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Industrial Revolution
The Agrarian Revolution
• In 1750, most people still worked in small
villages and made their own clothing and tools
• In the century that followed, dramatic
changes took place in the ways people lived
and worked
The Agrarian Revolution
• Change in the methods of farming
• Technology
– Dutch built levees and developed better fertilizers
– British discovered ways to produce more food
– Seed drill sped up planting process
Agrarian Revolution
• Enclosure Movement
– Landowners found a new purpose for enclosure,
taking over and fencing off land that once had
been shared by peasant farmers
– The purpose of the enclosure movement was to
replace the many small strip farms with larger
– What impact does this movement have on
Agrarian Revolution
• Population Explosion
– The Agrarian Revolution led to rapid population
– With a better diet, women had healthier and
stronger babies
– Improved medical care and sanitation helped
people live longer
– During the 1700s, Europe’s population increased
from 120 million to about 190 million
The Industrial Revolution
• The Industrial Revolution
– In the second half of the 19th century, it was the
fundamental change in the way goods were
produced through the use of machines, capital,
and the centralization of work forces in factories.
It completely altered the social, economic, and
political structure of most of Europe, Japan, and
the United States.
Industrial Revolution
• The Industrial Revolution starts in Great Britain
• Great Britain had plenty of iron ore and
coal needed for Industrialization
• As an island, Great Britain had many
natural harbors for trade and was
protected from invasion
• Rivers served both as a means of
transportation and as a source of power
for factories
Capital for Investment
• The British overseas empire had made the
economy strong
• The middle class had the capital to invest
in mines, railroads, and factories and the
commercial and financial skills to manage
Population Growth and Change
• Growth in population due to Agrarian
Revolution led to more available workers
• Because of the enclosure movement, fewer
farmers were needed
• People moved to the cities where they
could work in factories
Energy and Technology
• Great Britain had experienced an energy
• In the 1700s, giant water wheels were used
to power new machines
• Coal was used to power steam engines,
which would become an important power
source for machines
Industrial Revolution Essay Practice
Theme: The Industrial Revolution was
a major technological, socioeconomic, and cultural change in late 18th and
early 19th century that began in Britain and spread throughout the world.
Prior to its start, there were many factors that led to industrialization in Great
Task: Using the notes and your knowledge of Social Studies, write a fully
developed essay that discusses the circumstances surrounding the beginning
of the Industrial Revolution. You must:
• Identify 2 major causes of the industrial revolution
• Explain how these 2 causes contributed to the start of the Industrial
1. What do you notice geographically
about Great Britain?
2. Where are most of the major cities
1. How does the size of the British Empire impact its ability to
Industrial Revolution
• Factory System and Mass Production
– The textile industry was the first to use the inventions
of the Industrial Revolution
– The first factories were created because the machines
that spun cotton into thread were too big to keep at
– First located near rivers to use the water for power
– Later, these machines were powered using steam
– Factories promoted mass production , meaning that
goods were produced in huge quantities at lower cost!
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Laissez Faire Economics
– Prior to the Industrial Revolution, governments
predominately followed policy of Mercantilism
• Government, tariffs, favorable balance of trade
– Laissez Faire
• Businesses should be allowed to operate free of
government regulation
• Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations
• Capitalism became the prevailing economic system during
the Industrial Revolution
– Economy governed by the natural forces of supply and demand
and competition among businesses
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Rise of Big Business
– New technology meant the need for investment of
large amount of money in businesses
– Business owners sold stocks, or shares in their
companies, to investors
– Allowed businesses to form corporations
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
• New Class Structure
– Two classes in medieval Europe
• Nobles and peasants
• Later, a middle class
– The Industrial Revolution added more complexity
• Upper class – very rich industrial and business families
• Upper middle class – high standard of living
– Lawyers, doctors
• Lower middle class – teachers, office workers, shop-owners
• Poor class – factory workers and peasants
– Faced harsh living and working conditions in overcrowded cities
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Urbanization
– People moved from small villages to the towns and
cities where factories were located
– Lived in crowded buildings
– Without sewage or sanitation systems, garbage
rotted in the streets and disease spread
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Working Conditions
– Men, women, children worked 12 to 16 hours a day
– Mass production methods led to work that was
– Many machines were dangerous
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Changing Social Roles
– Farming and artisan families that worked at home
now worked at factories
– Middle-class men worked in business and
government and their wives worked at home
• Middle-class children were most likely educated and had a
high standard of living
– Working-class
• Men, women, and children worked long hours
• Family life suffered as women worked twelve hour days
and were still expected to maintain the home
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Improved
– The growth of industry
led to an improvement
in transportation
• Roads and canals were
built and improved
• The steam locomotive
was invented and
railroads grew
• Steam engines powered
ships at sea
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Rising Standards of
– Settlement patterns
shifted over time (see
– The rich vs. the poor
– Over time, conditions
in cities improved
– People ate more varied
diets and were
healthier thanks to
advances in medicine
Competing Philosophies
• Laissez Faire Capitalism
– Thomas Malthus
• Argued that over-population could be addressed by
poor people having fewer children
• Government should not be involved
• Social Darwinism
– Darwin introduces his theory of evolution in 1859!
