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Causes and Effects of Historic Events
1. Which of these is a result of the Revolutionary War?
A. Loyalists to Britain moved from Canada to the U.S.
B. British taxes were imposed on Americans.
C. America remained under British control.
D. America was granted independence.
2. Which of these was one cause of the War of 1812?
A. the successful attempts of the U.S to invade Canada
B. the British persuasion of the Indians to cooperate with the U.S.
C. the election of "War Hawks" to United States Congress
D. the capture of British ships and men by American sailors
3. Which of these was a result of the French and Indian War?
A. The European nations were removed from North America.
B. The British people expanded their claims to the colonies.
C. Colonists united with the British against their common enemies.
D. The British government encouraged colonists to move to the new land.
4. Disagreements involving slavery and states' rights were two of the main causes of
A. the American Revolution.
B. the War of 1812.
C. the Civil War.
D. the Reconstruction Era.
5. Historians believe that the invention of the cotton gin had which of the following effects?
A. the migration of African Americans to the North
B. the expansion of slavery in the South
C. an increasing number of people moving to the cities
D. a decreasing number of privately owned farms
6. Which of the following best explains the effect European colonization had on the Native Americans?
A. Many Native American tribes prospered due to trade with Europeans.
B. Most Native Americans embraced European culture and beliefs.
C. Many Native Americans died or were forced off their land.
D. Most Native Americans had little to no contact with the Europeans.
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Meriwether Lewis and William Clark began an expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory in 1804. This expedition
caused which of the following?
A. a decrease in the number of settlers who wanted to move west
B. a decrease in friendly relations with Native Americans
C. the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from the French
D. the production of the first accurate maps of the Northwest
The Boston Massacre
In 1770, a riot occurred between British troops and American colonists in Boston, Massachusetts. Tensions had been mounting
between the two groups for some time. American colonists became upset when Great Britain imposed a series of new taxes on the
colonies because of debts from the French and Indian War. This caused a great deal of unrest, especially in Boston. The British
decided to send troops to the area in an attempt to keep order and protect their interests. On March 5th, a crowd gathered outside the
Old State House. British soldiers also began to gather, and as tensions in the crowd increased, the troops fired, killing five people. This
event became known as the Boston Massacre.
Which of these best describes the Boston Massacre?
A. It resulted in more support for the independence movement.
B. It was a main cause of the French and Indian War.
C. It had very little effect on the feelings of American colonists.
D. It caused the British to punish the colonies severely.
Pope Urban II had several reasons for calling the Crusades in 1095. Jerusalem and the surrounding Middle East had religious
importance to Christians, who considered it the Holy Land. Western Europe had also grown strong, so a mission to take the Holy Land
would give its warriors a common enemy and prevent Christian armies from warring against each other. Furthermore, the eastern
Byzantine Christians were under threat by Seljuk Turks and their Muslim empire. The Byzantines were not Catholic, but coming to their
aid would support Christianity and give the two churches a chance to reunite.
Different groups of Crusaders journeyed to the Holy Land. The Crusaders often killed any Muslim or Jew they encountered, even
those who surrendered. Some even attacked Byzantine cities and killed the fellow Christians they had been sent to protect. Though the
First Crusade managed to capture Jerusalem and other territories, the Europeans were unable to gain future successes, and Muslim
armies had retaken all of the Middle East by 1291.
9. Use your knowledge of world history and the reading passage above to answer the following question.
Which of the following was a cause of the Crusades?
A. Jerusalem had stopped being considered a Holy Land.
B. Catholic and Byzantine Christians had separated.
C. European armies needed a common enemy to fight.
D. Muslim groups were torturing Christians and Jews.
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10. Use your knowledge of world history and the reading passage above to answer the following question.
Which of the following best describes the results of the Crusades, by the end of the 13th century?
A. The Crusades gave Christians a reputation for being honest and respectful warriors.
B. The Crusades had accomplished few of the goals that were set out by the pope.
C. The Crusades effectively doubled the territory owned by Western Europe.
D. The Crusades increased the friendship between Catholic and Byzantine Christians.
Czarist Russia had never treated its Jewish population well. Jews were required to live in certain areas called ghettos, and they were
not given access to good education or jobs. The worst Russian actions against Jews were the pogroms in the late 1800s and again in
the early 1900s.
The pogroms began when Czar Alexander II was killed in 1881. People blamed the Jews for Alexander's death. Large mobs
attacked Jewish communities, injuring and killing as they destroyed Jews’ homes and property. These attacks were called pogroms,
and the Russian government did little to stop them. Many Jews moved to other countries like Germany or the United States during this
time to escape the wave of violence.
