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Canada and the
Cold War
Avro Arrow and
BOMARC Missile
 Why is Canada in this picture?
 We will talk about these reasons!
 What is NATO and NORAD?
 I will tell you!
 Did Canada get involved in the Korean War?
 Maybe? Maybe not? We will find out!
 Is The Avro Arrow a hip dance move?
 No its not.
 The Bomarc Missile… Yup, it’s nuclear…
 Like we don’t have enough nuclear weapons…
Why Is Canada in the Cold War?
U.S. relationship
Russian spies
Canada is Anticommunist
 Canada was firmly anti-communist during
the 1920s and the Great Depression
 During the Great Depression, the spread of
communist ideas in Canada represented
damnation to some Canadians and salvation
to others.
 In 1931, Bennett enforced Article 98 of the
Criminal Code, which outlawed communism,
and required the accused to prove his
innocence. Many communists were
convicted under the Code.
 As Hitler began his march through Europe
(late 30’s), the perceived threat of
Communism at home took a back seat for a
Close Relationship with the U.S.A.
 Canada developed a close relationship with the United States during
 Canada wanted a Western Alliance to fight against Soviet Communists
 Canada also thought it was a good way to counter US influence –
Canada has more of a say, and more of an important role in the Cold
War without being asked
Russian Spies
 The Soviets had set up a
spy network inside
Canada during WWII
(The Gouzenko Affair)
 Rumors that the Soviets
had set agents to
Canada during the
depression to organize
strikes and protests
Russian Spies
 Most importantly,
Canada was literally in
the middle of the Cold
War (we were inbetween the USA and
the USSR)
 Canada no longer lives
in a bullet proof house
anymore… if there is a
nuclear attack in the US,
there is a nuclear attack
in Canada too!
How Did Canada Participate?
 Born 24 months after the World War: NATO
 In 1949, Canada joined 11 other nations to form an
alliance against the Soviet Union
(The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO)
 NATO has benefitted Canada (Canada has access
to the most advanced NATO standard military
equipment and has developed trading
relationships and business opportunities with
other NATO countries)
 However, being part of NATO has involved
Canada in several conflicts
 For example, Canadians are currently fighting in
Afghanistan as part of a NATO mission
Russia’s Response?
 Upon discovering that independent West Germany joined NATO,
The Soviet’s response was swift and radical…
 In 1955, the Soviet Union formed its own alliance against NATO
called the Warsaw Pact
The Warsaw Pact
 A collective defense treaty among eight communist states of
Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War.
 Goal: control central and eastern Europe and maintain peace
(with communism).
The History of NATO
Not True: Canada was Forced into
the Cold War
not for military, then for trade)
 NORth American Air Defense
 Headquarters for NORAD and the NORAD/United States
Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) center are located
at Peterson Air Force Base in El Paso County, Colorado.
 In 1957, Canada signed a treaty that combined US
and American Airspace
 From this point onwards all Missiles, Aircraft and
Radar Stations from both countries work cooperatively to defend all of North America under a
one command
 As part of NORAD, the United States set up the
Distant Early Warning System – DEW - (Fifty radar
stations in the Canadian Arctic to detect enemy
Fun Fact!
 NORAD helps children track Santa!
Korean War
political theory which states that
Communism is like cancer, if not
destroyed, it will spread. Must
destroy communism everywhere
it appears
 Canada supports the Korean war
because it was supported by the
United Nations. They did not
send very many soldiers because
they didn’t want to get involved
in issues outside of Western
 Canada refuses to help the USA
fight in Vietnam when a similar
situation arises
The Avro Arrow
 The Canadian Government felt
threatened by the chance of Soviet
bombers crossing over the North Pole
 Therefore, the Government orders the
construction of a new aircraft capable
of destroying fleets of Russian planes
 The result is the Avro Arrow, the most
advanced aircraft of its day – extremely
fast, heavily armed, long range, and
technology that was years ahead any
other aircraft in the world
The Avro Arrow
 The Arrow was a problem from the
beginning – too expensive and no foreign
 The Arrow was introduced to the public
on the same day SPUTNIK 1 was
launched . . The age of nuclear missiles
had begun
 Prime Minister John Diefenbaker thought
the arrow would be useless and cancelled
the project
 All prototypes, models and drawing of
the Arrow were destroyed and 14,000
people lost their jobs (most of them in
Malton, On)
The Bomarc Missile
 Instead of the Arrow,
Diefenbaker purchased the
BOMARC Missile
 A nuclear tipped weapon
designed to blow up in the
air and destroy any
missiles that are launched
at us
 However, Canadians did
not want nuclear weapons
in this country
The Bomarc Missile
 Diefenbaker’s solution was
to keep the warheads in the
USA – making the missiles
practically useless
 Later - Prime Minister Lester
Pearson arms the BOMARCs,
making Canada a nuclear
 In 1972, the BOMARCs were
 During the Cold War, Canada participated by:
- Joining NATO and taking part in several missions
- Creating NORAD with the USA
- Allowing the USA to set up the DEW
- Fighting in the Korean War
 Canada built the most advanced fighter plane in the world
in 1957 – the Avro Arrow – but it was cancelled
 Instead, Canada became a nuclear power through the
purchase of BOMARC missiles – retired in ‘72