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The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of
Student Work, and Teacher Commentary for the Eighth Grade Social Studies course.
Eighth Grade Unit #5 – “The Civil War”
Elaborated Unit Focus
This unit will focus on the actions of individuals, groups, and institutions of the
North and South and how they affected society in the United States. Students will realize
that conflict and change was a predominant theme and had a major impact on society
during the Civil War era. Planters struggled to find ways to maintain an established
lifestyle, Others of the south depended upon the success of the planter for their meager
livelihood For many, slavery became a moral struggle. Students will also acknowledge
the economic changes in Antebellum Georgia, during the Civil War, and through
Reconstruction in reference to production, distribution, consumption.
Standards/Elements
History:
SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on
Georgia.
a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include
slavery, states' rights, nullification, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and
the Georgia Platform, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott case, election of 1860, the
debate over secession in Georgia, and the role of Alexander Stephens.
b. State the importance of key events of the Civil War; include Antietam, Emancipation
Proclamation, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of Georgia's coast,
Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, Sherman's March to the Sea, and Andersonville.
c. Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern states,
emphasizing Freedmen's Bureau; sharecropping and tenant farming; Reconstruction
plans; 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the constitution; Henry McNeal Turner and
black legislators; and the Ku Klux Klan.
Economics:
SS8E1 The student will give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in
Georgia in different historical periods.
SS8E2 The student will explain the benefits of free trade.
a. Describe how Georgians have engaged in trade in different historical time periods.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 1 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
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Enduring Understandings/Essential Questions
Conflict and Change: The student will understand that when there is conflict
between or within societies, change is the result.
What key events contributed to deepening unrest and hostility in antebellum
America? (H6a)
What key events were significant to the Civil War? (H6a,b)
How did Reconstruction efforts and policies impact Georgia and other
southern states? (H6c)
Production, Distribution, Consumption: The student will understand that the
production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the
society are affected by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.
How did the South‟s economy change following the Civil War? (E1, E2a)
How do sharecropping and tenant farming differ? (H6c)
How did the Union strategies during the Civil War impact the economy of the
South and its ability to obtain resources? (H6b, E1,E2a)
Individuals, Groups, Institutions: The student will understand that the actions of
individuals, groups, and/or institutions affect society through intended and
unintended consequences.
How did the KKK intimidate people in the South? (H6c)
How did the Republicans and the Freedmen‟s Bureau affect African
Americans? (H6c)
How did resentment after the Civil War affect society? (H6c)
How did the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution
affect all Americans, particularly African Americans? (H6c)
NOTE: The balanced assessment plan included in this unit is presented as a series of
suggested activities. It is not expected that the teacher complete all assessments for a
successful unit.
Balanced Assessment Plan
Description of Assessment
In 1830 Daniel Webster closed a debate with these words:
“Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!”
Many issues in antebellum America were challenging these
words. Complete the chart “One and inseparable” (Appendix 1)
to show how many issues were threatening of liberty and union
and one and inseparable. Once all charts are complete, share the
information you each put on your chart with a partner (a thinkpair-share type activity). Now you are ready to participate in a
full class discussion on how the issues identified threatened
Webster‟s words.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 2 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
Standard/
Type of
Element
Assessment
H6a
Constructed
Response,
Dialogue and
Discussion
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With the class divided into two groups, proponents and
opponents, students will individually write statements in support
or in opposition to each of these items: slavery, states‟ rights,
nullification, the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of
1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Dred Scott Decision, the
election of 1860, Alexander Stephens, and secession. Then
working with a partner from their own proponent or opponent
group, students will compare their statements and reword or
combine their statements to make one good statement for each of
the events or people above. They should then print each of their
combined statements on copy or construction paper. This should
be large enough to read from anywhere in the room. Call on a
partnership to read and display one of their statements without
identifying the topic to which it refers. As the class listens,
students in the opposing group should select their statement that
shows the opposite feeling about the subject. Call on several of
those partnerships to read their opposition statements. Use these
statements back and forth to conduct a class discussion covering
the included events and people.
