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Microcontrollers
1
Microcontrollers
• Programmers work in the virtual world
• Machinery works in the physical world
• Microcontrollers connect the virtual and
physical world
• The inputs and outputs can be manipulated
by, and can manipulate, the physical world
2
3
Arduino is software
• An Integrated Development
Environment (IDE) for
programming
• Edit code like a word
document
• The platform creates the
“process”, compiles it, and
uploads it to the Arduino
• The language is called
‘wiring’, and is based on C
4
Arduino is a platform
•
A physical Input / Output
board (I/O) with a
programmable
Integrated Circuit (IC).
5
Why Arduino?
• Open Source: anyone who wants can improve upon it
• Cheap: anyone can produce them for any price (<$15)
• Common Interface: communicates via USB
• Low Power: from USB or battery pack
• Standalone: memory allows it to run even when not
connected to a computer
6
What can it do?
• Sensors
–
–
–
–
–
[ INPUTS ]
Buttons, touch pads, tilt switches
Variable resistors (e.g.. volume knob / sliders)
Photoresistors (light sensor)
Thermistors (temperature sensor)
Ultrasound (distance sensor)
• Actuators
–
–
–
–
[ OUTPUTS ]
Lights, LED’s
Motors
Speakers
Displays (LCD)
CURRENT LIMITS!!!
7
Autonomous
Vehicle
8
Laser Harp
9
Clock
10
Sign Language Glove
11
Interfacing
12
Interfacing
• Plugs into pins like a
breadboard
13
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15
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Inputs and Outputs
17
Concepts: INPUT vs. OUTPUT
•Referenced from the perspective of the
microcontroller (electrical board).
Inputs is a signal / information going
Output is any signal exiting the
into the board.
board.
18
Concepts: INPUT vs. OUTPUT
•Referenced from the perspective of the
microcontroller (electrical board).
Inputs is a signal / information going
Output is any signal exiting the
into the board.
board.
Examples:
Buttons Switches, Light
Sensors, Flex Sensors,
Humidity Sensors,
Temperature Sensors…
Examples:
LEDs, DC motor,
servo motor,
piezo buzzer,
relay, RGB LED
19
Analog vs. Digital
20
Analog vs. Digital
• Computers communicate in a digital language
– “ON” or “OFF”, “HIGH” or “LOW”, “1” or “0”, “5V or 0V”
• Our physical world is analog
– “warm”, “37 mph”, “92 degrees”
• So how do we create 2.73 volts if all we have is 0 and 5?
• With a technique called Pulse width Modulation (PWM)
• Imagine turning a fan off and on every second. It would
operate at a “medium” speed.
• The longer the pulses (ON’s), the higher the average
voltage and the actual voltage output.
21
Analog vs. Digital
22
Analog vs. Digital
Fixed cycle length:
constant number of cycles/sec
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BIG 4 CONCEPTS
digitalWrite()
analogWrite()
digitalRead()
analogRead()
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Components
Name
Image
Type
Function
Push Button
Digital
Input
Digital
Input
Switch - Closes or
opens circuit
Potentiometer
Analog
Input
Analog
Input
Variable resistor
Photoresistor
Analog
Input
Analog
Input
Light Dependent
Resistor (LDR)
Relay
Digital
Output
Digital
Output
Switch driven by a
small signal
Temp Sensor
Analog
Input
Analog
Input
Temp Dependent
Resistor
Flex Sensor
Analog
Input
Analog
Input
Variable resistor
Soft Trimpot
Analog
Input
Analog
Input
Dig Dig
& Analog
& Analog
Output
Output
Variable resistor
RGB LED
16,777,216 different
colors
25
Scales
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Scales
Physical
0V
5V
Digital Write
LOW (0)
HIGH (1)
Digital Read
LOW (0)
HIGH (1)
Analog Read
0
1023
Analog Write
0
255
27
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