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Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 A Name____________________________________ ID #__________________________ No notes, No books; You can use calculators The letter at the top of the test needs to correspond to letter at top of the answer sheet. Constants that you may need to know: • c = 3 x 108 m/s • G = 6.67 x 10-11 m3/(kg-s2) • h = 6.626 x 10-34 J-s • g = 9.8 m/s2 • σ = 5.7 x 10-8 W/(m2-K4) • 1 parsec = 3.26 light years 1) In the sky, you follow an object as it passes through the constellations Leo, Hydra, and Canis Major. What can you say about this object? A) This object is one of the nine planets. B) This object is not one of the nine planets. C) This object will collide with the sun. D) This object is a star. E) This object is the Moon. 2) Which of these planets takes the longest time to travel one full orbit around the Sun? A) Mars B) Venus C) Jupiter D) Earth E) Saturn 3) How far will light travel in 20 minutes? A) 3.6 x 109 meters B) 3.6 x 1010 meters C) 3.6 x 1011 meters D) 3.6 x 1012 meters E) 1.8 x 1011 meters Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 4) A planet is 4 Astronomical Units from the Sun. What is the planet’s orbital period around the Sun? A) the square of 4, which equals 16 years B) the square root of 4, which equals 2 years C) the square root of 64, which equals 8 years D) the square of 9, which equals 81 years E) the cube of 4, which equals 64 years 5) During its orbit when a planet is at perihelion, it is … A) B) C) D) E) at its closest point to the Sun. at its farthest point from the Sun. in total shadow. in partial shadow. In the constellation Perseus 6) A galaxy is 5,000 light years away and we observe light from that galaxy. We are looking at the galaxy as it appeared … A) B) C) D) E) a few minutes ago. 1.4 x 1010 years ago. 300,000,000 years ago. 5,000 years ago. 10,000 years ago. 7) When traveling south from Canada into the United States, you'll see the North Star (Polaris) getting … A) smaller B) lower in the sky. C) brighter. D) higher in the sky. E) larger. 8) How long would it take a photon of light to travel 3,000 meters? A) B) C) D) E) 3 seconds 1 x 10-6 seconds 1 x 10-9 seconds 1 x 10-5 seconds 1 x 10-9 seconds A Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 9) During a solar eclipse, the penumbra is the … A) B) C) D) E) region where sunlight is only partially blocked. time it takes the eclipse to pass over you. the distance from the Earth to the Sun. the distance from the Earth to the Moon. region where sunlight is fully blocked. 10) Which order correctly lists the planets closest to the Sun to farthest from the Sun? Only eight planets are listed. A) B) C) D) E) Mercury, Mars, Earth, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn, Neptune Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Venus, Mercury, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune 11) Which of these types of light has the shortest wavelength? A) B) C) D) E) 12) gamma rays x-rays ultraviolet visible infrared If it is 100 Kelvin, what is the temperature in Celsius? A) B) C) D) E) 288.15 degrees Celsius 373.15 degrees Celsius -173.15 degrees Celsius -158.15 degrees Celsius -143.15 degrees Celsius 13) Isotopes of an element have the …. A) B) C) D) E) same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons same number of protons but different number of neutrons same number of electrons but different numbers of protons same number of protons and same number of neutrons same number of neutrons but different number of electrons A Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 A Figure 1 14) Figure 1 shows the energy levels of the electron in a hydrogen atom. An electron is excited from level 3 to level 4 by the absorption of a photon. What must the energy of the photon be to excite the electron from level 3 to level 4? A) B) C) D) E) 15) 0.7 eV 2.6 eV 1.9 eV 24.9 eV 12.1 eV How would the force of gravity between the Sun and the Earth change if the Earth's mass were increased by a factor of two and the Sun’s mass were increased by a factor of 4? A) The force would increase by a factor of 64. B) The force would increase by a factor of 6. C) The force would increase by a factor of 16. D) The force would increase by a factor of 8. E) The force would decrease by a factor of 4. Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 A 16) X-rays differ from visible light in that they … A) travel faster through empty space. B) travel slower through empty space. C) have a shorter wavelength D) are not electromagnetic waves like visible light is. E) have less energy per photon An infrared photon has a frequency of 1 x 1014 Hz. What is the energy of this photon? 