11. One cause of the 1881 pogroms was the assassination (killing) of Czar Alexander II. Which of these statements
best supports the idea that there were other reasons the Jews were attacked?
A. Jews were an accepted religious and cultural group within Russia.
B. During the pogroms, many Jews left Russia to find safer countries.
C. The Russian government did not stop the pogroms from happening.
D. Russian Jews had been treated unfairly before the czar was killed.
12. How did Russian Jews respond to the pogroms in the 1800s?
A. They revolted against the government.
B. They moved out of Russia.
C. They demanded their own nation.
D. They chose to stay in their ghettos.
Decision of the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison
delivered by Chief Justice John Marshall
"So, if a law be in opposition to the Constitution, if both the law and the Constitution apply to a particular case,
… the Court must determine which of these conflicting rules governs the case. This is of the very essence of judicial
The particular phraseology [wording] of the Constitution of the United States confirms and strengthens the
principle, supposed to be essential to all written Constitutions, that a law repugnant to the Constitution is void, and
that courts, as well as other departments, are bound by that instrument."
13. According to Marshall, why must a law be struck down if it violates the Constitution?
A. Laws are all part of the Constitution, so they cannot possibly violate it.
B. The Constitution itself indicates that all laws must agree with it.
C. Laws were written after the Constitution and can better address current events.
D. The Constitution was the first document written in U.S. history.
14. According to Marshall, why does the Supreme Court have the right to rule on whether a law is constitutional?
A. The Supreme Court at the time was composed of people who had helped write the Constitution, so they knew
what it meant.
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what it meant.
B. The Constitution itself states that the Supreme Court has the right to rule whether a law is constitutional.
C. The judicial branch needs the right to judicial review if there is to be equal separation of powers between the
three branches.
D. The Constitution and a law may disagree on how to judge a court case, so the courts must decide which rules
The First Opium War
By the late 1700s, there was conflict between the European nations and the Chinese emperor. The British in particular wished to
trade for Chinese goods, such as tea and silk, but China had little interest in trading for what they had to offer in return. The only thing
the British had that the Chinese merchants really cared about was a drug called opium.
After the British introduced opium to the Chinese, their trade with China became profitable. China began losing money, and many of
its people had become addicted to opium. The Chinese emperor declared a ban on the opium trade because of these problems, but
British merchants continued to bring in the drug anyway. After Chinese officials destroyed a supply of British opium, Britain responded
by sending an army.
Chinese technology was no match for British weapons and warships during the Opium War, which lasted from 1839-1842. They
surrendered and signed the Treaty of Nanjing, which gave Britain the island of Hong Kong and favorable trading rights with China.
Other nations would soon also force China to give them greater trading rights and privileges.
15. Read the passage above. Which of the following statements would most likely describe the Opium War from the
viewpoint of a British merchant?
A. The Opium War was caused by China wanting to expand its empire.
B. The Opium War was caused by Britain trading opium illegally.
C. The Opium War was caused by China destroying British property.
D. The Opium War was caused by Britain invading Hong Kong.
16. Read the passage above. What was the result of Britain making money in the opium trade with China?
A. China and Britain increased trade with each other since it was profitable.
B. China declared war on Britain to take more of its opium supply.
C. China's government fought a civil war against Chinese opium dealers.
D. China declared a ban on opium trading and ordered Britain to stop.
"The great events on which my resignation depended, having at length taken place, I have now the honor of offering my sincere
congratulations to Congress, and of presenting myself before them, to surrender into their hands the trust committed to me, and to
claim the indulgence of retiring from the service of my country.…
Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theater of action, —and bidding an affectionate farewell to
this August body, under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my Commission, and take my leave of all the employments
of public life."
George Washington
Annapolis, December 23, 1783
What is the significance of this letter from George Washington?
A. Washington is giving up his command of the army.
B. Washington is giving political advice to Congress.
C. Washington is surrendering at the Battle of Brandywine.
D. Washington is accepting his election as president.
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D. Washington is accepting his election as president.
The colonists who landed at Jamestown were hoping to find gold. They found something that made them just as rich: tobacco.
While tobacco was popular in Europe and was a valuable trade item, it required a great amount of labor to grow it. It was not cost
effective to pay people to do that work.
The colonists solved this problem with slavery. Though slaves were sold throughout England's colonies, more were bought in
Virginia and the South to work on tobacco plantations and make the cash crop profitable.
According to the reading passage, what was a long-term consequence of early colonists' decision to grow and export a
tobacco crop?
