J OURNALISM F INAL W HAT IS J OURNALISM ? Journalism is a profession in which even the most basic questions, such as the nature of news and the process of gather and disseminating it, or being examined and debated contiously. Journalism is an open profession; anyone can be a journalism without under going any training. J OURNALISM IS NOT ? Many people don’t consider social media a type of journalism because there is a possibility that the information given throughout facebook, twitter, and blogs could not be credible. Plagiarism, fabricating information, alternating a photo and working for a separate publication without the editor’s knowledge are all examples of unacceptale practices of journalism. E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM Individuals and groups have always needed to communicate new information and the latest news to each other; consequently, journalism is a part of any society, ancient or modern. Journalism in any age depends on the technology available to gather and disseminate information. E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM S UMERIANS Sumerians (one of the earliest civilizations we know of) developed a system of writing that used a standardized set of symbols and designs, which wasn’t a full alphabet. The Sumerians scratched symbols into moistened into clay. When they needed multiple copies, they produced a stamp that resembled the letters of a letter press, which they would press into soft clay. They then developed cylinders that could be engraved with a number of symbols (cylinder printing). E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM C HINESE AND G REEKS Greeks put together a telegraph system with a series of signal fires and earthenware jars that would adjust in a prearranged way to send messages quickly over great distances. The Chinese made paper like substances on which to recored their information; they invented something very close to the nineteenth and twentieth century processes of printing. They instituted a postal system as well. E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM R OME It is Rome that we begin to see the first inklings of what we recognize as journalism. Rome inherited and developed its own system of writing that closely resembles the one we use today. Rome then created what many people believe is the first daily newspaper, the Acta Diurna, begun by Julius Caesar in 59 BC. Caesar Augustus, ruler after Julius, understood the importance of communicating with all parts of the Roman Empire. He built roads and established postal systems with regular deliveries. E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM M OVEABLE T YPE Johann Gutenberg is the name we generally associate with the invention of the moveable type. Moveable type is individuals pieces of type that can be reused for different printed jobs. The concept of moveable type was the key to the invention of the printing press around 1450. E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM B ENJAMIN F RANKLIN Benjamin Franklin was the great journalistic innovator of the eighteenth century; he pioneered the devlopment of newspapers throughout the American colonies by investing in start up papers, creating news services among newspapers, and promoting a light and entertaining style of writing. No individual of the 1700s contributed more to the development of journalism than Benjamin Franklin. E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM N INETEENTH C ENTURY The nineteenth century was a time of enormous change in the lives of Americans. One element of that change was the speed at which they were able to communicate. Another was the development of photography which opened up a visual world of communication that had never before existed. Newspapers went from being organs of opinion to organs of information, and their audience expanded to include more Americans than ever. Journalism of the nineteenth century is often defined by the personalities who dominated the field, people such as James Gordon Bennett and Horace Greeley and, later in the century, Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst. Penny press was an inexpensive newspaper that first appeared in the 1830s and that appealed to a large audience with stories of crime, human interest, and sports. By the middle of the century, magazines have found their form and audience. E VOLUTION OF J OURNALISM T WENTIETH C ENTURY The twentieth century saw the birth and development of two new technologies that changed the form and practice of journalism. The most profound change in journalism in the twentieth century came when the development of broadcastingfirst radio and then television. At the end of the twentieth century, a new medium, the web, promised to render additional profound changes in the profession. Edward R. Murrow, the chief European correspondent for CBS radio during WWII; Murrow set the standard for broadcast news. 21 ST C ENTURY J OURNALISM Reporting and Writing A journalist gathering information or writing a story tries to answer 6 basic questions for the reader Who: Who are the important people related to the story? Is everyone included so that the story can be accurately told? Is everyone properly identified? What: What is the major action or event of the story? What are the actions or events of lesser importance? When: When did the event occur? Not often the most important, but should come early and be clearly stated in the story. Where: Where did the event occur? The location(s) of the event of action should be cleary written. Why and How: The reader deserves an explanation about the events. 21 ST C ENTURY J OURNALISM Social media has made a big impact on journalism today. Social medias such as facebook, twitter, and online blogs allowed everyone and anyone the opportunity to be a journalist. M Y J OURNALISM I have really enjoyed taken this class. I have learned a lot about journalism. I hope to one day be a journalist on ESPN. I love sports!!!! I think that Erin Andrews has brought a new light on sports Jounalist. I am taking your History of Journalism class next semester and I can’t wait!!!