging Act set standards for
labeling consumer products.
1966 National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety
Act set federal safety standards for the
auto and tire industries.
1966 Highway Safety Act required states to set
up highway safety programs.
1966 Department of Transportation was created
to deal with national air, rail, and highway
transportation.
SKILLBUILDER Interpreting Charts
What did the Great Society programs indicate about the federal government’s changing role?
Skillbuilder
Answer
The programs
were wide-ranging, which
reflected an
expanding role
for the federal
government in
addressing
certain problems
of American
society.
896
HEALTHCARE LBJ and Congress changed Social Security by establishing
Medicare and Medicaid. Medicare provided hospital insurance and low-cost
medical insurance for almost every American age 65 or older. Medicaid extended health insurance to welfare recipients. C
HOUSING Congress also made several important decisions that shifted the
nation’s political power from rural to urban areas. These decisions included
appropriating money to build some 240,000 units of low-rent public housing and
help low- and moderate-income families pay for better private housing; establishing the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD); and appointing Robert Weaver, the first African-American cabinet member in American history, as Secretary of HUD.
CHAPTER 28
MAIN IDEA
Comparing
C How are
Medicare and
Medicaid similar?
C. Answer
Both provide
governmentsponsored
health insurance.
p0892-899aspe-0828s3
10/17/02
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Effects
D How did the
Immigration Act of
1965 change the
nation’s
immigration
system?
D. Answer
It replaced the
nation origins
system, which
discriminated
against people
from outside
Western Europe.
9:19 AM
Page 897
Page 6 of 8
IMMIGRATION The Great Society also brought profound
changes to the nation’s immigration laws. The Immigration
Act of 1924 and the National Origins Act of 1924 had established immigration quotas that discriminated strongly against
people from outside Western Europe. The Act set a quota of
about 150,000 people annually. It discriminated against
southern and eastern Europeans and barred Asians completely. The Immigration Act of 1965 opened the door for
many non-European immigrants to settle in the United States
by ending quotas based on nationality. D
THE ENVIRONMENT In 1962, Silent Spring, a book by Rachel
Carson, had exposed a hidden danger: the effects of pesticides on the environment. Carson’s book and the public’s
outcry resulted in the Water Quality Act of 1965, which
required states to clean up rivers. Johnson also ordered the
government to search out the worst chemical polluters.
“There is no excuse . . . for chemical companies and oil
refineries using our major rivers as pipelines for toxic wastes.”
Such words and actions helped trigger the environmental
movement in the United States. (See Chapter 32.)
N OW
THEN
MEDICARE ON THE LINE
When President Johnson signed
the Medicare bill in 1965, only half
of the nation’s elderly had health
insurance. Today, thanks largely to
Medicare, nearly all persons 65
years or older are eligible.
In 1998, federal spending on
Medicare was about $160 billion.
In recent years, experts have
debated over whether Medicare
can be sustained in the face of
changing trends: (1) people are
living longer, (2) health care continues to become more expensive, and (3) the large baby
boomer generation is moving
toward retirement age. Though
most Americans are not in favor
of cutbacks to Medicare, the
Balanced Budget Act of 1997
reduced federal spending on
Medicare from 1998 through
2002 by $112 billion.
CONSUMER PROTECTION Consumer advocates also made
headway. They convinced Congress to pass major safety laws,
including a truth-in-packaging law that set standards for labeling consumer goods. Ralph Nader, a young lawyer, wrote a
book, Unsafe at Any Speed, that sharply criticized the U.S. automobile industry for ignoring safety concerns. His testimony
helped persuade Congress to establish safety standards for automobiles and tires.
Precautions extended to food, too. Congress passed the Wholesome Meat Act of
1967. “Americans can feel a little safer now in their homes, on the road, at the
supermarket, and in the department store,” said Johnson.
Reforms of the Warren Court
The wave of liberal reform that characterized the Great Society also
swept through the Supreme Court of the 1960s. Beginning with the
1954 landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled school
segregation unconstitutional, the Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren
took an activist stance on the leading issues of the day.
Several major court decisions in the 1960s affected American society. The Warren Court banned prayer in public schools and declared
state-required loyalty oaths unconstitutional. It limited the power of
communities to censor books and films and said that free speech
included the wearing of black armbands to school by antiwar students.
Furthermore, the Court brought about change in federal and state reapportionment and the criminal justice system.
CONGRESSIONAL REAPPORTIONMENT In a key series of decisions,
the Warren Court addressed the issue of reapportionment, or the way
in which states redraw election districts based on the changing number of people
in them. By 1960, about 80 percent of Americans lived in cities and suburbs.
However, many states had failed to change their congressional districts to reflect
this development; instead, rural districts might have fewer than 200,000 people,
while some urban districts had more than 600,000. Thus the voters in rural areas
had more representation—and also more power—than those in urban areas.
Chief Justice
Earl Warren
The New Frontier and the Great Society
897
p0892-899aspe-0828s3
10/17/02
9:19 AM
Page 898
Page 7 of 8
Baker v. Carr (1962) was the first of several decisions that established the principle of “one person, one vote.” The Court asserted that the federal courts had the
right to tell states to reapportion—redivide—their districts for more equal representation. In later decisions, the Court ruled that congressional district boundaries should be redrawn so that districts would be equal in population, and in
Reynolds v. Sims (1964), it extended the principle of “one person, one vote” to
state legislative districts. (See Reynolds v. Sims, page 980.) These decisions led to a
shift of political power throughout the nation from rural to urban areas.
RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED Other Warren Court decisions greatly expanded
the rights of people accused of crimes. In Mapp v. Ohio (1961), the Court ruled
that evidence seized illegally could not be used in state courts. This is called the
exclusionary rule. In Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), the justices required criminal
courts to provide free legal counsel to those who could not afford it. In Escobedo
v. Illinois (1964), the justices ruled that an accused person has a right to have a
lawyer present during police questioning. In 1966, the Court went one step further in Miranda v. Arizona, where it ruled that all suspects must be read their rights
before questioning. (See Miranda v. Arizona, page 900.)
These rulings greatly divided public opinion. Liberals praised the decisions,
arguing that they placed necessary limits on police power and protected the right
of all citizens to a fair trial. Conservatives, however, bitterly criticized the Court.
They claimed that Mapp and Miranda benefited criminal suspects and severely limited the power of the police to investigate crimes. During the late 1960s and 1970s,
Republican candidates for office seized on the “crime issue,” portraying liberals and
Democrats as being soft on crime and citing the decisions of the Warren Court as
major obstacles to fighting crime. E
“Failures of the Great Society
prove that government-sponsored
programs do not work.”
Defenders of the Great Society contend that it bettered
the lives of millions of Americans. Historian John
Morton Blum notes, “The Great Society initiated policies that by 1985 had had profound consequences:
Blacks now voted at about the same rate as whites,
and nearly 6,000 blacks held public offices; almost
every elderly citizen had medical insurance, and the
aged were no poorer than Americans as a whole; a
large majority of small children attended preschool
programs.”
Attorney Margaret Burnham argues that the civil
rights gains alone justify the Great Society: “For tens
of thousands of human
THINKING CRITICALLY
beings . . . giving promise
of a better life was signifiCONNECT TO HISTORY
cant . . . . What the Great
1. Evaluating Do you think the
Society affirmed was the
responsibility of the federal
government to take measures necessary to bring
into the social and economic mainstream any
segment of the people
[who had been] historically
excluded.”
898
CHAPTER 28
MAIN IDEA
Contrasting
E What were the
differing reactions
to the Warren
Court decisions on
the rights of the
accused?