Secession was not a „given‟ in Georgia. Read and study the issue
from Georgia‟s point of view. Then have students write a letter to
Governor Joseph E. Brown either encouraging him to support
secession or oppose secession. Each student should mention the
Georgia Platform and the Compromise of 1850, Alexander
Stephens, and the positives or negatives of secession to Georgia.
To better understand the importance of the debate over the spread
of slavery to the West, have students complete a comparison of
the Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, and KansasNebraska Act by completing the “Three Compromises” activity
in Appendix 2. This can be effectively used if put on butcher
paper as the class discusses it after they have individually
complete the activity.
Using an outline map of the Eastern States locate the following:
1. Antietam,
2. Gettysburg,
3. Chickamauga,
4. the Union blockade of Georgia's coast,
5. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign,
6. Sherman's March to the Sea
7. Andersonville
Locate each of the events and create a key to identify each. Also,
create a sidebar that explains the impact and significance of each
event as it relates to the Civil War.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 3 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
H6a
Informal
Observation,
Dialogue and
Discussion
H6a
Constructed
Response.
H6a
Constructed
Response,
Informal
Observation,
Dialogue and
Discussion
H6b
Constructed
Response
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After the Civil War, the South was in shambles. One part of that
shambles related to southern farms without workers. Southern
workers (including many former slaves) without jobs, and a lack
of capital for farming. Using the chart “Sharecropping Vs
Tenant Farming” (Appendix 3) compare and contrast the two. A
phrase often used to describe these types of labor situations was
„a cycle of poverty”. After completing the chart, write a
paragraph in which you tell whether you feel sharecropping or
tenant farming would most likely keep a farmer and his family in
“a cycle of poverty.” Support your thoughts with sound reasoning
and evidence. Be prepared to share your thoughts with your
classmates or participate in a debate.
H6c
Constructed
Response,
Dialogue and
Discussion
SS8E1
E2a
Constructed
Response,
Dialogue and
Discussion
Students should read aloud the 13, 14, 15th Amendments to the
U.S. Constitution. They should then individually write a one
sentence summary of what each amendment provided, then
answer the following questions: 1. Why was the 13th
amendment necessary? Didn‟t the Emancipation Proclamation
and the Civil War itself take care of this? 2. How does the 14th
amendment relate to the Bill of rights and the Three-Fifths
Compromise of the Constitutional Convention?
3. How does the 15th amendment fall short of giving all rights
to black women?
H6c
Constructed
Response
Students should make a poster using information found on
charts or graphs. Using a chart or graph found in textbook
resources or on the web, students should study the differences
in resources between the north and the south just before the
Civil War started. This should include manufacturing,
railroads, and agricultural production. Students should make a
poster showing the same information in pictures not charts and
graphs.
E1
Constructed
Response
Using your text, identify the goods and or services produced by
Georgia during the antebellum and post-bellum period.
Class discussion: discuss the idea of „free-trade” students should
speculate as to where these goods might have been shipped.
Remind students of Congress‟ restrictions on Slave imports.
Teacher prepared objective, short answer, discussion tests
covering the antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction periods.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 4 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
H6 a,b,c
E1,
E2
Selected
Response,
Constructed
Response,
Dialogue and
Discussion
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Have students assume the role of a Civil War soldier. They
may be a Georgian in the Confederate army or a Georgian in
the Union army. Either way, Georgia is their home state and
they are fighting with their side in Georgia. As they participate
in military events in Georgia they are to write home a series of
letters. In these letters they are to tell their brother all about
their experiences. He wants very much to be with his brother,
but he has been wounded and is home recuperating. He has
demanded the fighting brother tell him everything. “Don‟t
clean up your letters and leave out the awful facts as you do
when you write our mother, “he has told the soldier. So his
brother following his directions and tells him everything. In a
way, this might help the fighting brother, because he might
need to be able to share his feelings and thoughts about the
things that he has experienced. The active brother is now the
eyes and ears to all that is happening. Students should write a
series of letters. One is about Chickamauga, one about
Andersonville. Another is about Atlanta during Sherman‟s
campaign; several are from different spots along Sherman‟s 60
mile march to the sea, and finally, one from Savannah at the
end of Sherman‟s march. The students should talk about the
battles, the people met along the way, the sights seen, and
feelings experienced. The recuperating brother should get a
sense of what the active brother sees, hears, smells, and feels.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 5 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
H6b
Constructed
Response
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Performance Task
Conflict and Change: The student will understand that when there is conflict
between or within societies, change is the result.
