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DATE: 20TH October, 2016.
Connectivity: is a computer term that refers to a program or device's ability to link
with other programs and devices. For example, a program that can import data
from a wide variety of other programs and can export data in many different
formats is said to have good connectivity. On the other hand, computers that have
different networks are the main connectivity mechanism for passing data in an
electronic environment. A network is composed of several computers connected by
a wired or wireless medium so data and other resources can pass through for
A computer network may be as small as two computers connected by wire or
wireless medium to as big as millions of computers connected throughout the
internet. There are generally five classifications of network connectivity which are
personal area network (PAN), local area network (LAN), campus area network
(CAN), metropolitan are network (MAN) and wide area network (WAN).
Computer networks may also be classified according to the hardware technology
used in connecting each device. The classification includes Ethernet, wireless,
LAN, Home PNA and power line comsmunication.
The arrangement of computers in a network can also vary. The network topology
refers to geometric forms in network connectivity. This could also describe the
way computers see each other in relation to their logical order. Examples of
network topologies are mesh, ring, star, bys, star-bus combination, tree or
hierarchical topologies. It is good to note that although topology implies form,
network topology is really independent of the physical placement or layout of
computers. For instance, a star topology does not literally mean that computers
form a star but it means that computers are connected using a hub which has many
points to imply a star form.
Perhaps the biggest aspect of computer connectivity is the use of communications
protocol. In a network, different formats of data are being shared by different
computer systems which may have different hardware and software specifications.
Communications protocol tries to break down the disparity so that data could be
shared and appropriately processed.
Communications protocol are the set of rules and standards by which data is
represented, signaled, authenticated and corrected before or after sending over the
channel of communication. For example, in a voice communication like the case of
radio dispatcher talking to mobile stations, they follow a standard set of rules on
how to exchange communication.
A communication protocol may be hard to generalize because of the varied
purposes and different degree of sophistication. But most connectivity
protocols commonly have the following properties: The network interface
card (NIC)
The hub
The switch
The bridge
The router
The gateway
ISDN Terminal adapters
Wireless access points
The network interface card (NIC), as its name suggests, is the expansion card you
install in your computer to connect, or interface, your computer to the network.
This device provides the physical, electrical, and electronic connections to the
network media. A NIC is either an expansion card (the most popular
implementation) or built in to the motherboard of the computer. In most cases, a
NIC connects to the computer through expansion slots, which are special slots
located on a computer’s motherboard that allow peripherals to be plugged directly
into it. In some notebook, NIC adapters can be connected to the printer port or
through a PC card slot.
NIC cards generally all have one or two light emitting diodes (LEDs) that help in
diagnosing problems with their functionality. If there are two separate LEDs, one
of them may be the Link LED, which illuminates when proper connectivity to an
active network is detected. This often means that the NIC is receiving a proper
signal from the hub/MAU or switch, but it could indicate connectivity to and
detection of a carrier on a coax segment or connectivity with a router or other end
device using a crossover cable. The other most popular LED is the Activity LED.
The Activity LED will tend to flicker, indicating the intermittent transmission or
receipt of frames to or from the network.
2) The Hub
In a star topology Ethernet network, a hub is the device that connects all the
segments of the network together. Every device in the network connects directly to
the hub through a single cable. Any transmission received on one port will be sent
out all the other ports in the hub, including the receiving pair for the transmitting
device, so that CSMA/CD on the transmitter can monitor for collisions. So, if one
station sends it, all the others receive it; but based on addressing in the frame, only
the intended recipient listens to it. This is to simulate the physical bus that the
CSMA/CD standard was based on. It’s why we call the use of a hub in an Ethernet
environment a physical star/logical bus topology. It is important to note that hubs
are nothing more than glorified repeaters, which are incapable of recognizing
frame boundaries and data structures; that’s why they act with such a lack of
intelligence. A broadcast sent out by any device on the hub will be propagated to
all devices connected to the hub. Any two or more devices connected to the hub
have the capability of causing a collision with each other, just as in the case of a
physical bus.
