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Sukla Dutta
Movement is important for
development and learning
What is Motor Development?
• The development of action and
coordination of one’s limbs.
• The development of strength,
posture control, balance and
perceptual skills.
Principles of Motor Development
 Neural and muscular maturation
 Readiness of the child
 Predictable pattern
 Individual differences
What Influences Motor Development ?
 Maturation
- From central to peripheral
- From head to toe
 Environment
- Growth, strength, nutrition
- Motivation
 Practice
- New skills build on prior abilities
- Motor pathways are refined through use
How will these promote other skills ?
 Activities that require good control over the whole
body are useful for ‘gymnastic’ skills later
 Activities that require strength and speed help in
sports skills and games
 Activities emphasizing rhythm lead to skills in dancing
Gross Motor Skills
Fine Motor Skills
Gross Motor Skills
Gross Motor Milestones
(2 – 5 Years of Age) : GROSS MOTOR BEHAVIOUR
48 months :
May ascend a ladder by leading with alternate feet. Broad jumps
approximately 0.61 metre. Balances on one foot for 8 seconds. Is able to hop
on one foot. Catches objects that have been thrown. Jumps in place with
two feet.
52 months :
Displays highly synchronous walking. Descends stairs by leading with
alternate feet.
56 months :
Descends ladder by leading with alternate feet. Is able to hop seven or more
steps on one foot. Throws 0.08 metre ball 3.05 metre.
5 years :
Is beginning to skip. Walks backward heel to toe. Walks like an adult.
Gallops. Hops 10 or more steps on one foot. Throws a 0.23 metre ball
approximately 3.05 metre.
Instructional Objectives
 It refines a child’s gross motor( large muscle ) skills.
 Body awareness – for improved posture and control crossing the
mid-line-laterity, i.e., awareness of the left and right sides of the
 The child also encounters objects in nature or something which
captivates his or her attention
 The child develops the ability to maintain equilibrium
 Major muscle coordination – spatial orientation – awareness of
body position in space and in relation to other object and people
 Acquires vocabulary during activities like backward, forward,
sideways, etc.
Play is Learning……….
 Walking :
• In and out of circles, hoops, tyres,
• Along a line(chalk), piece of string,
• Using a rope or string to guide
children through a maze
• Walking to different music tempos
Group of children
walking in circle
holding hands
 Balancing:
• Walk along a chalk line, string
line or narrow board
• Climbing steps/stairs/step
ladders without hand support
• Walking on knees with hands
in the air
• Walking up an inclined plank
with confidence and speed
girl balancing school books on head
 Running:
• Around an obstacle
• On the spot/on the toes
• With the hands on head/
hips/ behind back etc
School children running in a game
 Jumping:
• Jump up to touch/reach suspended
objects, leaves, balloons, toys etc.
• Stand up and jump from shape to shape
• Jump on mattresses, tyres etc
Child jumping over a hurdle
 Creeping , Crawling, Rolling:
• Treasure hunt – crawl or creep to find hidden objects
• “Follow the Leader”
 Swinging:
• Swing in a standing position without support
 Hopping:
• Hop into/out of hoops
• Hop along stepping stones
• Make patterns on the ground of
shapes, colours, dots. Hop on
one colour, dot etc
 Rhythmic Movement:
• Clapping hands according to the beat
• Clapping/stopping with music variations
• Singing and performing action songs
• Swinging rhythmically
 Throwing:
• Children sit in two rows and throw a
ball in opposite directions
• Make a relay race
 Catching:
• Increase the catching
distance gradually
 Kicking:
 Balloons of different sizes
 Aim at a target- set up target areas for children to kick
at, eg., bulls eye
 Skipping:
 Around objects
 In circle games
 To music with variety of rhythms
 Large muscles develop before smaller ones
 Thus, gross motor development is the
foundation for developing skills in other areas
Developmental Objectives attained
from Gross Motor Skills…………
• Inculcate team spirit
• Increases perseverance
• Increases body coordination
• Increases ability to balance
• Children learn to wait for their turn
• Increases coordination
• Develops vocabulary
There are many different materials and
activities that can be utilized to help young
children develop large motor skills.
Our responsibility is simply to provide them
with a variety of materials, facilities and
opportunities that promote development in this
area through daily activities……………
What are Fine Motor Skills
• Developing control over the movement of
finer muscles in particular the finger and
wrist muscles
• Developing hand-eye coordination
Hierarchy and
Progression of
Typical Fine Motor
Instructional Objectives
Ocular Motor Control – The ability of the eyes to follow
and focus on an object in the field of vision as required.
Hand – Eye Coordination – The ability to execute
activities with the hands, guided by the eyes requiring
accuracy in placement, direction and spatial awareness
Foot-Eye Coordination – The ability to execute action
with the feet, guided by the eyes
Manual Dexterity – The ability to accurately manipulate
the hands and fingers for neat handwriting, drawing,
typing skills, etc.
Hand Development Milestones
• Development of arches in hand
• Development of wrist extension that supports skilled finger movements
• Development of an awareness of the – “skill” side of the hand
• Development of an open index finger –thumb web space – O
• Development of skill in the small muscles contained in the hand
Develop creative skills while having fun…
 Threading:
Helps children learn….
• Small muscle control
• Hand-eye coordination
• To put objects in proper
 Tearing, cutting, pasting :
Helps children learn….
• Finger coordination
• Hand-eye coordination
 Drawing, colouring, painting
Helps children learn….
• Finger muscle development
• Hand-eye coordination
• Creative expression
• how to use pictures and
symbols to represent ideas
 Sorting, pattern making
Helps children learn/develop….
• Hand-eye coordination
• Observation power
• To use their imagination
 Clay Activity
Helps children learn….
• to tone manipulative skills
• to use their imagination
• to put ideas into shapes
• to develop artistic skills
 Printing
Helps children learn….
• Finger coordination
• Hand-eye coordination
The Sequence of Writing
Like other areas of your child’s development, prewriting
skills follow a predictable sequence in this order :
• Scribbling
• Imitating
• Copying
Developmental Objectives attained from
Fine Motor Skills
• Improves hand-eye coordination
• Improves foot-eye coordination
• Increases observation power
• Enhances finger muscle development
• Fosters creative expression
• Enhances the ability to recognize unseen objects using
the sense of touch