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Transcript
Political Science and International Relations
Development, mission, structures
and activities of the EU in the area of security
Operační program Vzdělávání pro konkurenceschopnost
Název projektu: Inovace magisterského studijního programu Fakulty ekonomiky a managementu
Registrační číslo projektu: CZ.1.07/2.2.00/28.0326
Aim of the presentation
 To introduce basic facts and genesis of the European military and
security cooperation
 To outline main trends of security and military integration within
the EU
 To provide basic information about the structures and activities
tied with the European Security and Defence Policy
Beginning of the military cooperation
 Reasons for postwar military-political cooperation:
 Fears of Germany (Dunkerque agreement, 1947)
 Fears of expansion of the Soviet Union
 Strengthening position on the continent (France)
 Cooperation in stabilization of post-war Europe
Brusels Treaty
 Established:
 17th March 1948
 Reasons:
 Concerns about the expansion of the sphere of influence of the
Soviet Union (Finland, Czechoslovakia)
 Members:
 The UK, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg
 There is a loose military organization of Western European
countries, which mission is to provide mutual assistance in case of
attack
Brussels Treaty
 Article V. of the Brussels Treaty:
 If any of the High Contracting Parties should be the object of an
armed attack in Europe, the other High Contracting Parties will, in
accordance with the provisions of Article 51 of the Charter of the
United Nations, afford the Party so attacked all military and other aid
and assistance in their power.
European Defence Community
 Established:
 27.5.1952, however failed - not ratified by France
 Reasons:
 Changing of the security climate and the high risk of conventional
conflict in Europe
 Members:
 The UK, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany,
Italy
 Mission:
 Mutual assistance in the event of an attack and controlled
remilitarisation of Germany
 Idea of European (multinational) armed forces
Western European Union
 23.10.1954 – 30.6.2011
 Reasons:
 Substitute for the aborted project of the European Defence
Community
 Members:
 The UK, France, Low countries, Germany, Italy
 Mission:
 Mutual assistance in the event of an attack and controlled
remilitarisation of Germany
 Organizations with limited capacity to act - completely in the
shadow of NATO
 By the end of the 80s almost stagnant and formal political
organization
Changes after the end of the Cold War
 Western European Union:
 Partial activation and launching limited missions abroad (Persian Gulf,
Yugoslavia)
 European Union:
 Maastricht Treaty (1990,1993) – definition of the Common Foreign
and Security Policy (CFSP)
 Objectives:
 Safeguard the common values, fundamental interests, independence
and integrity of the EU - strengthen the security of the Union in all
ways;
 Preserve peace and strengthen international security;
 Promote international co-operation, develop and consolidate
democracy and the rule of law, and respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms.
CFSP
 Reasons:
 The growing power of the EU as an actor in international politics
 The inability of a joint EU action even in very close area (Yugoslavia)
 The emancipation on the US after the end of the Cold War
 Seaking the mutual position of NATO, WEU and the EU
Petersberg tasks
 WEU missions formulated in Petersberg (1992):
 Humanitarian and rescue tasks
 Peacekeeping tasks
 Tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking
 Petersberg tasks are complementary to the mission of NATO
 The gradual acceptance of the WEU mission and structures by the
European Union
Petersberg tasks - examples
 1993 - Sharp Guard
 1993 - Danube Operation
 1994 - 1996 - police contingent in Mostar
 1997 - 2001 PM Albania
 1999 - 2001 Demining Assistance Mission to Croatia
Acceleration of CFSP and ESDP
 1997 - Amsterodam Treaty
 1998 - Saint Malo
 Decisions on the need to promote military capabilities
 1999 - Javier Solana - European Union's High Representative for
Common Foreign and Security Policy
 1999 - European Headline Goal (Helsinki)
 2000 - Civil Protection and Crisis Management in the
European Union
Acceleration of CFSP and ESDP
 2003 - first EU external police and military missions (EU PM BiH,
Concordia, Artemis)
 2003 - European security strategy adopted
 2004 - Headline Goal 2010 adopted
 2004 - European Defence Agency was founded
 2004 - the Concept of EU Battlegroups approved
European Headline Goal (2003)
 The European Union pledged itself during the Helsinki summit to
be able to deploy rapidly and then sustain forces capable of the full
range of Petersberg tasks (as set out in the Amsterdam Treaty),
including the most demanding, in operations up to corps level (up
to 15 brigades or 50,000-60,000 persons) to be capable of
intervening in any crisis that could occur in an area where
European interests are affected.
