* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
A Review of Chinese History and Qing China (1644-1911) I. An Overview of Chinese History A. From ancient times to 1900, China was the most dominant & influential society in Asia 1. Chinese culture __________________ to surrounding neighbors, including _______________ & ________________ 2. China was one of the most ______________________ cultures in world history by developing technologies such as, compass, _________________, ________________, paper, & gunpowder 3. Chinese civilization is unique in world history because of its _______________________ over 4,000 years of history B. Core Ideas Across Chinese History (3000 B.C. to 1900 A.D.) What elements of Chinese culture remained constant over the course of Chinese history? Geography Government Religion Trade 1. Geography a. China was _________________ from outsiders by ______________ & the _____________________ Mountains b. This _________________ led the Chinese to refer to themselves as the “_______________________________”, thought of outsiders as ________________________, & rarely ____________________ with foreign merchants 2. Government a. China was ruled by emperors who claimed the ___________________________________ (approval of the gods) b. Dynasties could be ______________ if they lost the mandate of heaven, called the _______________________ c. Since the Classical Era of the Han Dynasty, Chinese government was run effectively by _____________________ bureaucrats because of the ______________________________________ 3. Religion a. Rather than following a major world religion, China was influenced by the ethical system of _________________ b. ______________________ was introduced & ________________ through China during the Han Dynasty 4. Trade a. Chinese _________________ goods spread through Asia & Europe across the ____________________________ b. China was a ______________________ trade nation, but it was the trend setter as other Asian nations adopted Chinese _________________, gov’t, & _______________ styles II. Review of Chinese Dynasties A. Eras in Chinese history are named after the _____________________ that were in power; Each of these dynasties added unique contributions in Chinese history 1. River Valley Era (5000-1700 B.C.) a. China began along the ________________ Yellow & Yangtze Rivers but only 10% of China is suitable for farming 2. Qin Dynasty (316-206 B.C.) a. China’s first emperor (__________________________________) came to power, gave “China” its name, & built the ________________________________ to protect from northern invasions 3. Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-220 A.D.) a. China became an ______________ for the first time & entered the ______________ Era during the Han Dynasty b. The ____________________________ began c. Chinese artisans mastered ____________ & ____________ making d. The __________________________________________________________ System began e. _________________________ was first introduced & began to spread 4. Tang & Song Dynasties (618-1279) a. China experienced a “__________________________” was the most _________________ & advanced country in the world during the Tang & Song Dynasties of the post-classical era b. For the 1st time, _______________________________was encouraged c. A series of advanced inventions were developed, like ______________, compass, printing press, _____________ 5. Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) a. In 1279, Genghis’ grandson ____________________________ became the first __________________ leader to rule China; The ______________________ created the Yuan Dynasty b. During the _________________________, the Silk Road was _________________ & trade with China increased c. ____________________ visit during the Yuan Dynasty increased ________________ demand for Chinese goods 6. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) a. During the Ming Dynasty, ______________ rule was restored, emperors encouraged foreign trade & exploration (_________________________) for the first & ____________ time in history b. To ___________________ Ming emperors from future invasions, the _______________________________ was built in Beijing that no one other than _________________ or approved bureaucrats could enter 7. Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) a. In 1644, northern ___________________ from ____________________ conquered China & created the second ___________________ dynasty in Chinese history, the Qing Dynasty b. During this era of ___________________ rule, China grew to its ___________________ size by claiming Taiwan, central Asia, Mongolia, & ____________________ c. Like the era of Mongol rule, Chinese rejected & led ___________________________ against their Manchu rulers d. But, __________________________________ earned Chinese ________________ by keeping Confucian beliefs, lowering taxes, & restoring __________________ and prosperity to China i. Kangxi was the first emperor to __________________________ & visit peasant villages ii. Kangxi & later Manchu rulers returned China to ___________________________ by restoring ___________ adherence to the “Middle Kingdom” e. Qing-LongB. But, Qing China faced 2 important challenges that would threaten China’s future strength 1. Population Pressure a. The introduction of new __________________________________ like corn & sweet potatoes led to a dramatic increase in the Chinese ____________________________ b. The sharp rise in the number of Chinese _________________ would lead to competition for ________________ & peasant uprisings 2. Arrival of Europeans a. European ________________________ & ___________________ arrived in Asia eager to gain access into China b. Europeans arrived with superior military ________________________, demanded that China ______________ with them, & refused to accept Chinese _____________________ Discuss the major changes occurring in China during the age of European exploration. Describe the major policies of the Ming and Qing rulers. How did they react to European expansion? Debate the merits of these policies. Japanese Feudalism & Unification I. The Early Development of Japan A. The Geography of Japan 1. Japan is a series of ____________________________ off the coasts of ______________________________ & China 2. Like ______________________, Japan was divided by ___________________________ & had few areas for farming 3. Before 400 A.D., Japan was not a __________________ nation but was ruled by hundreds of different family _______________ 4. Japan’s island location provided ______________________________ from Chinese & _________________________ invasions… but Japan was close enough to _________________________ cultural ideas from _____________________ B. Japan’s ______________________________ gave rise to a unique Japanese culture, most specifically the Shinto religion 1. ___________________ is a polytheistic religion based on the respect