COUNTERPOINT
P O I N T
“The Great Society succeeded
in prompting far-reaching
social change.”
E. Answer
Liberals supported the decisions for protecting individual rights, while
conservatives
criticized the
Court for protecting criminal
suspects and
limiting police
power.
The major attack on the Great Society is that it created
“big government”: an oversized bureaucracy,
too many regulations, waste and fraud, and rising budget deficits. As journalist David Alpern writes, this
comes from the notion that government could solve all
the nation’s problems: “The Great Society created
unwieldy new mechanisms like the Office of Economic
Opportunity and began ‘throwing dollars at problems . . . .’
Spawned in the process were vast new constituencies
of government bureaucrats and beneficiaries whose
political clout made it difficult to kill programs off.”
Conservatives say the Great Society’s social welfare programs created a
culture of dependency.
Economist Paul Craig
Roberts argues that “The
Great Society was a
Great Society . . . reflected
success or a failure? Explain.
our lack of confidence in
SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK, PAGE R17.
the institutions of a free
society. We came to the
view that it is government
CONNECT TO TODAY
spending and not business
2. Analyzing Social Problems Research the most pressing problems in your own neighborhood or precinct.
innovation that creates
Then propose a social program you think would
jobs and that it is society’s
address at least one of those problems while avoiding
fault if anyone is poor.”
the pitfalls of the Great Society programs.
p0892-899aspe-0828s3
10/17/02
9:19 AM
Page 899
Page 8 of 8
Impact of the Great Society
F. Possible
Answers
Some programs
contributed to
the budget
deficit; federal
spending,
deficits, and
intervention
sparked conservative backlash;
the Vietnam War
drew away funds
and attention.
MAIN IDEA
Identifying
Problems
F What events
and problems may
have affected the
success of the
Great Society?
The Great Society and the Warren Court changed the United States. People disagree on whether these changes left the nation better or worse, but most agree on
one point: no president in the post–World War II era extended the power and
reach of the federal government more than Lyndon Johnson. The optimism of
the Johnson presidency fueled an activist era in all three branches of government,
for at least the first few years.
The “war on poverty” did help. The number of poor people fell from 21 percent of the population in 1962 to 11 percent in 1973. However, many of
Johnson’s proposals, though well intended, were hastily conceived and proved
difficult to accomplish.
Johnson’s massive tax cut spurred the economy. But funding the Great Society
contributed to a growing budget deficit—a problem that continued for decades.
Questions about government finances, as well as debates over the effectiveness of
these programs and the role of the federal government, left a number of people disillusioned. A conservative backlash began
to take shape as a new group of Republican
leaders rose to power. In 1966, for example,
a conservative Hollywood actor named
Ronald Reagan swept to victory in the race
Image not available
for governor of California over the
for use on CD-ROM.
Democratic incumbent.
Please refer to the
Thousands of miles away, the increase
image in the textbook.
of Communist forces in Vietnam also
began to overshadow the goals of the
Great Society. The fear of communism was
deeply rooted in the minds of Americans
from the Cold War era. Four years after initiating the Great Society, Johnson, a peace
candidate in 1964, would be labeled a
“hawk”—a supporter of one of the most
divisive wars in recent U.S. history. F
1. TERMS & NAMES For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance.
•Lyndon Baines Johnson
•Economic Opportunity Act
•Great Society
•Medicare and Medicaid
•Immigration Act of 1965
•Warren Court
MAIN IDEA
CRITICAL THINKING
2. TAKING NOTES
List four or more Great Society
programs and Warren Court rulings.
3. EVALUATING LEADERSHIP
Explain how Lyndon Johnson’s
personal and political experiences
might have influenced his actions as
president. Think About:
• his family’s background and education
• his relationship with Franklin
Roosevelt
• his powers of persuasion
Great Society
Programs
Warren Court
Rulings
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
•reapportionment
4. ANALYZING VISUAL SOURCES
Look at the political cartoon above.
What do you think the artist was
trying to convey about the Johnson
administration?
Choose one item and describe its
lasting effects.
The New Frontier and the Great Society
899
p0900-901aspe-0828sc
10/17/02
9:19 AM
Page 900
Page 1 of 2
MIRANDA v. ARIZONA (1966)
ORIGINS OF THE CASE In 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested at his home in Phoenix,
Arizona, on charges of kidnapping and rape. After two hours of questioning by police, he
signed a confession and was later convicted, largely based on the confession. Miranda
appealed. He claimed that his confession was invalid because it was coerced and because the
police never advised him of his right to an attorney or his right to avoid self-incrimination.
THE RULING The Court overturned Miranda’s conviction, holding that the police must
inform criminal suspects of their legal rights at the time of arrest and may not interrogate
suspects who invoke their rights.
LEGAL REASONING
Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the majority opinion in Miranda v. Arizona. He based
his argument on the Fifth Amendment, which guarantees that an accused person
cannot be forced “to be a witness against himself” or herself. Warren stressed that
when suspects are interrogated in police custody, the situation is “inherently intimidating.” Such a situation, he argued, undermines any evidence it produces because
“no statement obtained from the defendant [while in custody] can truly be the
product of his free choice.”
LEGAL SOURCES
For this reason, the Court majority found that
Miranda’s confession could not be used as evidence. In
U.S. CONSTITUTION
the opinion, Chief Justice Warren responded to the
argument that police officials might find this requireU.S. CONSTITUTION, FIFTH AMENDMENT (1791)
ment difficult to meet.
“ Not only does the use of the third degree [harassment or torture used to obtain a confession] involve
a flagrant violation of law by the officers of the law,
but it involves also the dangers of false confessions,
and it tends to make police and prosecutors less
zealous in the search for objective evidence.”
“No person . . . shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law.”
RELATED CASES
MAPP V. OHIO (1961)
The Court ruled that prosecutors may not use
evidence obtained in illegal searches (exclusionary rule).
GIDEON V. WAINWRIGHT (1963)
The Court said that a defendant accused of a
felony has the right to an attorney, which the
government must supply if the defendant cannot
afford one.
ESCOBEDO V. ILLINOIS (1964)
The Court held that a suspect has the right to
an attorney when being questioned by police.
▼
900
Ernesto Miranda (at right) converses with attorney John J.
Flynn in February 1967.
CHAPTER 28
p0900-901aspe-0828sc
10/17/02
9:19 AM
Page 901
Page 2 of 2
WHY IT MATTERED
HISTORICAL IMPACT
Miranda was one of four key criminal justice cases
decided by the Warren Court (see Related Cases). In
each case, the decision reflected the chief justice’s
strong belief that all persons deserve to be treated with
respect by their government. In Miranda, the Court
directed police to inform every suspect of his or her
rights at the time of arrest and even gave the police
detailed instructions about what to say.
The rights of accused people need to be protected
in order to ensure that innocent people are not punished. These protections also ensure that federal, state,
or local authorities will not harass people for political
reasons—as often happened to civil rights activists in
the South in the 1950s and 1960s, for example.
Critics of the Warren Court claimed that Miranda
would lead to more crime because it would become
more difficult to convict criminals. Police departments,
however, adapted to the decision. They placed the list
of suspects’ rights mentioned in Miranda on cards for
police officers to read to suspects. The statement of
these rights became known as the Miranda warning
and quickly became familiar to anyone who
watched a police show on
television.
As for the defendant,
Ernesto Miranda, he was
retried and convicted on
the basis of other evidence.
The Miranda decision was highly controversial. Critics
complained that the opinion would protect the rights
of criminals at the expense of public safety.