Production, Distribution, Consumption: The student will understand that the production,
distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the society are affected by the
location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.
Individuals, Groups, Institutions: The student will understand that the actions of individuals,
groups, and/or institutions affect society through intended and unintended consequences
On the 19th of April 1861, only six days after the fall of Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln issued a
proclamation declaring the blockade of the Southern States from South Carolina southward along the
coast of Georgia, around the peninsula of Florida and up the Gulf Coast to Texas. On April 27th the
blockade was extended to Virginia and North Carolina. Lincoln declared that for the purpose of the
blockade…”a competent force will be posted so as to prevent entrance and exit of vessels from the ports
aforesaid. If, therefore, with a view to violate such blockade, a vessel shall approach or shall attempt to
leave any of the said ports, she will be duly warned by the commander of one of the blockading vessels,
who will endorse on her register the fact and date of such warning, and if the same vessel shall again
attempt to enter or leave the blockaded port, she will be captured, and sent to the nearest convenient port
for such proceedings against her, and her cargo as prize, as may he deemed advisable."
That was over 140 years ago. Today you are an importer/exporter of goods. You are also a
renowned expert on the American Civil War, especially the Union blockade of Georgia. Even in the 21st
Century several nations are experiencing Civil Wars. One such nation, Eorgiaga, has hired you to analyze
their 100 miles of coastline and advise them on the affects of a naval blockade from the military faction
of the warring parties. You will meet with them and give them a history lesson in the Civil War blockade
of Georgia and discuss with them the consequences of that blockade. You should have your facts
presented on a large poster showing location of the blockade and using symbols identifying the goods
denied to Georgia and the products that were not allowed to be shipped from Georgia. Explain to the
Eorgiagaians the hardships or consequences to the civilian and military population if such an event
occurs. Finally, having synthesized this material, you should present to the Eorgiagaians possible ways of
preventing a blockade of their coastline.
BUT, you know that your knowledge and advice cannot guarantee the Eorgiagaian coastline will not
suffer from blockade activity. Therefore, you want to give them additional help. You decide that they
must know the importance of land transportation. As a second part of your presentation you should
discuss the importance of Atlanta as a transportation center during the Civil War. To this point your
speech has been very factual. Now you should give your audience an impassioned plea to protect their
railroads. Give them information about Georgia‟s railroads during the Civil War with Atlanta as a hub.
Then discuss Sherman‟s Atlanta Campaign and the devastating affect it had on the Confederate‟s
transportation system. You will need a map showing Sherman‟s advance from North Georgia to Atlanta.
The purpose of this part of your presentation is to urge diligence in protection of land transportation
should a Naval blockade become a reality.
Have all of your information visually presented as well as in a written report or speech to be left with the
Eorgiagaian government.
Map and Globe Skills:
2, 4, 8, 12
Information Processing Skills:
1,3, 4, 5, 6, 11,
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 6 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
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Note concerning rubrics: Each performance task is accompanied by two rubrics. The first is designed to
address content and understanding of the standards in terms of the enduring understandings. The second
rubric focuses on the product of the performance task. This is where students are scored on items involving
grammar, punctuation, spelling, creativity, presentation, etc. It is NOT intended that each rubric counts for
50% of the assessment. Teachers should weigh each section of the rubric according to the areas they wish to
emphasize.
Content Rubric for Performance Task
Scale
Criteria
Analyzes and
explains the
historical
background of
the Union Naval
Blockade of
Georgia.