A. It resulted in poor relations with the Native American tribes.
B. It resulted in the poor health of the colonists due to smoking.
C. It resulted in the widespread use of slavery in the South.
D. It resulted in an alliance with France during the Revolutionary War.
When the 13 states gathered at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, the Virginians were the first
to propose a plan for a new government. The Virginia Plan suggested many changes that made it to the U.S.
Constitution, including three branches of government and a bicameral (two-chambered) Congress. The plan also
called for a system of congressional representation that was based on states' populations, with larger states holding
more power than smaller states.
Naturally, smaller states were opposed to this part of the Virginia Plan. They responded with the New Jersey Plan,
which called for a unicameral Congress in which states were represented equally. Under this plan, each state would
have one delegate and one vote, regardless of that state's size.
The argument was resolved with the Great Compromise. Under the compromise, there would be a bicameral
Congress. In one chamber—the House of Representatives—states would be represented according to their
populations. In the other chamber—the Senate—each state would be represented equally, with two representatives
each. Neither side was entirely satisfied, but the plan did offer a balance between large and small states. The
compromise was accepted.
19. According to this reading passage, what was the issue that caused disagreement between the Virginia Plan and
the New Jersey Plan?
A. Older states and younger states disagreed on how to admit new states into the Union.
B. Larger states and smaller states disagreed on how they should be represented in Congress.
C. Eastern states and Western states disagreed on whether Congress should be unicameral or bicameral.
D. Northern states and Southern states disagreed on whether slaves should be counted as citizens.
20. According to this reading passage, what major decision was passed during the Constitutional Convention to deal
with how the states would be represented in the legislature?
A. the Great Compromise
B. the Virginia Plan
C. the Three-fifths Compromise
D. the New Jersey Plan
Haitian Independence
Haiti was the second country in the Western hemisphere to gain independence from Europe. Situated on the Caribbean island of
Hispaniola, Haiti was a French sugar colony that was worked by black slaves. This situation changed when the French Revolution
began in 1789, and a new French Republic declared that all men were created equal.
As white settlers in Haiti spoke for independence from France, slaves called for freedom and equality. The slaves rebelled in 1791
and fought a civil war against white slave owners. Led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, the former slaves captured the entire island.
In 1802, France sent soldiers to recapture Haiti. The Haitians resisted, and the French were killed both by enemy soldiers and by
yellow fever. France was defeated in 1803, and Haiti declared independence the next year.
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yellow fever. France was defeated in 1803, and Haiti declared independence the next year.
21. Use your knowledge of world history and the reading passage above to answer the following question.
Even though Haiti gained independence in 1804, the United States did not recognize the country until 1862. This is
because the United States did not want to support a nation that
A. had fought a war against France.
B. gained independence through violence.
C. had formed as a result of a slave rebellion.
D. used a democratic form of government.
22. How did Haitian slaves respond after the French Revolution began?
A. They called for independence.
B. They educated themselves.
C. They violently rebelled.
D. They tried to escape Haiti.
1. D
2. C
3. C
4. C
5. B
6. C
7. D
8. A
9. C
10. B
11. D
12. B
13. B
14. D
15. C
16. D
17. A
18. C
19. B
20. A
21. C
22. C
1. November 30, 1782—a preliminary peace treaty was signed in Paris, ending the Revolutionary War. Terms
included recognition of American independence and the boundaries of the United States, along with British
withdrawal from America.
2. The "War Hawks" were a group of congressmen who helped influence the U.S. Congress to declare war against
the United Kingdom in 1812. Some famous War Hawks were Henry Clay and John Calhoun.
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the United Kingdom in 1812. Some famous War Hawks were Henry Clay and John Calhoun.
3. In the French and Indian War, the British and their colonists fought against the French and the Indians for
control of the Ohio River valley. In June 1754 colonial delegates met to discuss relationships with Native American
tribes, as well as the French. From this meeting came Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan of Union—one of the first
attempts to form a union of the colonies. As a result of the war, the colonists learned to unite against a common
enemy. Before the war, the thirteen colonies had found almost no common ground, and they did not trust each
other. Finally, they saw that together they could be strong.
4. Disagreements over the continuation of slavery and states' rights were two of the main causes of the Civil War.
The conflict split the nation into North and South, and tensions between the two areas increased during the early
5. Historians link the invention of the cotton gin to the expansion of slavery in the southern states. The cotton gin,
invented by Eli Whitney made it easier to separate cotton fibers from the seeds. Farmers were able to produce 10
times more cotton with the cotton gin. This led to a greater need for slaves, as more people were needed in the
fields to pick the cotton.
