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Communication 9 1 Importance of communication 2 Communication process 3 Communication Net-work in org. 4 Technological advance 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-1 Importance of Good Communication Good Communication allows a firm to Learn new skills and technologies. Become more responsive to customers. Improve Quality of their product or service. Foster innovation Effective communication is needed by all Managers. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-2 The Communication Process Figure 15.1 Transmission Phase Message Encoding 2000-1 Medium Decoding Receiver (now sender) NOISE Sender Decoding Medium Encoding Feedback Phase 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 Message 5-3 Encoding Encoding: Sender puts the message into symbols or language, a process called encoding Encoding of messages can be done verbally or non-verbally Verbal: spoken or written communication. Nonverbal: facial gestures, body language, dress. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-4 Decoding Decoding :allows the receiver to understand the message. This is a critical point, can lead to misunderstanding. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-5 Medium Medium: pathway the message is transmitted on (phone, letter). Face-to-face Verbal communication electronically transmitted Personally addressed written communication Impersonally addressed communication E-mail 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-6 Face-to-Face • Face-to-Face: highest information richness. Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals. Provides for instant feedback. Video Conferences: provide much of this richness. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-7 Verbal Communication electronically transmitted has next highest richness. Phone conversations, but no visual nonverbal cues. Do have tone of voice, sender’s emphasis and quick feedback. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-8 Personally Addressed Written Communication lower richness than the verbal forms, but still is directed at a given person. Personal addressing helps ensure receiver reads it. Cannot provide instant feedback to sender but can get feedback later. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-9 Impersonal Written Communication lowest richness. Good for messages to many receivers. Little feedback is expected. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-10 E-mail E-mail use is growing rapidly in large firms, and there are even special e-mail etiquette: in all CAPITALS are seen as “screaming” at the receiver. Punctuate your messages for easy reading and don’t ramble on. Pay attention to spelling and treat like a written letter. Words 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-11 Information Richness and Media Type Figure 15.2 High Richness Face-to-face communication Verbal communication electronically transmitted Nonverbal communication electronically transmitted Low Richness 2000-1 Impersonal written communication 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-12 Communication Skills for Managers as Senders 2000-1 Send clear and complete messages. Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands. Select a medium appropriate for the message AND monitored by the receiver. Avoid filtering and distorting the message passing through other workers. Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the message. Provide accurate information to avoid rumors. 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-13 Communication Skills for Managers as Receivers Pay Attention to what is sent as a message. Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels. Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-14 Communication Issues Sender and receiver communicate based on their perception. Subjective perception can lead to biases that hurt communication. Effective Managers avoid communicating based on a pre-set belief. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-15 Dangers of Ineffective Communication Managers spend most of their time communicating so both they and the subordinates must be effective communicators. To be effective: Select an appropriate medium for each message. There is no one “best” medium. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-16 Communication Networks in Organization Formal Communication Informal Communication 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-17 Formal Communication Formal Communication flows around issues, goals, and projects. Vertical Communication: goes up and down the corporate hierarchy. Horizontal Communication: between employees of the same level. Chain Network ; Net work; Wheel Network Circle Network; All-Channel Network 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-18 Chain Network Members communicate with people next to them in sequence. It like a five-level vertical hierarchy and communications move only upward or downward. Can found in direct-line authority with no deviation 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-19 Y Network Network: A four-level hierarchy. Like two subordinates reporting to a manager . Y 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-20 Wheel Network Wheel Network: information flow to and from one central member. Two-level hierarchy. Like four subordinates reporting to their superior no communication between subordinates. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-21 Circle Network Circle Network: members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise （office location）. A three-level hierarchy Firstly communication between superior and subordinates and last communication only at the lowest level. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-22 All-Channel Network All-Channel Network: found in teams, with high levels of communications between each member and all others. Communicate freely in group No managerial level ,all members are equal 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-23 Informal Communication Grapevine: informal network carrying unofficial information through the firm. A active channel of communication A good way to predict the reflection of your employees about new decision. How did The White House use the Grapevine. 2000-1 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 5-24 Technological Advances Internet: global system of computer networks Many firms use it to communicate with suppliers. World Wide Web (WWW): provides multimedia access to the Internet. Intranets: use the same information concepts as the Internet, but keep the network inside the firm. Groupware: software designed to let workers share information and improve communication. 2000-1 5-25 王青-管理学院-上海交通大学 Best for team oriented support.