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MICROORGANISMS The STRANGE world of all the things you DON’T see in the kitchen. Some definitions: MICROORGANISMS are small living beings that can only be seen with a microscope. PATHOGENS are microorganisms that cause disease – they cannot be seen smelled or tasted. TOXINS are the poison in pathogens that cause disease. They are the leading cause of food borne illnesses. Types of Microorganisms Microorganisms Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi BACTERIA A living, single celled organism Can reproduce rapidly Need “FAT TOM” to grow Examples: Salmonella, Listeriosis, Staphylococcus, Botulism, E. Coli FAT TOM Describes the environmental factors that help BACTERIA grow FOOD: Proteins and carbohydrates are food for microorganisms. They feast on meat, poultry, dairy, and eggs. ACIDITY: Slightly acidic or neutral foods is best to grow pathogens. TEMPERATURE: Microorganisms thrive from 41F to 135F. TIME: With time, bacteria can grow exponentially. Over the course of 4 hours in the “Temperature Danger Zone,” 1 bacteria cell can multiply to 1 million cells. OXYGEN: Pathogens need oxygen to grow. MOISTURE: Microorganisms need a moist environment to grow. Salmonella Sources- raw and undercooked eggs, undercooked poultry and meat, fresh fruits and vegetables, and unpasteurized dairy products. Staphylococcus Sources- Unrefrigerated or improperly refrigerated meats, potato or egg salad, and cream pastries. E. Coli Sources- Undercooked beef especially hamburger, unpasteurized milk and juice, and raw fruits and vegetables. VIRUSES Can be transmitted from person to person (like the flu) or people to food (Norovirus) Usually passed through bad personal hygiene Are not complete cells – they require a living cell to reproduce PARASITES Living organisms that need a host to survive. Grows naturally in animals and can be passed to humans through meat we eat. Example: Trichinellosis FUNGI Found naturally in air, soil, plants, water, and some foods. Causes spoilage in food Can be good! It is safe in some foods like cheeses and mushrooms and breads. Examples: yeast, mold Your 2 biggest enemies in the fight against food borne illness: Cross Contamination Time Temperature Abuse CROSS CONTAMINATION Definition – Passing a microorganism from one food or surface to another. Causes: – Surfaces – sanitize knives, counters, boards – Drips – Raw food drips onto ready to eat foods – YOU! – A chef touches raw food and then touches other food or surfaces. Preventing Cross Contamination •Prevention – Create barriers between food. •How? Here are some suggestions: •Color code knives and boards •Sanitize after each task •Prepare foods at different times •Buy foods that need less preparation CLEAN VS. SANITARY To fight Cross Contamination – cleaning cloths, sponges, and food contact surfaces must be clean and sanitary. CLEAN: – Free of any visible soil. SANITARY: – The number of microorganisms has been reduced to safe levels. Time Temperature Abuse Definition – Allowing food to stay too long in the Temperature Danger Zone (41ºF to 135ºF) Causes: – Storing foods incorrectly – Cooking foods incorrectly – Cooling foods incorrectly Preventing Time Temperature Abuse Prevention – Minimize time in the Danger Zone How? Here are some suggestions: – Foods should not be in the Danger Zone for more than 4 hours (FDA says 2 hours or less at 90ºF or below). – Cook foods to proper temperatures – Cool foods out of the refrigerator (so that you don’t raise the temperature of the refrigerator) “Waiter, there’s a fly in my soup!” Food Contamination Biological Contamination – Bacteria – Viruses – Parasites – Fungi Chemical Contamination – Pesticides – Cleaning Solutions – Additives – Preservatives Physical Contaminaiton – Hair – Dirt – Glass – Metal – Bones (occurring naturally in fish, etc.) GROSS! You can cause food borne illnesses if you: – Don’t wash your hands after using the restroom – Cough or sneeze on food – Touch or scratch open sores or cuts and then touch food – Come to work while sick Wash your hands before you start work and after: – – – – – – – – – – Using the restroom Handling raw food (before and after) Touching hair, face, or body Sneezing, coughing or using a tissue Smoking, eating, drinking or chewing gum Handling chemicals Taking out trash Clearing tables Touching clothing or aprons Touching anything that could contaminate your hands 6 steps to Hand Washing: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. WET your hands with running water as hot as you can comfortably stand (100F) Apply enough soap for a good LATHER Vigorously SCRUB hands and arms for 20 SECONDS – long enough to sing “HAPPY BIRTHDAY” Clean under FINGERNAILS and between fingers RINSE thoroughly under running water DRY hands and arms using single use towels or dryer – not your apron!