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Name: ___________________________________ Chapter 3 Regular Biology Cell Structure and Functions HISTORY OF THE CELL: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ____________________ In 1665 he looked at a thin slice of cork from the bark of an oak tree using a compound microscope. He saw that cork was made of tiny hollow boxes similar to honeycomb. He called them cells because they reminded him of the small rooms in a monastery. ____________________ 1674 – became the one of the first people to describe living cells when he observed numerous single-celled organisms swimming in a drop of pond water. He was studying new methods for making lenses to examine cloth. He also looked at tooth tarter ____________________ 1838- German Scientists; observed plant cells and stated that all plants are composed of cells. ____________________ 1839 - German Scientists; observed animal cells and stated that all animals are made of cells. _____________________ 1855- German scientists reported that all cells come from pre-existing cells. These ideas lead to the development of the Cell Theory The Cell Theory is made of 3 Ideas: 1. 2. 3. 7. As Scientists studied cells, they discovered 2 basic types: 1. ________________________________ No true nucleus 2. ________________________________ True nucleus 8. All Cells share certain characteristics: 1. Cells tend to be _____________________ 2. All cells are enclosed by a membrane called _______________________ 3. Cells are filled with a jellylike substance that contains organelles called __________________ 4. All cells contain tiny organs within the cells called _______________ 9. Prokaryotic Cells: cells lack internal structures that are surrounded by membranes, and do not have a _______________________. Most are single-celled and microscopic Example: _______________ 10. Basic organelles found in a prokaryotic cell are: 11. Eukaryotic Cells: Cells contain a _________________ that acts as the control center of the cell and is the largest organelle in the cell. 12. Can be ________________ or _________________, and can single celled or multi-celled CELL ORGANELLES 13. _______________________: A flexible network of proteins that provide structural support for cells. Made of small protein subunits that form long threads or fibers that crisscross the entire cell. (Structure former of the cell) 14. 3 main types of fibers that serve a range of functions 1. _________________________ : long hollow tubes that gives the cell its shape and acts like tracks for organelle movement. 2. _________________________: smaller than microtubules and gives the cell strength 3. ________________________: smallest and are tiny threads that enable the cell to move and divide 15. _________________________: Is the storehouse for most of the genetic information or DNA in your cell. Is the Brain of the cell-controls all cell functions. Is the largest organelle in the cell (Control Center) 16. Two major demands of the Nucleus: 1. 2. 17. Parts of the Nucleus: _______________________: makes DNA; makes proteins from ribosomes _______________________: Turns into chromosomes before Cell Division _______________________: Allows RNA to pass out of the nucleus _______________________: Nuclear Pore: allows Proteins into & out of the nucleus, and allows RNA out of the nucleus 18. _______________________: Is an interconnected network of thin folded membranes that transport Proteins to the Nucleus. Numerous processes take place inside the lumen and on the surface: production of proteins and lipids. (Highway) 19. ER membranes for a maze called _________________ 20. Two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum 1. 2. 21. __________________: link amino acids together to form proteins. They are made of proteins and RNA. After assembly in the nucleolus they pass through the ____________ into the ______________; this is where most protein synthesis occurs. (Likes teenagers; Protein maker) 22. ___________________: Consist of closely stacked layers of membranes that processes, packages, and delivers proteins. Some proteins are stored for later use, some transported to other organelles, some are carried to the membrane and secreted outside the cell. (Packaging Center) 23. ___________________: Small membrane bound sacs that divide some material from the rest of the cytoplasm and transfer them throughout the cell. They are usually short lived and are formed and recycled as needed. (Transporters) 24. ___________________: Energy maker; are bean shaped membrane-bound organelles in plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell. **Mitochondria have their own ribosomes, DNA & can divide (Powerhouse of the Cell) 25. Parts of the Mitochondria: Mitochondria have an inner and outer membrane The outer one is smooth while the inner one is shaped into folds called ______________ 26. The ______________ (fluid) is inside the inner membrane 27. ____________________: A fluid filled sac used for storage such as water, food molecules, inorganic ions, and enzymes. (Storage Facility) Vacuole size is important to the cells: Animal cells have ______________vacuoles; Why? __________________________________ Plant cells have a single _____________ vacuole; Why? _______________________________ 28. ___________________: Membrane bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes; They defend cells from invading bacteria and viruses; break down damaged or worn-out cells Animal cells-numerous; Plant cells-none 29. ___________________: Barrel- shaped organelles found in animals & protists usually occur in pairs at right angles to one another. Found near the nucleus Replicate and move to opposite ends of the cell during mitosis (cell division) Centrosomes make spindle fibers and are important in cell division 30. ___________________: Is a fairly ridged structure located outside the plasma membrane that provides additional support and protection 31. The only cells with a cell wall are: 1. 