Since Miranda, the Court has continued to try to
strike a balance between public safety and the rights of
the accused. Several cases in the 1970s and 1980s softened the Miranda ruling and gave law enforcement
officers more power to gather evidence without
informing suspects of their rights. Even so, conservatives still hoped to overturn the Miranda decision.
In 2000, however, the Supreme Court affirmed
Miranda by a 7-to-2 majority in Dickerson v. United
States. Writing for the majority, Chief Justice William
Rehnquist argued, “There is no such justification here
for overruling Miranda. Miranda has become embedded
in routine police practice to the point where warnings
have become part of our national culture.”
(right) This card is carried
by police officers in order to
read suspects their rights.
(far right) An officer reads a
suspect his rights.
THINKING CRITICALLY
CONNECT TO HISTORY
1. Drawing Conclusions Critics charged that Miranda
incorrectly used the Fifth Amendment. The right to avoid
self-incrimination, they said, should only apply to trials,
not to police questioning. Do you agree or disagree?
Why?
SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK, PAGE R18.
CONNECT TO TODAY
2.
IINTERNET ACTIVITY
CLASSZONE.COM
Visit the links for Historic Decisions of the Supreme Court
to research laws and other court decisions related to Mapp
and Miranda. Then, prepare a debate on whether courts
should or should not set a guilty person free if the government broke the law in establishing that person’s guilt.
The New Frontier and the Great Society
901
p1000-1007aspe-0932s1
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1000
Page 1 of 8
The Nixon
Administration
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
MAIN IDEA
President Richard M. Nixon
tried to steer the country in a
conservative direction and
away from federal control.
American leaders of the early
1970s laid the foundations for
the broad conservative base
that exists today.
Terms & Names
•Richard M. Nixon
•New Federalism
•revenue sharing
•Family Assistance
Plan (FAP)
•Southern strategy
•stagflation
One American's Story
•OPEC
(Organization
of Petroleum
Exporting
Countries)
•realpolitik
•détente
•SALT I Treaty
In November of 1968, Richard M. Nixon had
just been elected president of the United States. He
chose Henry Kissinger to be his special adviser on
foreign affairs. During Nixon’s second term in
1972, as the United States struggled to achieve an
acceptable peace in Vietnam, Kissinger reflected on
his relationship with Nixon.
A PERSONAL VOICE HENRY KISSINGER
“ I . . . am not at all so sure I could have done
—quoted in The New Republic, December 16, 1972
Nixon and Kissinger ended America’s involvement in Vietnam, but as the war
wound down, the nation seemed to enter an era of limits. The economic prosperity that had followed World War II was ending. President Nixon wanted to limit the
federal government to reduce its power and to reverse some of Johnson’s liberal
policies. At the same time, he would seek to restore America’s prestige and influence
on the world stage—prestige that had been hit hard by the Vietnam experience.
Nixon’s New Conservatism
President Richard M. Nixon entered office in 1969 determined to turn America in
a more conservative direction. Toward that end, he tried to instill a sense of order
into a nation still divided over the continuing Vietnam War.
1000
CHAPTER 32
▼
what I’ve done with him with another president.
. . . I don’t know many leaders who would entrust
to their aide the task of negotiating with the
North Vietnamese, informing only a tiny group of
people of the initiative.”
President Nixon (right)
confers with
Henry Kissinger.
p1000-1007aspe-0932s1
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1001
Page 2 of 8
Analyzing
“DOMESTIC LIFE”
Pulitzer Prize–winning cartoonist Paul Szep
frequently used Nixon as the subject of his
cartoons. Although President Nixon focused
his domestic policy on dismantling a number
of Great Society social programs, his chief
interest was foreign policy.
SKILLBUILDER
Analyzing Political Cartoons
1. What does the cartoonist suggest about
Nixon by showing him leaving with his
bags packed?
2. Whom do the children represent in this
cartoon?
SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK,
PAGE R24.
MAIN IDEA
Summarizing
A What was the
goal of Nixon’s
New Federalism?
A. Answer To
shrink the size
and responsibility of the federal
government by
distributing some
of its power to
state and local
governments.
NEW FEDERALISM One of the main items on President Nixon’s agenda was to
decrease the size and influence of the federal government. Nixon believed that
Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs, by promoting greater federal involvement with social problems, had given the federal government too much responsibility. Nixon’s plan, known as New Federalism, was to distribute a portion of
federal power to state and local governments. A
To implement this program, Nixon proposed a plan to give more financial
freedom to local governments. Normally, the federal government told state and
local governments how to spend their federal money. Under revenue sharing,
state and local governments could spend their federal dollars however they saw
fit within certain limitations. In 1972, the revenue-sharing bill, known as the
State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act, became law.
WELFARE REFORM Nixon was not as successful, however, in his attempt to overhaul welfare, which he believed had grown cumbersome and inefficient. In 1969,
the president advocated the so-called Family Assistance Plan (FAP). Under the
FAP, every family of four with no outside income would receive a basic federal payment of $1,600 a year, with a provision to earn up to $4,000 a year in supplemental income. Unemployed participants, excluding mothers of preschool children,
would have to take job training and accept any reasonable work offered them.
Nixon presented the plan in conservative terms—as a program that would
reduce the supervisory role of the federal government and make welfare recipients
responsible for their own lives. The House approved the plan in 1970. However,
when the bill reached the Senate, lawmakers from both parties attacked it. Liberal
legislators considered the minimum payments too low and the work requirement
too stiff, while conservatives objected to the notion of guaranteed income. The
bill went down in defeat.
NEW FEDERALISM WEARS TWO FACES In the end, Nixon’s New Federalism
enhanced several key federal programs as it dismantled others. To win backing for
his New Federalism program from a Democrat-controlled Congress, Nixon supported a number of congressional measures to increase federal spending for some
social programs. Without fanfare, the Nixon administration increased Social
An Age of Limits
1001
p1000-1007aspe-0932s1
10/17/02
9:26 AM
HISTORICAL
S P O TLIG H T
AMERICANS WALK
ON THE MOON
Not all was political war during
the Nixon administration. On July
20, 1969, one of America’s longheld dreams became a reality.
Nearly ten years after John F.
Kennedy challenged America to
put a person on the moon, astronaut Neil Armstrong climbed
down the ladder of his lunar module and stepped onto the surface
of the moon. “That’s one small
step for man,” Armstrong said,
“one giant leap for mankind.”
Americans swelled with pride and
accomplishment as they watched
the historic moon landing on
their televisions. Speaking
to the astronauts from the
White House, President
Nixon said, “For every
American, this has to
be the proudest day of
our lives.”
▼
Neil Armstrong’s
photograph of
Buzz Aldrin on the
moon
Page 1002
Security, Medicare, and Medicaid payments and made food
stamps more accessible.
However, the president also worked to dismantle some
of the nation’s social programs. Throughout his term,
Nixon tried unsuccessfully to eliminate the Job Corps program that provided job training for the unemployed and
in 1970 he vetoed a bill to provide additional funding for
Housing and Urban Development. Confronted by laws
that he opposed, Nixon also turned to a little-used presidential practice called impoundment. Nixon impounded,
or withheld, necessary funds for programs, thus holding
up their implementation. By 1973, it was believed that
Nixon had impounded almost $15 billion, affecting more
than 100 federal programs, including those for health,
housing, and education.
The federal courts eventually ordered the release of the
impounded funds. They ruled that presidential impoundment was unconstitutional and that only Congress had
the authority to decide how federal funds should be spent.