– Later philosophers took Darwin’s ideas and
applied it to business and society
• War
• Economics
Competing Philosophies
• Social Reformism
– Socialists believed government should have direct
involvement in economy and society
• Child labor regulations
• Labor unions
• Socialism
– Concentrated less on interests of individuals and
more on the interests of society
• Claimed that capitalism created divide between rich
and poor
• Property would belong to all the people, not individuals
• Utopian Socialism
– Early socialists, called
utopians, sought to
create self-sufficient
– Robert Owen
establishes Scottish
Utopian factory
• Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels – The Communist Manifesto
• Marxist Socialism
– History was a class struggle between wealthy capitalists
and the working class, or proletariat
– In order to make profits, the middle class took advantage
of the proletariat
– The proletariat society would take control of the means
of production and establish a classless, communist
society, in which wealth and power would be equally
Reform and Change
• Throughout the 1800s, reform movements
sought to address the negative impact of the
Industrial Revolution
• Labor Unions
– Helped to protect the rights of workers
– Engaged in collective bargaining
– Negotiated for higher pay
– Fought for better working conditions
– Illegal from 1799-1824
British Reform Laws
Direction of Reform
Laws Enacted
Toward Greater Human Rights
•1884 – Slavery is outlawed in all British colonies
Toward Universal Suffrage
•1829 – Parliament gave Catholics the right to vote and
to hold most public offices
•1867 – Reform Act gave vote to many working-class
•1884 – Laws extended voting rights to most farmers
and other men
•1918 – women won the right to vote
Toward More Rights for Workers
•1825 – Trade Unions were legalized
•1840s to 1910s – Parliament passed laws
Limiting child labor
Regulating work hours for women and children
Regulating safety conditions in factories and mines
Setting minimum wages
Providing for accident and unemployment insurance
British Reform Laws
Direction of Reform
Toward Improved Education
Laws Enacted
•1870 – Education Act set up local
elementary schools run by elected school
•1902 – Law created a system of stateaided secondary schools. Industrial cities,
such as London and Manchester, set up
public universities
•The Sadler Report
•Led to Factories Regulations Act
•Children under the age of 9 were not allowed to work
in textile factories
•Limited working hours for children under 18
Education and the Arts
• Advances in Education
– Government set up public schools and required basic
education for all children
– Basically the same system we have today
• Romanticism
– From about 1750 to 1850, a movement known as
romanticism thrived
– Appealed to emotion rather than reason
– Opposed to the ideals set forth by the Enlightenment
• Realism
– An artistic movement
– Examined the harsh side of life
– Charles Dickens
• Critical of abuses of industrial society
Global Impact of Industrialization
• A Wave of Migrations
– Improvements in transportation, population
growth, and social and political conditions led to a
wave of global migrations from about 1845
through the early 1900s
• People flocked from all over the world to the US for
various reasons
• Movement toward Global Economy
– By the mid-1800s the Industrial Revolution spread
outside of Great Britain
– Steamships, railroads, then airplanes and
automobiles contribute to global trade network