2. 3. 32. ____________________: are cell organelles that capture light energy and produce food to store for a later time. Carry out photosynthesis, has a double membrane, and their own DNA & Ribosomes 33. Structures of the Chloroplast: ________________: trap energy from sunlight. Coin-like structure ________________: The inner membranes are arranged in stacks; resembles stacks of coins ________________: The fluid that surrounds the stacks of granum 34. The chloroplasts belong to a group of plant organelles called ________________, which are used for storage. Some store starch or lipids, some contain pigments that give plants their color 35. Plastids are named according to their color or ______________________________________ Chlorophyll traps light energy and gives the leaves and stems their green color 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Cell Movement: _________________are short, numerous, hair-like projections that move in a wavelike motion _________________ are long projections that move in a whip-like motion. _________________: One celled organisms _________________: Organisms with many cells _____________________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 3 PART 2 THE CELL MEMBRANE: 41. __________________: is the boundary between the cell and its environment that controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell in a process of maintaining the cell’s environment is called homeostasis. AKA Plasma Membrane. 42. The Cell Membrane’s job is to 1. Allow a steady supply of _______________, ________________, and ___________ to come into the cell no matter what the external conditions are. 2. Remove excess amounts of these nutrients when levels get so high that they are harmful 3. Allow waste and other products to leave the cell. 43. A phospholipid is a molecule composed of 3 parts (also sketch an image of the phospholipid) 1. 2. 3. 44. The plasma membrane is composed of two layers of ________________________. 45. ________________________: Describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane 46. Fluid Mosaic Model that the phospholipid bilayer behaves like a fluid more than it behaves like a __________________ 47. _____________________________ is a process used to maintain homeostasis in which the plasma membrane allows some molecules into the cell while keeping others out 48. Chemical signals are transmitted across the cell membrane by a receptor which is a protein that detects the chemical change. There are 2 types of receptors: 1. ___________________________: within or inside a cell (hormones) 2. ___________________________: cannot cross the membrane DIFFUSION AN OSMOSIS: 49. The ______________________ is the boundary between the cell and its environment. It allows water and other molecules to pass into and out of the cell Molecules need to be transported across the cell membrane: They do it in two methods: 50. Two types of transport: __________________________: the movement of particles across a membrane from high concentration to low concentration without ENERGY. __________________________: The movement of particles across a membrane from low concentration to high concentration with ENERGY 51. ______________________: is when molecules move from an area of high concentration (there are many) to an area of low concentration (there are few) Example of where this happens: __________________________ This is a form of __________________ 52. Difference in the concentration between two different areas. Particles slide along the ________________________ to help the cell reach equilibrium. 53. __________________________ is equal portions of solute inside and outside the cell 54. 3 Types of Passive Transport 1. 2. 3. 55. ________________________ is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Example: 56. _______________________ helps molecules passing through the membrane that may not be soluble in lipids or too large to pass through the pores in the cell. Assistance is given by specific proteins called __________________ 57. The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is called ________________________ 58. 3 Types of Osmosis 1. 2. 3. 59. _______________________: the concentration gradient outside the cell is lower than inside the cell. This movement causes cells to _______________ 60. Sketch a picture: 61. Examples: 62. ________________________: the concentration gradient of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than inside the cell. This movement causes cells to _____________ 63. Sketch a picture: 64. Examples: 65. ________________________: the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell. Water moves into and out at the same rate and cells obtain their ______________________ 66. Sketch a picture: 67. Examples: 68. ___________________________: Movement of materials through a membrane against a concentration gradient is called active transport and requires energy from the cell. 69. 2 Types of Active Transport: 70. ___________________ is a process by which a cell surrounds and takes in material from its environment 71. ___________________: a type of endocytosis that means Cell Eating 72. ___________________: a type of endocytosis that means Cell Drinking 73. __________________: is the release or secretion of materials from a cell.