Nixon did use his presidential authority to abolish the
Office of Economic Opportunity, a cornerstone of Johnson’s
antipoverty program. B
LAW AND ORDER POLITICS As President Nixon fought
with both houses of Congress, he also battled the more
liberal elements of society, including the antiwar movement. Nixon had been elected in 1968 on a dual promise
to end the war in Vietnam and mend the divisiveness
within America that the war had created. Throughout his
first term, Nixon aggressively moved to fulfill both pledges. The president de-escalated America’s involvement in Vietnam and oversaw peace negotiations with
North Vietnam. At the same time, he began the “law and order” policies that he
had promised his “silent majority”—those middle-class Americans who wanted
order restored to a country beset by urban riots and antiwar demonstrations.
To accomplish this, Nixon used the full resources of his office—sometimes
illegally. The FBI illegally wiretapped many left-wing individuals and the
Democratic Party offices at the Watergate office building in Washington, D.C. The
CIA also investigated and compiled documents on thousands of American dissidents—people who objected to the government’s policies. The administration
even used the Internal Revenue Service to audit the tax returns of antiwar and
civil rights activists. Nixon began building a personal “enemies list” of prominent
Americans whom the administration would harass.
Nixon also enlisted the help of his combative vice-president, Spiro T. Agnew,
to denounce the opposition. The vice-president confronted the antiwar protesters
and then turned his scorn on those who controlled the media, whom he viewed
as liberal cheerleaders for the antiwar movement. Known for his colorful quotes,
Agnew lashed out at the media and liberals as “an effete [weak] corps of impudent
snobs” and “nattering nabobs of negativism.”
Nixon’s Southern Strategy
Even as President Nixon worked to steer the country along a more conservative
course, he had his eyes on the 1972 presidential election. Nixon had won a slim
majority in 1968—less than one percent of the popular vote. As president, he began
1002
CHAPTER 32
Page 3 of 8
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Issues
B In what ways
did Nixon both
strengthen and
weaken federal
programs?
B. Answer
He increased
several federal
programs,
including Social
Security,
Medicare, and
Medicaid, while
he dismantled
other programs,
most notably the
Office of
Economic
Opportunity.
p1000-1007aspe-0932s1
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1003
Page 4 of 8
working to forge a new conservative coalition to build on his support. In one
approach, known as the Southern strategy, Nixon tried to attract Southern
conservative Democrats by appealing to their unhappiness with federal desegregation policies and a liberal Supreme Court. He also promised to name a
Southerner to the Supreme Court.
MAIN IDEA
Forming
Generalizations
C Why had
many Democratic
voters in the
South become
potential
Republican
supporters by
1968?
C. Answer They
were unhappy
with the
Democratic
leadership’s
desegregation
policies, as well
as the liberal
leanings of the
Supreme Court.
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Motives
D Why did
President Nixon
oppose the
extension of the
Voting Rights Act?
D. Answer It
was part of his
“Southern strategy” to attract
the support of
white
Southerners.
A NEW SOUTH Since Reconstruction, the South had been a Democratic stronghold. But by 1968 many white Southern Democrats had grown disillusioned with
their party. In their eyes, the party—champion of the Great Society and civil
rights—had grown too liberal. This conservative backlash first surfaced in the
1968 election, when thousands of Southern Democrats helped former Alabama
governor George Wallace, a conservative segregationist running as an independent, carry five Southern states and capture 13 percent of the popular vote.
Nixon wanted these voters. By winning over the Wallace voters and other discontented Democrats, the president and his fellow Republicans hoped not only
to keep the White House but also to recapture a majority in Congress. C
NIXON SLOWS INTEGRATION To attract white voters in the South, President
Nixon decided on a policy of slowing the country’s desegregation efforts. In
September of 1969, less than a year after being elected president, Nixon made
clear his views on civil rights. “There are those who want instant integration and
those who want segregation forever. I believe we need to have a middle course
between those two extremes,” he said.
Throughout his first term, President Nixon worked to reverse several civil
rights policies. In 1969, he ordered the Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare (HEW) to delay desegregation plans for school districts in South Carolina
and Mississippi. Nixon’s actions violated the Supreme Court’s second Brown v.
Board of Education ruling—which called for the desegregation of schools “with all
deliberate speed.” In response to an NAACP suit, the high court ordered Nixon to
abide by the second Brown ruling. The president did so reluctantly, and by 1972,
nearly 90 percent of children in the South attended desegregated schools—up
from about 20 percent in 1969.
In a further attempt to chip away at civil rights advances, Nixon opposed the
extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The act had added nearly one million
African Americans to the voting rolls. Despite the president’s opposition,
Congress voted to extend the act. D
CONTROVERSY OVER BUSING President Nixon then attempted to stop yet
another civil rights initiative—the integration of
schools through busing. In 1971, the Supreme Court
ruled in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of
Education that school districts may bus students to
other schools to end the pattern of all-black or all-white
educational institutions. White students and parents in
cities such as Boston and Detroit angrily protested busing. One South Boston mother spoke for other white
Northerners, many of whom still struggled with the
integration process.
A PERSONAL VOICE
“ I’m not against any individual child. I am not a racist,
no matter what those high-and-mighty suburban liberals
with their picket signs say. I just won’t have my children bused to some . . . slum school, and I don’t want
children from God knows where coming over here.”
—A South Boston mother quoted in The School Busing
Controversy, 1970–75
A demonstrator in
Boston protests
court-ordered
school busing
during the early
1970s.
▼
p1000-1007aspe-0932s1
10/17/02
9:26 AM
HISTORICAL
S P O TLIG H T
THE TWENTY-SIXTH
AMENDMENT
During President Nixon’s first
term, the Twenty-sixth
Amendment was ratified in 1971,
extending voting rights to
Americans 18 years or older. The
amendment was one example of
efforts in the 1960s and 1970s
to expand opportunities to participate in government.
At the time, liberals supported
the amendment because they
believed that young people
were more likely to be liberal.
Conservatives opposed it
because they didn’t want to
extend the vote to more liberals.
Opponents also argued that the
amendment would be too expensive for states to administer and
that 18-year-olds were not mature
enough for the responsibility.
Many Americans, however, considered it unfair to be asked to
fight and die for their country in
Vietnam without being allowed to
vote.
Page 1004
Page 5 of 8
Nixon also opposed integration through busing and
went on national television to urge Congress to halt the
practice. While busing continued in some cities, Nixon had
made his position clear to the country—and to the South.
A BATTLE OVER THE SUPREME COURT During the
1968 campaign, Nixon had criticized the Warren Court for
being too liberal. Once in the White House, Nixon suddenly found himself with an opportunity to change the direction of the court. During Nixon’s first term, four justices,
including chief justice Earl Warren, left the bench through
retirement. President Nixon quickly moved to put a more
conservative face on the Court. In 1969, the Senate
approved Nixon’s chief justice appointee, U.S. Court of
Appeals judge Warren Burger.
Eventually, Nixon placed on the bench three more justices, who tilted the Court in a more conservative direction. However, the newly shaped Court did not always take
the conservative route—for example, it handed down the
1971 ruling in favor of racially integrating schools through
busing. E
Confronting a Stagnant Economy
One of the more pressing issues facing Richard Nixon was a
troubled economy. Between 1967 and 1973, the United
States faced high inflation and high unemployment—a situation economists called stagflation.
THE CAUSES OF STAGFLATION The economic problems
of the late 1960s and early 1970s had several causes. Chief
among them were high inflation—a result of Lyndon
Johnson’s policy to fund the war and social programs
through deficit spending. Also, increased competition in
international trade, and a flood of new workers, including
women and baby boomers, led to stagflation. Another cause
of the nation’s economic woes was its heavy dependency
on foreign oil. During the 1960s, America received much of
its petroleum from the oil-producing countries of the
MAIN IDEA
Summarizing
E What was
Nixon’s Southern
strategy and
how did he
implement it?