1
Standard Not Met
Does not analyze
and explain the
historical
background of the
Union Naval
Blockade of Georgia
2
Needs Improvement
Partially analyzes and
explains the historical
background of the
Union Naval Blockade
of Georgia...
3
Meets Standard
Clearly analyzes and
explains the historical
background of the
Union Naval
Blockade of Georgia.
Evaluates and
explains the
impact of the
naval blockade
on the civilian
population.
Evaluates and
explains the
consequences of
the Naval
blockade on the
military.
Does not evaluate
nor explain the
impact of the naval
blockade on the
civilian population.
Partially evaluates and
explains the impact of
the naval blockade on
the civilian
population.
Clearly evaluates and
explains the impact
of the naval blockade
on the civilian
population.
Does not evaluate
nor explain the
consequences of the
Naval blockade on
the military.
Partially evaluates and
explains the
consequences of the
Naval blockade on the
military.
Clearly evaluates and
explains the
consequences of the
Naval blockade on
the military.
Synthesizes and
proposes
possible means
of preventions of
a Naval
blockade.
Does not synthesize
and propose a means
of prevention of a
Naval blockade.
Partially synthesizes
and proposes a means
of prevention of a
Naval blockade.
Clearly shows a
synthesis of the naval
blockade and
proposes means for
possibly prevention a
Naval blockade.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 7 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
4
Exceeds Standard
Clearly analyzes and
explains the historical
background of the
Union Naval Blockade
of Georgia and other
parts of the southern
coastline and relates it
to the overall military
picture at that time.
Clearly evaluates and
explain s the impact of
the naval blockade on
Georgia and other areas
of the southern
coastline.
Clearly Evaluates and
explains the
consequences of the
Naval blockade on the
military within Georgia
and in other areas of the
South.
Clearly shows a
synthesis of the naval
blockade and proposes
means for possibly
prevention a Naval
blockade ways to
overcome the blockade
should one occur.
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Analyzes and
explains the
importance of
Atlanta as a
transportation
center during
the Civil War.
Does not analyze or
explain the
importance of
Atlanta as a
transportation center
during the Civil
War.
Partially explains the
importance of Atlanta
as a transportation
center during the Civil
War.
Clearly and
completely explains
the importance of
Atlanta as a
transportation center
during the Civil War.
Clearly explains the
importance of Atlanta
as a transportation
center and evaluates the
problems that could
occur should such a
center of activity be
destroyed.
Analyzes and
evaluates the
impact of
Sherman‟s
Atlanta
Campaign.
Does not analyze
and evaluate the
impact of Sherman‟s
Atlanta Campaign.
Partially analyzes and
evaluates the impact
of Sherman‟s Atlanta
Campaign.
Clearly and
completely analyzes
and evaluates the
importance of
Sherman‟s Atlanta
Campaign.
Clearly analyzes and
evaluates the impact of
Sherman‟s Atlanta
Campaign and relates
that possibility and it‟s
consequences to
another setting
(Eorgiaga).
Product Rubric for Performance Task
Scale
Criteria
1
2
Below Expectation
Students produce a
product that is
attractive and
creative.
Use of font, color,
graphics, effects, etc.
is evident, but these
often distract from the
presentation of
content.
Students produce a
product that is
organized.
There was no clear or
logical organizational
structure, just lots of
facts.
Students produce a
product that
exhibits proper
mechanics.
More than 4 errors are
spelling or grammar.
Needs Improvement
Makes use of font,
color, graphics,
effects, etc., but
occasionally these
detract from the
presentation of
content.
Content is logically
organized for the
most part.
Four misspellings
and/or grammatical
errors.
3
4
Meets Expectation
Exceeds Expectation
Makes good use of
font, color, graphics,
effects etc. to
enhance the
presentation.
Makes excellent use
of font, color,
graphics, effects, etc.
to enhance the
presentation.
Uses headings or
bulleted lists to
organize, but the
overall organization
of topics appears
flawed.
