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Transcript
MICROORGANISMS
The STRANGE world of all the
things you DON’T see in the
kitchen.
Some definitions:
MICROORGANISMS are small living beings
that can only be seen with a microscope.
 PATHOGENS are microorganisms that
cause disease – they cannot be seen
smelled or tasted.
 TOXINS are the poison in pathogens that
cause disease. They are the leading
cause of food borne illnesses.

Types of Microorganisms
Microorganisms
Bacteria
Viruses
Parasites
Fungi
BACTERIA
A living, single celled organism
 Can reproduce rapidly
 Need “FAT TOM” to grow
 Examples: Salmonella, Listeriosis,
Staphylococcus, Botulism, E. Coli

FAT TOM







Describes the environmental factors that help BACTERIA
grow
FOOD: Proteins and carbohydrates are food for
microorganisms. They feast on meat, poultry, dairy,
and eggs.
ACIDITY: Slightly acidic or neutral foods is best to
grow pathogens.
TEMPERATURE: Microorganisms thrive from 41F to
135F.
TIME: With time, bacteria can grow exponentially.
Over the course of 4 hours in the “Temperature
Danger Zone,” 1 bacteria cell can multiply to 1
million cells.
OXYGEN: Pathogens need oxygen to grow.
MOISTURE: Microorganisms need a moist
environment to grow.
Salmonella
Sources- raw and undercooked eggs, undercooked poultry
and meat, fresh fruits and vegetables, and unpasteurized
dairy products.
Staphylococcus
Sources- Unrefrigerated or
improperly refrigerated meats,
potato or egg salad, and cream
pastries.
E. Coli
Sources- Undercooked beef
especially hamburger,
unpasteurized milk and
juice, and raw fruits and
vegetables.
VIRUSES
Can be transmitted from person to person
(like the flu) or people to food (Norovirus)
 Usually passed through bad personal
hygiene
 Are not complete cells – they require a
living cell to reproduce

PARASITES
Living organisms that
need a host to survive.
 Grows naturally in
animals and can be
passed to humans
through meat we eat.
 Example:
Trichinellosis

FUNGI
Found naturally in air, soil, plants, water,
and some foods.
 Causes spoilage in food
 Can be good! It is safe in some foods like
cheeses and mushrooms and breads.
 Examples: yeast, mold

Your 2 biggest enemies in the fight
against food borne illness:
Cross Contamination
Time Temperature Abuse
CROSS CONTAMINATION
Definition – Passing a microorganism from
one food or surface to another.
 Causes:

– Surfaces – sanitize knives, counters, boards
– Drips – Raw food drips onto ready to eat
foods
– YOU! – A chef touches raw food and then
touches other food or surfaces.
Preventing Cross Contamination
•Prevention – Create barriers between food.
•How? Here are some suggestions:
•Color code knives and boards
•Sanitize after each task
•Prepare foods at different times
•Buy foods that need less preparation
CLEAN VS. SANITARY
To fight Cross Contamination – cleaning cloths, sponges,
and food contact surfaces must be clean and sanitary.

CLEAN:
– Free of any
visible soil.

SANITARY:
– The number of
microorganisms
has been
reduced to safe
levels.
Time Temperature Abuse
Definition – Allowing food to stay too long
in the Temperature Danger Zone (41ºF to
135ºF)
 Causes:

– Storing foods incorrectly
– Cooking foods incorrectly
– Cooling foods incorrectly
Preventing Time
Temperature Abuse
Prevention – Minimize time in the Danger
Zone
 How? Here are some suggestions:

– Foods should not be in the Danger Zone for
more than 4 hours (FDA says 2 hours or less
at 90ºF or below).
– Cook foods to proper temperatures
– Cool foods out of the refrigerator (so that you
don’t raise the temperature of the
refrigerator)
“Waiter, there’s a fly in my soup!”
Food Contamination



Biological Contamination
– Bacteria
– Viruses
– Parasites
– Fungi
Chemical Contamination
– Pesticides
– Cleaning Solutions
– Additives
– Preservatives
Physical Contaminaiton
– Hair
– Dirt
– Glass
– Metal
– Bones (occurring naturally in fish, etc.)
GROSS!

You can cause food borne
illnesses if you:
– Don’t wash your hands after
using the restroom
– Cough or sneeze on food
– Touch or scratch open sores
or cuts and then touch food
– Come to work while sick
Wash your hands before you start
work and after:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Using the restroom
Handling raw food (before and after)
Touching hair, face, or body
Sneezing, coughing or using a tissue
Smoking, eating, drinking or chewing gum
Handling chemicals
Taking out trash
Clearing tables
Touching clothing or aprons
Touching anything that could contaminate your hands
6 steps to Hand Washing:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
WET your hands with running water as hot as
you can comfortably stand (100F)
Apply enough soap for a good LATHER
Vigorously SCRUB hands and arms for 20
SECONDS – long enough to sing “HAPPY
BIRTHDAY”
Clean under FINGERNAILS and between
fingers
RINSE thoroughly under running water
DRY hands and arms using single use towels
or dryer – not your apron!