E. Answer It
involved winning
over disgruntled
Southern
Democrats by
appealing to their
unhappiness with
integration and a
liberal Supreme
Court. To win
these voters,
Nixon slowed integration policies
and attempted to
appoint Supreme
Court justices
who were more
conservative.
Dependent on
foreign oil,
Americans in
1979 wait in line
for gas during the
oil embargo.
▼
p1000-1007aspe-0932s1
10/17/02
Vocabulary
cartel: a bloc of
independent
business
organizations that
controls a service
or business
Background
See embargo on
page R40 in the
Economics
Handbook.
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Causes
F What factors
brought on the
country’s economic problems in
the late 1960s
and early 1970s?
F. Answer
Inflation prompted by Johnson’s
deficit spending,
increased competition in international trade,
too many new
workers, and
the OPEC oil
embargo.
G. Answer
Foreign policy
should be based
solely on considerations of
power, not on
ideals or moral
principles.
MAIN IDEA
Summarizing
G What was the
philosophy of
realpolitik?
9:26 AM
Page 1005
Middle East. Many of these countries belonged to a cartel
called OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries). During the 1960s, OPEC gradually raised oil
prices. Then in 1973, the Yom Kippur War broke out, with
Israel against Egypt and Syria. When the United States sent
massive military aid to Israel, its longtime ally, the Arab
OPEC nations responded by cutting off all oil sales to the
United States. When OPEC resumed selling its oil to the
United States in 1974, the price had quadrupled. This sharp
rise in oil prices only worsened the problem of inflation.
NIXON BATTLES STAGFLATION President Nixon took
several steps to combat stagflation, but none met with
much success. To reverse deficit spending, Nixon attempted
to raise taxes and cut the budget. Congress, however,
refused to go along with this plan. In another effort to slow
inflation, Nixon tried to reduce the amount of money in
circulation by urging that interest rates be raised. This measure did little except drive the country into a mild recession, or an overall slowdown of the economy. F
In August 1971, the president turned to price and wage
controls to stop inflation. He froze workers’ wages as well as
businesses’ prices and fees for 90 days. Inflation eased for a
short time, but the recession continued.
Nixon’s Foreign Policy Triumphs
Richard Nixon admittedly preferred world affairs to domestic policy. “I’ve always thought this country could run itself
domestically without a president,” he said in 1968.
Throughout his presidency, Nixon’s top priority was gaining an honorable peace in Vietnam. At the same time, he
also made significant advances in America’s relationships
with China and the Soviet Union.
Page 6 of 8
LD STAGE
W OR
THE YOM KIPPUR WAR
On October 6, 1973, Syria and
Egypt invaded Israel on Yom
Kippur, the most sacred Jewish
holiday. The war—the climax of
years of intense border disputes—
was short but brutal. Even though
fighting lasted only three weeks,
as many as 7,700 Egyptians,
7,700 Syrians, and 4,500 Israelis
were killed or wounded.
Although the United States supplied massive amounts of military
aid to Israel, U.S. officials also
worked to broker a cease-fire
between the warring nations. In
what became known as “shuttle
diplomacy,” Secretary of State
Henry Kissinger traveled back and
forth between Middle Eastern
countries in an attempt to forge a
peace agreement. Kissinger’s
diplomatic efforts finally paid off.
Israel signed an official peace
accord with Egypt in January 1974.
Four months later in May, Israel
signed a cease-fire with Syria.
KISSINGER AND REALPOLITIK The architect of Nixon’s
foreign policy was his adviser for national security affairs,
Henry Kissinger. Kissinger, who would later become
Nixon’s secretary of state, promoted a philosophy known
as realpolitik, from a German term meaning “political realism.” According to
realpolitik, foreign policy should be based solely on consideration of power, not
ideals or moral principles. Kissinger believed in evaluating a nation’s power, not
its philosophy or beliefs. If a country was weak, Kissinger argued, it was often
more practical to ignore that country, even if it was Communist.
Realpolitik marked a departure from the former confrontational policy of
containment, which refused to recognize the major Communist countries. On
the other hand, Kissinger’s philosophy called for the United States to fully
confront the powerful nations of the globe. In the world of realpolitik, however,
confrontation largely meant negotiation as well as military engagement.
Nixon shared Kissinger’s belief in realpolitik, and together the two men
adopted a more flexible approach in dealing with Communist nations. They
called their policy détente—a policy aimed at easing Cold War tensions. One of
the most startling applications of détente came in early 1972 when President
Nixon—who had risen in politics as a strong anti-Communist—visited
Communist China. G
An Age of Limits
1005
p1000-1007aspe-0932s1
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1006
Page 7 of 8
▼
KEY PLAYER
RICHARD M. NIXON
1913–1994
The hurdles that Richard Nixon
overcame to win the presidency
in 1968 included his loss in the
1960 presidential race and a
1962 defeat in the race for governor of California.
Nixon faced many obstacles
from the start. As a boy, he rose
every day at 4 A.M. to help in his
father’s grocery store. Nixon also
worked as a janitor, a bean picker, and a barker at an amusement park.
The Nixon family suffered great
tragedy when one of Nixon’s
brothers died from meningitis
and another from tuberculosis.
None of these traumatic experiences, however, dulled the future
president’s ambition. Nixon finished third in his law class at
Duke University, and after serving
in World War II, he launched his
political career.
After winning a seat in Congress
in 1946, Nixon announced, “I had
to win. That’s the thing you don’t
understand. The important thing is
to win.”
NIXON VISITS CHINA Since the takeover of mainland
China by the Communists in 1949, the United States had
not formally recognized the Chinese Communist government. In late 1971, Nixon reversed that policy by announcing to the nation that he would visit China “to seek the
normalization of relations between the two countries.”
By going to China, Nixon was trying, in part, to take
advantage of the decade-long rift between China and the
Soviet Union. China had long criticized the Soviet Union as
being too “soft” in its policies against the West. The two
Communist superpowers officially broke ties in 1960.
Nixon had thought about exploiting the fractured relationship for several years. “We want to have the Chinese with
us when we sit down and negotiate with the Russians,” he
told a reporter in 1968. Upon his arrival at the Beijing
Airport in February, 1972, Nixon recalls his meeting with
Chinese premier Zhou En-lai.
A PERSONAL VOICE RICHARD M. NIXON
“ I knew that Zhou had been deeply insulted by Foster
Dulles’s refusal to shake hands with him at the Geneva
Conference in 1954. When I reached the bottom step,
therefore, I made a point of extending my hand as I
walked toward him. When our hands met, one era ended
and another began.”
—The Memoirs of Richard Nixon
Besides its enormous symbolic value, Nixon’s visit also
was a huge success with the American public. Observers
noted that it opened up diplomatic and economic relations
with the Chinese and resulted in important agreements
between China and the United States. The two nations agreed that neither would
try to dominate the Pacific and that both would cooperate in settling disputes
peacefully. They also agreed to participate in scientific and cultural exchanges as
well as to eventually reunite Taiwan with the mainland. H
NIXON TRAVELS TO MOSCOW In May 1972, three months after visiting Beijing,
President Nixon headed to Moscow—the first U.S. president ever to visit the
1006
CHAPTER 32
President Nixon
tours the Great
Wall as part of his
visit to China in
1972.