6. Because of European colonization of the Americas, many Native Americans died or were forced off their lands.
Native Americans had no natural immunity to diseases brought by the Europeans. As a result, many died of
smallpox or other European diseases. Natives Americans also suffered because of conflicts over land with European
7. Lewis and Clark's expedition led to the production of the first accurate maps of the Northwest. This event
occurred following the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from the French.
8. The Boston Massacre is seen by historians as one of many causes of increased turmoil between the British and
American colonists. The colonists saw the shootings as extreme and were very upset. It was one of many events
that led to the Revolutionary War.
9. There were many different causes for the Crusades. The passage reads that a mission to recapture the Holy Land
would have given European Crusaders a common enemy to fight. This was important because Europe had become
powerful, but without an enemy, many of its warriors fought against each other.
10. When the Crusades had ended, they had accomplished few of the major goals that the pope had hoped to
accomplish. The Holy Land had been entirely retaken by the Muslims. The Byzantine Christians resented Catholic
Christians more than before, since Crusaders had actually attacked them instead of aiding them. More positive
effects did come from the Crusades, however. Trade between the West and East increased significantly, and
Europeans gained a greater interest in the science and literature they encountered in the Muslim world.
11. The Russian pogroms started after Jews were blamed for killing Alexander II, but there were other reasons that
Jews were targeted and attacked. According to the passage, the Jewish population of Russia had never been treated
well, even before the czar was killed. In fact, the man who killed Alexander was not even Jewish. Because Jews
have been a minority group in most countries, and because other religions have hated them, Jews have been
blamed and persecuted in many situations in history.
12. Russian Jews responded to the persecution of the pogroms by moving out of Russia. Many went to Germany,
where they would face persecution by Hitler's regime a hundred years later. Others went to different parts of
Europe and the world, including the United States. Russian Jews from Eastern Europe made up many of the
immigrants coming to the United States in the late 19th century.
13. In the Marbury v. Madison ruling, Chief Justice Marshall points out that the Constitution is the supreme law of
the land. He writes that the Constitution's wording "confirms and strengthens the principle" that a law must agree
with it in order to be valid.
14. Marbury v. Madison established the power of the Supreme Court to strike down a law if they interpret that it
violates the Constitution. Chief Justice Marshall argued that a law and the Constitution may both apply to certain
court cases. In these cases, the court would have to decide "which of these conflicting rules governs the case."
Since the Constitution is a higher authority than an ordinary law, any law that goes against the Constitution "is
void," so the court would have to declare it void in order to make a decision in the case.
15. The Opium War was caused by a series of events and was fueled different motives. A British merchant from the
time might have claimed that the war started because China destroyed British private property. Someone in the
Chinese government would have claimed that the British property was illegal opium, and it was the British who sent
an army to China afterward. These statements are all true on some level, and they form together to make a
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an army to China afterward. These statements are all true on some level, and they form together to make a
complete picture of the event.
16. Everything in history follows an order of events. The British began trading opium with China because it made
them more money. It also caused the Chinese to lose money, and it made them addicted to the drug, so China
banned the opium trade as a result.
17. After the Revolutionary War, George Washington gave up his command of the Continental Army. This was a
very important decision; many people believe that Washington could have instead made himself leader of the
United States and set up an undemocratic system. People respected Washington so much that they elected him the
first president of the United States in 1789. Washington served two terms as president and then, in 1797, he
refused to run again. These actions set an example for peaceful transfers of power in the United States.
18. The decision to grow the labor-intensive tobacco crop directly led to the importation of African slaves, a practice
that would later divide the nation in the bloody Civil War. The decision to use slaves was influenced by the shortage
of other forms of labor; if the colonists wanted tobacco to make them wealthy, they needed to use slaves.
19. The main disagreement between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan had to do with how states were
represented in Congress. Larger states wanted representation based on population, while smaller states wanted
representation to be equal.
20. The Great Compromise dealt with the problem of how the states should be represented in Congress. Two
houses were formed: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate appealed to smaller states by
having equal representation, and the House of Representatives appealed to larger states by having representation
based on population size.
21. Although the United States was a nation that claimed "all men are created equal," it still allowed slavery to
exist. Slaveholders in the United States feared a massive slave revolt, and they did not want their own slaves to
look at the Haitian Revolution as an example. The United States did not recognize Haitian independence until 1862
—after the American Civil War had begun.
22. Blacks had been enslaved in Haiti for several years, but they fought a violent revolt in 1791. The slaves, led by
L'Ouverture, rose up against their owners. France tried to retake Haiti in 1802, but its army could not overcome the
Haitians or the island's yellow fever. Haiti declared its independence in 1804.
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