of _____________________________ & ancestor worship 2. Shinto worshipers believed in ___________________________________________ called ________________ that live in nature 3. The most important of the Shinto gods is the _____________________________________________ who gave light to the world C. As Japan had more contact with Asia, it adopted ________________________ culture & ideas 1. Japan adopted the Chinese idea of an ____________________________ & rule by _____________________________________; The first Japanese emperor was said to have ____________________________ from the sun goddess a. Japan tried, but _________________, to model the Chinese ______________________________________ for gov’t officials b. Unlike China, Japanese emperors often did not have ____________________ over clan leaders; Japan often had an emperor _________________________________ & a clan ruler with true power 2. Japan adopted _______________________________________________ & blended Chinese styles of writing, architecture, & art 3. In the mid-700s _______________________________ was introduced in Japan from China & Korea a. Buddhism was accepted by Japanese emperors, but in Japanese society, Buddhism & Shinto __________________________ b. An example of religious blending was ___________________________________________ D. From 794-1185, Japan entered a classical era during the ___________________ Period 1. During this time, the imperial gov’t was _________________ & Japan experienced an era of _________________ and prosperity 2. Japan developed a “_______________________________________” in poetry, art, & literature II. Japanese Feudalism A. By the mid-1000s, the imperial gov’t grew weak, regional __________________________________________ gained power, & Japan became _______________________________ & dangerous 1. ____________________________ attacked farmers & _____________________ attacked the coast 2. Rival clans ___________________________ for power & threw Japan into a series of __________________________________ B. As a result, Japan developed a ___________________ system 1. Farmers traded land to strong ______________________ called _____________________ who offered protection 2. Daimyo were served by loyal _______________________ called ________________________ 3. The emperor had ________________________________ 4. Samurai warriors were usually ___________________ or dependents of daimyo, although some were _________ warriors called Ronin a. Samurai warriors lived by a code of ______________ which demanded courage, ____________________, deity, fairness, & ____________________ b. Samurai were skilled __________________________, but also used horses & _______________ (after the arrival of Europeans) 5. In 1192, the first _____________________________ was named by the emperor a. The emperor remained in place, but the shogun held real power & ruled as ____________________________________________ b. Shoguns’ power varied over time, but the pattern of gov’t controlled by a shogun lasted until ________________________ III. The Three Unifiers of Japan A. From 1560 to 1600 , three powerful daimyo, known as the ________________________________________, began to restore order & ______________________ Japan 1. Oda Nobunaga a. In 1568, a ____________________ daimyo named __________________________________________________ conquered the Japanese capital of Kyoto b. Oda seized power by ________________________, was the first to use ______________ effectively, & eliminated Buddhist rivals that refused to accept rule by the emperor c. By the time of his death in 1582, Japan was _____________ unified 2. Toyotomi Hideyoshi a. Oda Nobunaga’s best general was ______________________________________________ who took over after Oda’s death b. Toyotomi was resourceful & not ruthless like Oda; He used ____________________________________________________, adoption, & marriage to gain power over the daimyo c. By 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi controlled __________________ of Japan & tried unsuccessfully to conquer _______________ 3. Tokugawa Ieyasu a. After Toyotomi ‘s death in 1598, one of his daimyo allies named _______________________________________ completed the ____________________________ of Japan in 1600 b. In 1603, Tokugawa became _________________________ of Japan, moved to capital to Edo (later called Tokyo), & restored gov’t & order to Japan c. Tokugawa ruled until 1615, but he created a line of ________________________ called the Tokugawa Shogunate that ruled Japan until 1867 B. The Tokugawa Shogunate 1. For more than 250 years, Tokugawa’s successors ruled Japan as shoguns a. During this time, Japan benefited from _______________; The ___________________ boomed & became more commercial b. European __________________________ & __________________________ first arrived in Japan in the mid-1500s c. Tokugawa enjoyed _________________ with Europeans & was fascinated to _____________________ about their military, new technologies, & ideas 2. Christian Missionaries & Merchants a. Between1549 & 1600, European missionaries had converted _______________________________ Japanese to Christianity b. This __________________ Tokugawa because the missionaries _______________________ Japanese cultural beliefs & laws i. In 1612, Tokugawa ___________________ Christianity & began ruthlessly _____________________________ Christians ii. All Japanese were forced to be faithful to _________________________ C. Japanese Isolationism 1. Tokugawa shoguns decided to ________________________ foreign merchants & missionaries 2. By 1639, Japan adopted a “____________________________________________________” & ended almost all foreign contacts 3. One Japanese port at ____________________________ in Nagasaki Bay remained open but only to Dutch & Chinese merchants a. Japanese ________________________ remained in place for over _____________ years until the 1850s b. During this era of isolation, Japan had profitable ______________________, became self-sufficient, limited foreign ideas, & reduced Europe’s ability to _______________________ Japan -Complete a Venn Diagram that describes the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rulers; including Oda Nobunaga and Kangxi. -Portuguese traders brought the first firearms to Japan in 1543 and thirty years later thousands of matchlock weapons were being used by Japanese armies. Yet when American navy vessels arrived in Japan in the 1850s there was almost no knowledge of guns to be found in Japan. What happened to bring about this unexpected reversal of technology? To unravel the question and look back at sixteenth century Japan, you will assume the role of a samurai advisor to the Tokugawa Shogun. He has asked for information as to whether to allow the continued influence of western guns in Japan or to end the use of firearms in the country in order to preserve traditional Japanese society. What advice would you give the shogun?