H. Answer
Nixon opened
friendly diplomatic and economic relations
with China.
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Effects
H How did
Nixon’s trip change
the United States’
relationship with
China?
p1000-1007aspe-0932s1
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1007
Page 8 of 8
▼
A 1973 military
parade in Moscow
displays the Soviet
Union’s arsenal,
components of
which were frozen
at 1972 levels as
a result of the
Salt I Treaty.
Soviet Union. Like his visit to China, Nixon’s trip to the Soviet Union received
wide acclaim. After a series of meetings called the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT), Nixon and Brezhnev signed the SALT I Treaty. This five-year agreement
limited the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and submarinelaunched missiles to 1972 levels.
The foreign policy triumphs with China and the Soviet Union and the
administration’s announcement that peace “is at hand” in Vietnam helped reelect
Nixon as president in 1972.
But peace in Vietnam proved elusive. The Nixon administration grappled
with the war for nearly six more months before withdrawing troops and ending
America’s involvement in Vietnam. By that time, another issue was about to dominate the Nixon administration—one that would eventually lead to the downfall
of the president.
1. TERMS & NAMES For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance.
•Richard M. Nixon
•New Federalism
•revenue sharing
•Family Assistance Plan (FAP) •OPEC (Organization of
•Southern strategy
Petroleum Exporting
•stagflation
Countries)
MAIN IDEA
CRITICAL THINKING
2. TAKING NOTES
In a two-column chart similar to the
one shown, list the policies of
Richard Nixon that promoted change
and those that slowed it down.
3. ANALYZING EFFECTS
What were the effects of the Arab
OPEC oil embargo on the United
States?
Promoted
Change
Policies:
Slowed
Change
Policies:
In what ways do you think Nixon was
most conservative? In what ways
was he least conservative? Explain.
4. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
Why was the timing of Nixon’s
foreign policy achievements
particularly important? Relate his
achievements to other events.
•realpolitik
•détente
•SALT I Treaty
5. EVALUATING DECISIONS
In your opinion, did Nixon’s policy
of détente help solve the country’s
major foreign policy problems?
Support your answer with evidence
from the text. Think About:
• the definition and origin of
détente
• the effect of détente on U.S.
dealings with Communist
countries
• the effect of détente on the
American public
An Age of Limits
1007
p1008-1013aspe0932s2
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1008
Page 1 of 6
Watergate:
Nixon’s Downfall
MAIN IDEA
President Richard Nixon’s
involvement in the
Watergate scandal forced
him to resign from office.
Terms & Names
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
The Watergate scandal raised
questions of public trust that still
affect how the public and media
skeptically view politicians.
•impeachment
•Watergate
•H. R. Haldeman
•John Ehrlichman
•John Mitchell
One American's Story
•Committee to
Reelect the
President
•John Sirica
•Saturday Night
Massacre
On July 25, 1974, Representative Barbara Jordan of Texas,
a member of the House Judiciary Committee, along with
the other committee members, considered whether to
recommend that President Nixon be impeached for “high
crimes and misdemeanors.” Addressing the room, Jordan
cited the Constitution in urging her fellow committee members to investigate whether impeachment was appropriate.
A PERSONAL VOICE BARBARA JORDAN
“ ‘We the people’—it is a very eloquent beginning. But when
—quoted in Notable Black American Women
The committee eventually voted to recommend the impeachment of
Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal. However, before Congress
could take further action against him, the president resigned. Nixon’s resignation,
the first by a U.S. president, was the climax of a scandal that led to the imprisonment of 25 government officials and caused the most serious constitutional crisis
in the United States since the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in 1868.
President Nixon and His White House
The Watergate scandal centered on the Nixon administration’s attempt to cover
up a burglary of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the
Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington, D.C. However, the
1008
CHAPTER 32
▼
the Constitution of the United States was completed . . .
I was not included in that ‘We the people’. . . . But through
the process of amendment, interpretation, and court decision,
I have finally been included in ‘We the people’. . . . Today . . . [my] faith in the
Constitution is whole. It is complete. It is total. I am not going to sit here and
be an idle spectator in the diminution, the subversion, the destruction of the
Constitution. . . . Has the President committed offenses . . . which the
Constitution will not tolerate? ”
U.S. Representative
Barbara Jordan,
1974.
p1008-1013aspe0932s2
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1009
Page 2 of 6
Watergate story began long before the actual burglary. Many historians believe
that Watergate truly began with the personalities of Richard Nixon and those of
his advisers, as well as with the changing role of the presidency.
MAIN IDEA
Summarizing
A What is
meant by “imperial
presidency”?
A. Answer The
idea that the
executive branch
had become the
most powerful
of the three
branches of government, acting
as a supreme
authority.
B. Answer
Because of
Nixon’s overwhelming fear
of losing and the
team’s belief
that all means
should be taken
to defeat the
opponent.
MAIN IDEA
Analyzing
Motives
B Why would the
Nixon campaign
team take such a
risky action as
breaking into the
opposition’s
headquarters?
AN IMPERIAL PRESIDENCY When Richard Nixon took office, the executive
branch—as a result of the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War—
had become the most powerful branch of government. In his book The Imperial
Presidency, the historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., argued that by the time Richard
Nixon became president, the executive branch had taken on an air of imperial, or
supreme, authority.
President Nixon settled into this imperial role with ease. Nixon believed, as he
told a reporter in 1980, that “a president must not be one of the crowd. . . . People
. . . don’t want him to be down there saying, ‘Look, I’m the same as you.’” Nixon
expanded the power of the presidency with little thought to constitutional checks,
as when he impounded funds for federal programs that he opposed, or when he
ordered troops to invade Cambodia without congressional approval. A
THE PRESIDENT’S MEN As he distanced himself from Congress, Nixon
confided in a small and fiercely loyal
group of advisers. They included
H. R. Haldeman, White House chief
of staff; John Ehrlichman, chief
domestic
adviser;
and
John
Mitchell, Nixon’s former attorney
general. These men had played key
roles in Nixon’s 1968 election victory
and now helped the president direct
White House policy.
These men also shared President
Nixon’s desire for secrecy and the consolidation of power. Critics charged
that these men, through their personalities and their attitude toward the
presidency, developed a sense that
they were somehow above the law.
This sense would, in turn, prompt
President Nixon and his advisers to
cover up their role in Watergate, and
fuel the coming scandal.
The Inner Circle
H.R. Haldeman
Chief of Staff
John Ehrlichman
Chief Domestic Advisor
John N. Mitchell
Attorney General
John W. Dean III
Presidential Counsel
The Drive Toward Reelection
Throughout his political career, Richard Nixon lived with the overwhelming fear
of losing elections. By the end of the 1972 reelection campaign, Nixon’s campaign team sought advantages by any means possible, including an attempt to
steal information from the DNC headquarters.
A BUNGLED BURGLARY At 2:30 A.M., June 17, 1972, a guard at the Watergate
complex in Washington, D.C., caught five men breaking into the campaign headquarters of the DNC. The burglars planned to photograph documents outlining
Democratic Party strategy and to place wiretaps, or “bugs,” on the office telephones.
The press soon discovered that the group’s leader, James McCord, was a former
CIA agent. He was also a security coordinator for a group known as the Committee
to Reelect the President (CRP). John Mitchell, who had resigned as attorney
general to run Nixon’s reelection campaign, was the CRP’s director. B
An Age of Limits
1009
p1008-1013aspe0932s2
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1010
Page 3 of 6
Just three days after the burglary, H. R. Haldeman noted in his diary Nixon’s
near obsession with how to respond to the break-in.