 The aim was to make those forces self-reliant, deployable within 60
days and over 4,000 km, and sustainable in the field for a year. This
means the force would actually have to number around 180,000
troops so as to provide rotating replacements for the initial forces.
European Capability Action Plan - ECAP
 During the December 2001 Laeken summit, the EU launched the
European Capabilities Action Plan (ECAP) to remedy European
capability shortfalls
 It involved initially some 20 panels composed of military experts
from the member states which put forward plans and proposals to
fill the identified shortfalls (e.g., by acquiring new equipment or
optimising existing capabilities, in particular through cooperation
at European level)
European Defence Agency
 The European Defence Agency (EDA) is an agency of the European
Union (EU) based in Brussels, Belgium
 Set up on 12 July 2004, it is a Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP) body reporting to the Council of the European Union
 Its primary role is to foster European defence cooperation
EU Battlegroups
 An EU Battlegroup (EUBG) is a military unit adhering to the
Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European
Union (EU)
 Often based on contributions from a coalition of member states,
each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized
force (1,500 troops) reinforced with combat support elements
 The groups rotate actively, so that two are ready for deployment at
all times - the forces are under the direct control of the Council of
the European Union
 The Battlegroups reached full operational capacity on 1 January
2007, although, as of January 2014 they were not deployed yet
 They are based on existing ad hoc missions that the European
Union (EU) has undertaken and has been described by some as a
new "standing army" for Europe
CFSP and ESDP bodies
 PSC
 The Political and Security Committee, PSC (sometimes referred to by
its French COPS acronym derived from Comité politique et de
sécurité) is a permanent body within the European Union dealing
with Common Foreign and Security Policy issues, including Common
Security and Defence Policy
 EUMC
 The European Union Military Committee (EUMC) is a department of
military officials under the High Representative of the Union for
Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the Political and Security
Committee (PSC) of the European Union's Common Foreign and
Security Policy. The EUMC gives military advice to the PSC and the
High Representative. It also oversees the European Union Military
Staff
CFSP and ESDP bodies
 EUMS
 The European Union Military Staff (EUMS) is a department of the
European Union (EU), responsible for supervising operations within
the realm of the Common Security and Defence Policy
 It is directly attached to the private office of the High Representative
of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, currently
Catherine Ashton, and is formally part of the European External
Action Service
The most important missions of the EU
 EUPM (1.1.2003)
 Concordia (31.3.-15.12.2003)
 Artemis (2003)
 Althea (2004-)
 EUPOL COPPS (2006-)
 EUPOL Afghanistan (2007-)
 EULEX Kosovo (2008-)
 EUFOR Tchad/RCA (2008-2009)
 EUMM Georgia (2008-)
 EUNAVFOR Atalanta (2008-), etc.
European Union and NATO
 NATO remains (so far) the primary cornerstone of the collective
defence in Europe
 EU fulfills complementary tasks of the NATO mission only
 In 1998, at the NATO summit, Albright articulated what would
become known as the „three Ds" of NATO, "which is no diminution
of NATO, no discrimination and no duplication—because I think
that we don't need any of those three "Ds" to happen.“
 The Berlin Plus agreement - a comprehensive package of
agreements made between NATO and the EU on 16 December
2002
 These agreements were based on conclusions of NATO's 1999
Washington summit, sometimes referred to as the CJTF
mechanism, and allowed the EU to draw on some of NATO's
military assets in its own peacekeeping operations
Catherine Ashton
Herman Van Rompuy
Lisbon Treaty
 Article 42, chapter 2:
 The common security and defence policy shall include the
progressive framing of a common Union defence policy. This will lead
to a common defence, when the European Council, acting
unanimously, so decides. It shall in that case recommend to the
Member States the adoption of such a decision in accordance with
their respective constitutional requirements.
 Article 42, chapter 7:
 If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory,
the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid
and assistance by all the means in their power, in accordance with
Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. This shall not prejudice the
specific character of the security and defence policy of certain
Member States.
Political Science and International Relations
Development, mission, structures
and activities of the EU in the area of security
Operační program Vzdělávání pro konkurenceschopnost
Název projektu: Inovace magisterského studijního programu Fakulty ekonomiky a managementu
Registrační číslo projektu: CZ.1.07/2.2.00/28.0326