Three or fewer
misspellings and/or
grammatical errors.
Content is well
organized using
headings or bulleted
lists to group related
material.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 8 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
No misspellings or
grammatical errors.
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Resources for Unit 5
Georgia Economic History Project: Georgia Council on Economic Education
www.unitedstreaming.com
http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories
Eighth Grade Social Studies Program for Georgia: Georgia and the American Experience
History Highlights
Novels: Numbering the Bones (A young black girl helping Clara Barton count the dead at
Andersonville.)
Turn Homeward, Hannalee by Patricia Beatty (Young Georgia textile mill
worker sent to the North by Sherman is trying to get back to Georgia.) Also, Be Ever
Hopeful, Hannalee.
Eben Tyne, Powdermonkey by Patricia Beatty. (A thirteen year old powder
carrier aboard the Confederate Merrimack)
Across Five Aprils by Irene Hunt (A divided family and the Civil War through
the eyes of a 9 year old).
www.georgiaencyclopedia.org Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction,
http://www.civilwar.com/
http://www.civil-war.net/ Battle of Antietam, Andersonville, Dred Scott Decision
Gettysburg, Atlanta, Sherman
http://www.civilwaralbum.com/atlanta/ The Atlanta Campaign.
http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/resources/overview.htm ( collection of political
cartoons)
http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus. The University of Virginia
Library has a historical census browser as part of its Geostat Center, which not only
provides the census data but also enables teachers and students to manipulate the data to
produce maps and tables, create ratios, and compare data across multiple census years
http://www.maritimeheritage.org/ports/naEastcoast/georgia.html Short narrative
explaining Georgia‟s exports throughout the 1800‟s.
http://www.pbs.org/civilwar
http://www.wideopenwest.com/~jenkins/ironclads/ironclad.htm naval blockade
Many cites for Civil War, Naval blockade, battles, etc.
This unit was created by Faye Smith and Evie Stephens. The unit was approved by the
Social Studies Advisory Council and the Georgia DOE Social Studies staff. This document
was last updated on 11/16/09 by Shaun Owen ([email protected]).
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 9 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
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Appendix 1
“One and Inseparable”
Directions: Complete the following chart and be prepared to share your ideas and
information with a partner and then with the entire class as you participate in a class
discussion.
Item or issue
Date What it was or
Seen by whom
How did it
to be
what did it do?
as a threat to
threaten the
considered
the union?
union?
Slavery
States‟ Rights
Nullification
Missouri
Compromise
Compromise of
1850
KansasNebraska Act
Dred Scott
Case
Election of
1860
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 10 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
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Appendix 2
Three Compromises
I.
II.
III.
Missouri Compromise:
When?
What territory was involved?
Background information:
What did the compromise do?
Who supported it?
Who opposed it?
What was the result of the compromise?
The Compromise of 1850:
When?
What territory was involved?
Background information:
What did the compromise do?
Who supported it?
Who opposed it?
What was the result of the compromise?
The Kansas-Nebraska Act:
When?
What territory was involved?
Background information:
What did the act do?
Who supported it?
Who opposed it?
What was the result of the act?
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 11 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators
Appendix 3
Sharecropping VS Tenant Farming
Directions: In each box, write either „the farmer‟ or „the landowner‟. When you have
completed the chart, respond to the following:
A phrase often used to describe these types of labor situations was „a cycle of poverty”.
After completing the chart, write a paragraph in which you tell whether you feel
sharecropping or tenant farming would most likely keep a farmer and his family in “a
cycle of poverty.” Support your thoughts with sound reasoning and evidence. Be
prepared to share your thoughts with your classmates or participate in a debate.
Who
Who
Who
provided provided
provided the
the land? the
home?
equipment?
Sharecropping
Tenant
Farming
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
EIGHTH GRADE FRAMEWORK UNIT 5
APPROVED 11/16/2009  Page 12 of 13
Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
Who
Who
provided the provided
household
the labor?
good?