A PERSONAL VOICE H. R. HALDEMAN
“ The P[resident] was concerned about what our counterattack is. . . . He raised
it again several times during the day, and it obviously is bothering him. . . . He
called at home tonight, saying that he wanted to change the plan for his press
conference and have it on Thursday instead of tomorrow, so that it won’t look like
he’s reacting to the Democratic break-in thing.”
—The Haldeman Diaries
HISTORICAL
S P O TLIG H T
WOODWARD
AND BERNSTEIN
Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein
of the Washington Post seemed
an unlikely team. Woodward, 29
(at right in the photo above), had
graduated from Yale, while the
28-year-old Bernstein was a college dropout.
As the two men dug deeper into
the Watergate scandal, a mysterious inside source known only as
Deep Throat helped them to uncover the scandal. Nearly 30 years
later, the reporters still refuse to
identify their famous source.
While people lauded the two
reporters for their dogged determination, some Nixon officials
remain bitter toward them.
“I really believe [they] were on
a personal crusade to bring down
a president,” said Gerald Warren,
Nixon’s deputy press secretary.
Woodward denied that charge,
saying, “We tried to do our job
and, in fact, if you look at it,
our coverage was pretty conservative.”
The cover-up quickly began. Workers shredded all
incriminating documents in Haldeman’s office. The White
House, with President Nixon’s consent, asked the CIA to
urge the FBI to stop its investigations into the burglary on
the grounds of national security. In addition, the CRP
passed out nearly $450,000 to the Watergate burglars to buy
their silence after they were indicted in September
of 1972. C
Throughout the 1972 campaign, the Watergate burglary generated little interest among the American public
and media. Only the Washington Post and two of its
reporters, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, kept on the
story. In a series of articles, the reporters uncovered information that linked numerous members of the administration to the burglary. The White House denied each new Post
allegation. Upon learning of an upcoming story that tied
him to the burglars, John Mitchell told Bernstein, “That’s
the most sickening thing I ever heard.”
The firm White House response to the charges, and its
promises of imminent peace in Vietnam, proved effective in
the short term. In November, Nixon was reelected by a
landslide over liberal Democrat George S. McGovern. But
Nixon’s popular support was soon to unravel.
The Cover-Up Unravels
In January 1973, the trial of the Watergate burglars began.
The trial’s presiding judge, John Sirica, made clear his
belief that the men had not acted alone. On March 20, a
few days before the burglars were scheduled to be sentenced, James McCord sent a letter to Sirica, in which he
indicated that he had lied under oath. He also hinted that
powerful members of the Nixon administration had been
involved in the break-in.
THE SENATE INVESTIGATES WATERGATE McCord’s revelation of possible White House involvement in the burglary
aroused public interest in Watergate. President Nixon
moved quickly to stem the growing concern. On April 30,
1973, Nixon dismissed White House counsel John Dean and
announced the resignations of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and
Attorney General Richard Kleindienst, who had recently
replaced John Mitchell following Mitchell’s resignation. The president then went
on television and denied any attempt at a cover-up. He announced that he was
1010
CHAPTER 32
MAIN IDEA
Chronological
Order
C What steps did
the White House
take to cover up
its involvement in
the Watergate
break-in?
C. Answer
Officials shredded documents,
attempted to
obstruct the
investigation,
and paid the
Watergate burglars to remain
silent.
10/17/02
D. Answer The
tapes of Nixon’s
private conversations would
provide clear
and convincing
evidence as to
what Nixon
knew about
Watergate and
when he knew it.
E. Answer
Attorney General
Richardson
refused to obey
Nixon’s order to
fire the special
prosecutor,
Archibald Cox,
after he asked
him to hand over
the secret tapes.
Richardson
resigned. The
deputy attorney
general also
refused to fire
Cox. Nixon then
turned to
Solicitor General
Robert Bork,
who agreed to
fire Cox.
MAIN IDEA
Drawing
Conclusions
D What was
significant about
the revelation that
Nixon taped his
conversations?
MAIN IDEA
Summarizing
E What events
led to the
Saturday Night
Massacre?
9:26 AM
Page 1011
Page 4 of 6
appointing a new attorney general, Elliot Richardson, and was authorizing him to appoint a special prosecutor to investigate Watergate. “There
can be no whitewash at the White House,” Nixon said.
The president’s reassurances, however, came too late. In May 1973,
the Senate began its own investigation of Watergate. A special committee,
chaired by Senator Samuel James Ervin of North Carolina, began to
call administration officials to give testimony. Throughout the summer
millions of Americans sat by their televisions as the “president’s men”
testified one after another.
“ Divine right
went out with
the American
Revolution and
doesn’t belong
to White House
aides.”
SENATOR SAM ERVIN
STARTLING TESTIMONY John Dean
delivered the first bomb. In late June,
during more than 30 hours of testimony, Dean provided a startling answer to
Senator Howard Baker’s repeated question, “What did the president know and
when did he know it?” The former White
House counsel declared that President
Nixon had been deeply involved in the
cover-up. Dean referred to one meeting
in which he and the president, along
with several advisers, discussed strategies for continuing the deceit.
The White House strongly denied
Dean’s charges. The hearings had suddenly reached an impasse as the committee attempted to sort out who was telling
the truth. The answer came in July
from an unlikely source: presidential
aide Alexander Butterfield. Butterfield
stunned the committee when he
revealed that Nixon had taped virtually
all of his presidential conversations.
Butterfield later claimed that the taping
system was installed “to help Nixon
write his memoirs.” However, for the
Senate committee, the tapes were the
key to revealing what Nixon knew and
when he knew it. D
THE SATURDAY NIGHT MASSACRE
A year-long battle for the “Nixon tapes” followed. Archibald Cox, the special
prosecutor whom Elliot Richardson had appointed to investigate the case, took
the president to court in October 1973 to obtain the tapes. Nixon refused and
ordered Attorney General Richardson to fire Cox. In what became known as the
Saturday Night Massacre, Richardson refused the order and resigned. The
deputy attorney general also refused the order, and he was fired. Solicitor General
Robert Bork finally fired Cox. However, Cox’s replacement, Leon Jaworski, proved
equally determined to get the tapes. Several months after the “massacre,” the
House Judiciary Committee began examining the possibility of an impeachment
hearing. E
The entire White House appeared to be under siege. Just days before the
Saturday Night Massacre, Vice President Spiro Agnew had resigned after it was
revealed that he had accepted bribes from Maryland engineering firms, as governor
of Maryland, and during his term as vice president. Acting under the Twenty-fifth
▼
p1008-1013aspe0932s2
The Watergate
hearings, chaired
by Senator Sam
Ervin, shown
(top left) with
Sam Dash, chief
counsel to the
Senate
Watergate
Committee,
made headlines
throughout the
summer of 1973.
An Age of Limits
1011
p1008-1013aspe0932s2
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1012
Page 5 of 6
Amendment, Nixon nominated the House minority leader, Gerald R. Ford, as his
new vice-president. Congress quickly confirmed the nomination.
The Fall of a President
In March 1974, a grand jury indicted seven presidential aides on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury. The investigation was closing in on
the president of the United States.
▼
The original
Nixon White
House tape
recorder and
tape from the
1970s.
NIXON RELEASES THE TAPES In the spring
of 1974, President Nixon told a television audience that he was releasing 1,254 pages of edited transcripts of White House conversations
about Watergate. Nixon’s offering failed to satisfy investigators, who demanded the unedited
tapes. Nixon refused, and the case went before
the Supreme Court. On July 24, 1974, the high
court ruled unanimously that the president
must surrender the tapes. The Court rejected
Nixon’s argument that doing so would violate
national security. Evidence involving possible
criminal activity could not be withheld, even by a president. President Nixon
maintained that he had done nothing wrong. At a press conference in November
1973, he proclaimed defiantly, “I am not a crook.”
