Reviewing the “Tragedy of the Commons” Practice Questions… 1. Along with population growth, which of the following is a major root of the environmental problems caused by humans? [A] our exploitation & consumption of resources [B] our renewable energy initiatives [C] our reforestation projects [D] our sustainable development practices 2. One example of the tragedy of the commons can occur when several farmers share the same pasture for feeding sheep. The root cause of this tragedy is that [A] people are bad [B] sheep reproduce too quickly [C] the market cannot support too many farmers [D] the farmers believe that if I don’t use it then someone else will. [E] The cost of the sheep is lessened by bulk purchase power Introduction to APES Studying the State of Our Earth Friday, July 31st, 2015 Textbook pages 2-11 Interactions between systems Environmental how Science nature works. how the environment effects us. how we effect the environment. how we can live more sustainably without degrading our life-support system. Examples of systems Environment External conditions that affect living organisms Ecosystem Has both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components Ecology Study of relationships between living organisms and their environment (relationships between the biotic and the abiotic) • Humans alter natural systems more than any other species. • Environmental scientists monitor natural systems for signs of stress by looking at environmental indicators. Environmental Indicators Environmental indicators describe the health/quality of a system ( and the “ecosystem services” it provides) Table 1.2 from textbook: Indicator Biological diversity Food production “Five key global environmental indicators” Recent Trend Large number of extinctions, extinction rate increasing Per capita production possibly leveling off CO2 concentrations and temperatures increasing Average global surface temperature and CO2 concentrations Human population Still increasing, but growth rate slowing Resource depletion Many resources being depleted at rapid rates. But human ingenuity frequently develops “new” resources, and efficiency of resource use is increasing in many cases Outlook for future Overall impact on environmental quality Extinctions will continue Negative Unclear May affect the number of people Earth can support Probably will continue to increase, at least short term Effects are uncertain and varied, but probably detrimental Population leveling off. Resource consumption rates are also a factor Unknown Negative Increased use of most resources has negative effects Linear Growth Quantity 120 100 80 increases by a constant amount per unit of time 1,2,3,4,5, … or 2, 4, 6, 8 When plotted on a graph, growth yields a fairly straight line sloping upward (positive growth) Sloping downward (negative “growth” or decreasing amounts) 60 40 20 0 1960 1980 2000 2020 Exponential Growth Growth yields a Jshaped curve Describes the human population problem that disturbs the environment today Population Growth 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Fun Fact: Expected to see the population boom to 8.1 billion – 9.6 billion in 2050, then stabilize between 6.8 - 10.5 billion by 2100. “Rule of 70” How long does it take to double? Resource use Population size Money in a savings account Rule 70 of 70 divided by the percentage growth rate = doubling time in years 70 / 7% means it takes ten years to double Sustainable Development Assumes the right to use the earth’s resources and earth capital to meet needs It is our obligation to create sustainability Environmentally sustainable societies meets basic needs of its people in a just and equitable manner without degrading the natural capital that supplies these resources. Resources: a supply of something Renewable Non-Renewable Potentially Renewable Direct solar energy Fossil fuels Fresh air Winds, tides, flowing water Metallic minerals (iron, copper, aluminum) Fresh water Nonmetallic minerals (clay, sand, phosphates) Fertile soil Plants and animals (biodiversity) Biodiversity Genetic Variety in a genetic makeup among individuals within a single species Species Diversity Diversity Variety among the species or distinct types of living organisms found in different habitats of the planet Ecological Diversity Variety of forests, deserts, grasslands, streams, lakes, oceans, wetlands, and other communities Environmental Degradation Common Property Resources Tragedy of the Commons Resources owned by none, but available to all users free of charge May convert potentially renewable resources into nonrenewable resources Practice Questions… 3. What is genetic diversity? [A] The distinction between species [B] The variety of environments [C] The genetic makeup of individuals [D] The different genes from mating [E] Hybrid species mating 4. What is used in order to calculate the doubling of a resource, population, money, etc.? (A) Rule of 2 (C) Rule of 20 (B) Rule of 40 (D) Rule of 70 (E) Rule of 90 5. Which of the following events has increased the impact of humans on the environment? I. Advances in technology II. Use of tools for hunting III. Reduced human population growth [A] I only [B] I and II only [D] II and III only [E] I, II, and III [C] I and III only 6. Which statement regarding a global environmental indicator is not correct? [A] Concentrations in atmospheric carbon dioxide have been rising quite steadily since the Industrial Revolution. [B] World grain production has increased fairly steadily since 1950, but worldwide production of grain per capita has decreased dramatically over the same period. [C] For the past 130 years, average global surface temperatures have shown an overall increase that seems likely to continue. [D] World population is expected to be between 8.1 billion and 9.6 billion by 2050. [E] Some natural resources are available in finite amounts and are consumed during a one-time use, whereas other finite resources can be used multiple times through recycling.