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Transcript
J OURNALISM F INAL
W HAT
IS
J OURNALISM ?

Journalism is a profession in which even the
most basic questions, such as the nature of
news and the process of gather and
disseminating it, or being examined and
debated contiously.

Journalism is an open profession; anyone can
be a journalism without under going any
training.
J OURNALISM
IS NOT ?

Many people don’t consider social media a
type of journalism because there is a
possibility that the information given
throughout facebook, twitter, and blogs
could not be credible.

Plagiarism, fabricating information,
alternating a photo and working for a
separate publication without the editor’s
knowledge are all examples of unacceptale
practices of journalism.
E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM

Individuals and groups have always needed
to communicate new information and the
latest news to each other; consequently,
journalism is a part of any society, ancient or
modern.

Journalism in any age depends on the
technology available to gather and
disseminate information.
E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM
S UMERIANS

Sumerians (one of the earliest civilizations we know
of) developed a system of writing that used a
standardized set of symbols and designs, which wasn’t
a full alphabet.

The Sumerians scratched symbols into moistened into
clay.

When they needed multiple copies, they produced a
stamp that resembled the letters of a letter press,
which they would press into soft clay.

They then developed cylinders that could be engraved
with a number of symbols (cylinder printing).
E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM
C HINESE AND G REEKS

Greeks put together a telegraph system with a
series of signal fires and earthenware jars that
would adjust in a prearranged way to send
messages quickly over great distances.

The Chinese made paper like substances on
which to recored their information; they
invented something very close to the nineteenth
and twentieth century processes of printing.
They instituted a postal system as well.
E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM
R OME

It is Rome that we begin to see the first inklings of
what we recognize as journalism.

Rome inherited and developed its own system of
writing that closely resembles the one we use today.

Rome then created what many people believe is the
first daily newspaper, the Acta Diurna, begun by Julius
Caesar in 59 BC.

Caesar Augustus, ruler after Julius, understood the
importance of communicating with all parts of the
Roman Empire. He built roads and established postal
systems with regular deliveries.
E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM
M OVEABLE T YPE

Johann Gutenberg is the name we generally
associate with the invention of the moveable
type.

Moveable type is individuals pieces of type that
can be reused for different printed jobs. The
concept of moveable type was the key to the
invention of the printing press around 1450.
E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM
B ENJAMIN F RANKLIN

Benjamin Franklin was the great journalistic
innovator of the eighteenth century; he
pioneered the devlopment of newspapers
throughout the American colonies by investing in
start up papers, creating news services among
newspapers, and promoting a light and
entertaining style of writing.

No individual of the 1700s contributed more to
the development of journalism than Benjamin
Franklin.
E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM
N INETEENTH C ENTURY

The nineteenth century was a time of enormous change in the lives of
Americans.

One element of that change was the speed at which they were able to
communicate.

Another was the development of photography which opened up a visual
world of communication that had never before existed.

Newspapers went from being organs of opinion to organs of information, and
their audience expanded to include more Americans than ever.

Journalism of the nineteenth century is often defined by the personalities
who dominated the field, people such as James Gordon Bennett and Horace
Greeley and, later in the century, Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph
Hearst.

Penny press was an inexpensive newspaper that first appeared in the 1830s
and that appealed to a large audience with stories of crime, human interest,
and sports.

By the middle of the century, magazines have found their form and audience.
E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM
T WENTIETH C ENTURY

The twentieth century saw the birth and development of
two new technologies that changed the form and
practice of journalism.

The most profound change in journalism in the twentieth
century came when the development of broadcastingfirst radio and then television.

At the end of the twentieth century, a new medium, the
web, promised to render additional profound changes in
the profession.

Edward R. Murrow, the chief European correspondent
for CBS radio during WWII; Murrow set the standard for
broadcast news.
21 ST C ENTURY J OURNALISM

Reporting and Writing

A journalist gathering information or writing a story tries to
answer 6 basic questions for the reader

Who: Who are the important people related to the story? Is
everyone included so that the story can be accurately told? Is
everyone properly identified?

What: What is the major action or event of the story? What are
the actions or events of lesser importance?

When: When did the event occur? Not often the most
important, but should come early and be clearly stated in the
story.

Where: Where did the event occur? The location(s) of the event
of action should be cleary written.

Why and How: The reader deserves an explanation about the
events.
21 ST C ENTURY J OURNALISM

Social media has made a big impact on
journalism today.

Social medias such as facebook, twitter, and
online blogs allowed everyone and anyone the
opportunity to be a journalist.
M Y J OURNALISM

I have really enjoyed taken
this class.

I have learned a lot about
journalism. I hope to one day
be a journalist on ESPN.

I love sports!!!! I think that
Erin Andrews has brought a
new light on sports Jounalist.

I am taking your History of
Journalism class next
semester and I can’t wait!!!