Background
Although historians
sued for access
to thousands of
hours of tapes, it
was not until
some 21 years
later, in 1996,
that an agreement
was made for
over 3,700 hours
of tape to be
made public.
THE PRESIDENT RESIGNS Even without holding the original tapes, the House
Judiciary Committee determined that there was enough evidence to impeach
Richard Nixon. On July 27, the committee approved three articles of impeachment,
charging the president with obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt
of Congress for refusing to obey a congressional subpoena to release the tapes.
Analyzing
THE WHITE HOUSE TAPES
During the Watergate hearings a bombshell
exploded when it was revealed that President
Nixon secretly tape-recorded all conversations
in the Oval Office. Although Nixon hoped the
tapes would one day help historians document
the triumphs of his presidency, they were used
to confirm his guilt.
SKILLBUILDER
Analyzing Political Cartoons
1. What does this cartoon imply about privacy
during President Nixon’s term in office?
2. What building has been transformed into a
giant tape recorder?
SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK,
PAGE R24.
AUTH copyright © Philadelphia Inquirer. Reprinted with permission of Universal
Press Syndicate. All rights reserved.
1012
CHAPTER 32
p1008-1013aspe0932s2
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1013
Page 6 of 6
On August 5, Nixon released the tapes. They
contained many gaps, and one tape revealed a
disturbing 18 1/2-minute gap. According to the
White House, Rose Mary Woods, President
Nixon’s secretary, accidentally erased part of
a conversation between H. R. Haldeman and
Nixon. More importantly, a tape dated June 23,
1972—six days after the Watergate break-in—
that contained a conversation between Nixon
and Haldeman, disclosed the evidence investigators needed. Not only had the president
known about his administration’s role in the
burglary, he had agreed to the plan to cover up
and obstruct the FBI’s investigation.
The evidence now seemed overwhelming.
On August 8, 1974, before the full House vote on
the articles of impeachment began, President
Nixon announced his resignation from office. Defiant as
always, Nixon admitted no guilt. He merely said that some
of his judgments “were wrong.” The next day, Nixon and
his wife, Pat, returned home to California. A short time
later, Gerald Ford was sworn in as the 38th president of the
United States.
▼
THE EFFECTS OF WATERGATE The effects of Watergate
have endured long after Nixon’s resignation. Eventually,
25 members of the Nixon Administration were convicted
and served prison terms for crimes connected to
Watergate. Along with the divisive war in Vietnam,
Watergate produced a deep disillusionment with the
“imperial” presidency. In the years following Vietnam
and Watergate, the American public and the media developed a general cynicism about public officials that still exists
today. Watergate remains the scandal and investigative story
against which all others are measured.
With wife Pat looking on, Richard Nixon
bids farewell to his staff on his final day as
president. Nixon’s resignation letter is
shown above.
1. TERMS & NAMES For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance.
•impeachment
•Watergate
•H. R. Haldeman
•John Ehrlichman
•John Mitchell
MAIN IDEA
2. TAKING NOTES
Use a time line like the one below
to trace the events of the Watergate
scandal.
•Committee to Reelect the
President
•John Sirica
•Saturday Night Massacre
CRITICAL THINKING
3. HYPOTHESIZING
If Nixon had admitted to and
apologized for the Watergate breakin, how might subsequent events
have been different? Explain.
June
August
Think About:
1972
1974
event
event
• the extent of the cover-up
• the impact of the cover-up
event
event
• Nixon’s public image
Which event made Nixon's downfall
certain?
4. ANALYZING EVENTS
How did the Watergate scandal
create a constitutional crisis?
5. EVALUATING
Do you think that Nixon would have
been forced to resign if the tapes
had not existed? Explain your
answer.
An Age of Limits
1013
p1014-1015aspe-0932dl
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1014
Y LIFE
L
I
DA
Page 1 of 2
0
1968–198
Television Reflects
American Life
From May until November 1973, the Senate Watergate hearings were the
biggest daytime TV viewing event of the year. Meanwhile, television programming began to more closely reflect the realities of American life. Shows
more often addressed relevant issues, more African-American characters
appeared, and working women as well as homemakers were portrayed. In
addition, the newly established Public Broadcasting System began showing many issue-oriented programs.
DIVERSITY
▲
Chico and the Man was the first series set in a Mexican-American
barrio, East Los Angeles. The program centered on the relationship between Ed Brown, a cranky garage owner, and Chico
Rodriguez, an optimistic young mechanic Brown reluctantly hired.
▲
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMING
▲
Public television devoted much of
its programming to quality children’s television. Shows such as
Sesame Street and Zoom! made
it fun for children to learn. They
were deliberately fast-paced to
appeal to the new generation of
“television babies.”
SOCIAL VALUES
All in the Family was the
most popular series of
the 1970s. It told the
story of a working-class
family, headed by the
bigoted Archie Bunker
and his long-suffering
wife, Edith. Through the
barbs Bunker traded with
his son-in-law and his
African-American neighbor, George Jefferson,
the show dealt openly
with the divisions in
American society.
1014
CHAPTER 32
p1014-1015aspe-0932dl
10/17/02
9:26 AM
Page 1015
Page 2 of 2
D A T A
F
I
L
E
▲
TV EVENTS OF THE 1970s
• A congressional ban on TV cigarette commercials
took effect in 1971.
INDEPENDENT
WOMEN
• ABC negotiated an $8-million-a-year contract to
televise Monday Night Football, first broadcast in
September 1970.
The Mary Tyler Moore
Show depicted Mary
Richards, a single
woman living in
Minneapolis and working as an assistant
manager in a local TV
news department.
Mary symbolized the
young career woman
of the 1970s.
• In 1972, President Nixon, accompanied by TV
cameras and reporters from the major networks,
made a groundbreaking visit to China.
• Saturday Night Live—a show that would launch
the careers of Dan Aykroyd, Jane Curtin, Eddie
Murphy, and many other comic actors—premiered
in October 1975.
• WTCG-TV (later WTBS) in Atlanta, owned by Ted
Turner, became the basis of the first true satellitedelivered “superstation” in 1976.
• In November 1979, ABC began broadcasting latenight updates on the hostage crisis in Iran. These
reports evolved into the program Nightline with
Ted Koppel.
CULTURAL IDENTITY
Average Weekly Hours of TV Viewing
35
30
Hours Per Week
The miniseries Roots, based on a book by Alex Haley,
told the saga of several generations of an AfricanAmerican family. The eight-part story began with Kunta
Kinte, who was captured outside his West African village
and taken to America as a slave. It ended with his greatgrandson’s setting off for a new life as a free man. The
groundbreaking series, broadcast in January 1977, was
one of the most-watched television events in history.
25
20
15
Children 2–11 years old
Teens 12–17 years old
Adults 18 and over
10
5
0
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995 1998
Source: Nielson Media Research
THINKING CRITICALLY
CONNECT TO HISTORY
1. Analyzing Causes In what ways did television change
to reflect American society in the 1970s? What factors
might have influenced these changes?
SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK, PAGE R7.
CONNECT TO TODAY
2. Creating a Graph Use the Internet or an almanac to
find data on the number of televisions owned in the
United States and the number of hours of TV watched
every day. Make a graph that displays the data.
IRESEARCH LINKS
CLASSZONE.COM
An Age of Limits
1015
▲