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Chapter 3. Becoming a Fairminded Thinker
 Introduction.
 Weak versus strong critical thinking.
 Traits of the undisciplined mind.
 Recognizing the interdependence of
intellectual virtues.
 Conclusion.
Weak vs strong critical thinking
 Critical thinking involves intellectual skills.
 Too many skilled selfish thinkers.
 True critical thinkers.
Intellectual Humility:
Knowledge of Ignorance
 Definition
 Intellectual Arrogance
 Intellectual Arrogance is incompatible with fair –
 Why is intellectual humility essential to higherlevel thinking?
Intellectual Courage:
Being Willing to Challenge Beliefs
 Definition
 Intellectual cowardice
 Reasons to acquire intellectual courage
Intellectual Empathy:
Entertaining Opposing Views
 Definition
 Intellectual self-centeredness
Traits of the undisciplined mind
Intellectual integrity
Trying to be the kind of person you
to be
The opposite is Intellectual hypocrisy
Hypocrisy involves the thinking and
action behind people’s behavior
expect others
Intellectual perseverance
Sticking to a problem is always
better than giving up.
The opposite is Intellectual laziness
Laziness is when you give up quickly when
introduced to a challenged task.
“Laziness travels so slowly that poverty soon overtakes him”
~ Benjamin Franklin
Confidence in reason
Is a belief that one has.
The opposite is intellectual distrust
It’s when a person has confidence on his
own belief no matter how wrong it can be
Faith in fate
Faith in one’s gut
Faith in some social group
Faith in some spiritual power
Intellectual autonomy: being an
independent thinker
 Intellectual autonomy a person works with his mind
who is interested in activities which includes thinking
and understanding rather than feeling and doing and
also, a person having a freedom of action and the
stronger motivation the more quickly a person will
learn a foreign language, and also a person having a
high developed ability to think logically and
understand things, relating also to a persons
developed intellect.
 Autonomous person are the ones responsible for their
 They, also have the necessary skill or knowledge to do
something success fully, and also having legal
 They also, calculate the value or degree.
 The opposite of intellectual autonomy is intellectual
conformity, or a person who is interested n activities
which includes thinking and understanding rather
than feeling and doing.
 In accordance with the facts person's ideas or opinions,
I also conclude that having a fair minded opinion
comes out good work and excellent result. As a human
we should be a good critical thinker. Must be careful
not to assume that things are actually the way they are
represented in human life.
Thank you