17) A) B) C) D) E) 6.626 x 10-34 J 6.626 x 10-20 J 6.626 x 10-47 J 1.9878 x 10-19 J 1.9878 x 10-26 J 18) What is the wavelength of a photon of light if the frequency is 3.00 x 1010 Hz? A) B) C) D) E) 1 x 1025 m 1 x 10-25 m 1 x 10-2 m 3 x 10-10 m 3 x 10-15 m 19) As the wavelengths of photons of light increase, their … A) Frequencies increase and their energies increase B) Frequencies decrease and their energies decrease C) Frequencies increase and their energies decrease D) Frequencies increase and their energies stay the same E) Frequencies stay the same and their energies stay the same Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 A 20) Which of the following objects has the most kinetic energy? A) A 10 kg mass moving at 10 m/s. B) A 2 kg mass moving at 20 m/s. C) A 10 kg mass moving at 8 m/s. D) A 2 kg mass moving at 10 m/s. E) A 3 kg mass moving at 12 m/s. 21) Which of these spectral types has the coolest surface temperature? A) G type B) B type C) O type D) K type E) M type 22) We measure the stellar parallax of a star to be 0.4 arc seconds. What is the distance to this star? A) B) C) D) E) 23) 0.25 parsecs 4 parsecs 2.5 parsecs 25 parsecs 50 parsecs For main sequence stars, the general rule is that the lower the surface temperature, … A) the less numerous are the stars. B) the greater the masses of the stars. C) the less luminous are the stars. D) the larger the radius of the stars E) the shorter the lifetimes on the main sequence 24) The process by which a larger nuclei splits into smaller nuclei is called … A) B) C) D) E) Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion Strong force Electron decay Gravitational equilibrium Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 25) Pulsars were discovered by … A) Isaac Newton B) Albert Einstein C) Jocelyn Bell. D) Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin E) Annie Jump Cannon 26) Which part (or layer) of the Sun has the hottest temperature? A) core B) corona C) chromosphere. D) photosphere E) convection zone 27) Observations of solar neutrinos allow astronomers to gather information about A) sunspot activity at the Sun's surface. B) nuclear reactions occurring in the core of the Sun. C) the magnetic activity in the Sun's upper atmosphere. D) the density of the Sun's photosphere. E) how fast the Sun revolves on its axis. 28) Why can the Hubble Telescope observe fainter galaxies than can be observed on Earth? A) the Hubble Telescope is closer to the galaxies B) the Hubble Telescope is above the Earth’s atmosphere C) the Hubble Telescope can observe gamma rays D) the Hubble Telescope can observe X-rays E) the Hubble Telescope can observe radio waves 29) We would expect black holes to form from … A) B) C) D) E) stars with masses less than that of the Earth. stars whose cores are too massive to permit a neutron star to form. stars with the same mass as the sun. stars with about half the mass of the Sun. stars with the M spectral type. A Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 A 30) During its main sequence lifetime, the sun fuses __________ into ____________. A) hydrogen; helium B) hydrogen; carbon C) hydrogen; iron D) helium; carbon E) helium; iron 31) If it is 150 degrees Celsius, what is the temperature in Kelvin? A) 123.15 Kelvin B) 373.15 Kelvin C) 423.15 Kelvin D) -150.15 Kelvin E) -143.15 Kelvin 32) Write the number 20 million in scientific notation. A) 2.0 x 106 B) 2.0 x 107 C) 2.0 x 108 D) 2.0 x 109 E) 2.0 x 1010 33) What is 2.5 x 105 multiplied by 4 x 107 equal to? A) B) C) D) E) 1 x 1011 1 x 1012 1 x 1013 1 x 1014 1 x 1015 34) What is the energy of a photon with a wavelength of 30 meters? A) B) C) D) E) 6.626 x 10-26 Joules 6.626 x 10-27 Joules 1.9878 x 10-32 Joules 1.9878 x 10-27 Joules 1.9878 x 10-28 Joules Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 A 35) What force do you need to apply to a 10 kg mass to accelerate it to 30 m/s2? A) B) C) D) E) 30 Newtons 300 Newtons 3 Newtons 3,000 Newtons 0.33 Newtons 36) How far will light travel in 300 seconds? A) B) C) D) E) 9 x 109 meters 9 x 1010 meters 3 x 109 meters 3 x 1010 meters 1 x 10-6 meters 37) The smallest tides occur during which phases of the Moon? A) B) C) D) E) first-quarter and third-quarter new and full waning crescent and waxing crescent waning gibbous and waxing gibbous waning crescent and waxing gibbous 38) As the temperature of an object decreases, … A) the emitted power per square meter increases and the wavelength of maximum intensity of emitted light increases. B) the emitted power per square meter increases and the wavelength of maximum intensity of emitted light decreases. C) the emitted power per square meter decreases and the wavelength of maximum intensity of emitted light increases. D) the emitted power per square meter decreases and the wavelength of maximum intensity of emitted light decreases. E) the emitted power per square meter and the wavelength of maximum intensity of emitted light stay the same. Astronomy 100, Optional Exam #5 A 39) What is the gravitational acceleration on the surface of a planet that has 2 times the mass of Earth and 2 times the radius of Earth? A) B) C) D) E) 9.8 m/s2 4.9 m/s2 19.6 m/s2 4.0 m/s2 11.8 m/s2 40) A Vanadium atom has 23 protons, 28 neutrons, and 23 electrons? What is this Vanadium atom’s atomic number? A) B) C) D) E) 24 23 51 52 46