3) Bridge
A bridge, specifically a transparent bridge, is a network device that connects two
similar network segments together. The primary function of a bridge is to keep
traffic separated on both sides of the bridge. Traffic is allowed to pass through the
bridge only if the transmission is intended for a station on the opposite side. The
main reasons for putting a bridge in a network are to connect two segments
together and to divide a busy network into two segments. A switch can be thought
of as a hardware-based multiport bridge.
A router is a network device that connects multiple, often dissimilar, network
segments into an internetwork. The router, once connected, can make intelligent
decisions about how best to get network data to its destination based on network
performance data that it gathers from the network itself. Routers are very complex
devices. Often, routers are computers unto themselves with their own complex
operating systems to manage the routing functions (Cisco’s IOS, for example) and
CPUs dedicated to the functions of routing packets. Because of their complexity, it
is actually possible to configure routers to perform the functions of other types of
network devices (like gateways, firewalls, etc.) by simply implementing the feature
within the router’s software.
A gateway is any hardware and software combination that connects dissimilar
network environments. Gateways are the most complex of network devices
because they perform translations at multiple layers of the OSI model.
For example, a gateway is the device that connects a LAN environment to a
mainframe environment. The two environments are completely different. LAN
environments use distributed processing, baseband communications, and the
ASCII character set. Mainframe environments use centralized processing,
broadband and baseband communications, and the EBCDIC character set. Each of
the LAN protocols is translated to its mainframe counterpart by the gateway
Another popular example is the e-mail gateway. Most LAN-based e-mail software,
such as Novell’s GroupWise and Microsoft’s Exchange, can’t communicate
directly with Internet mail servers without the use of a gateway. This gateway
translates LAN-based mail messages into the SMTP format that Internet mail uses.
A modem is a device that modulates digital data onto an analog carrier for
transmission over an analog medium and then demodulates from the analog carrier
to a digital signal again at the receiving end. The term modem is actually an
acronym that stands for MOdulator / DEModulator.
When we hear the term modem, three different types should come to mind:
Traditional (POTS)
Most modems you find in computers today fall into the category of traditional
modems. These modems convert the signals from your computer into signals that
travel over the plain old telephone service (POTS) lines. The majority of modems
that exist today are POTS modems, mainly because PC manufacturers include one
with a computer.
Digital subscriber line (DSL) is quickly replacing traditional modem access
because it offers higher data rates for a reasonable cost. In addition, you can make
regular phone calls while online. DSL uses higher frequencies (above 3200Hz)
than regular voice phone calls use, which provides greater bandwidth (up to several
megabits per second) than regular POTS modems provide while still allowing the
standard voice frequency range to travel at its normal frequency to remain
compatible with traditional POTS phones and devices, an advantage over ISDN.
DSL “modems” are the devices that allow the network signals to pass over phone
lines at these higher frequencies.
Most often, when you sign up for DSL service, the company you sign up with will
send you a DSL modem for free or for a very low cost. This modem is usually an
external modem (although internal DSL modems are available), and it usually has
both a phone line and an Ethernet connection. You must connect the phone line to
a wall jack and the Ethernet connection to your computer (you must have an
Ethernet NIC in your computer in order to connect to the DSL modem).
Alternatively, a router, hub, or switch may be connected to the Ethernet port of the
DSL modem, increasing the options available for the Ethernet network.
Another high-speed Internet access technology that is seeing widespread use is
cable modem access. Cable modems connect an individual PC or network to the
Internet using your cable television cable. The cable TV companies use their
existing cable infrastructure to deliver data services on unused frequency bands.
DATE: 9TH November, 2016.
Computer Name: HP-PC.
Operating System: Windows 7 Ultimate 64-bit.(6.1,Build 7601).
Language: English (Regional setting: English).
System Manufacturer: Hewlett-Packard.
System Model: HP Elite Book 8440p.
Processor: Intel(R) Core™ i5 CPU [email protected] 2.53GHZ (4CPUs)-2,5GHZ
Memory: 4096mb RAM.
DirectX version: Direct X 11
Phone name: Nokia 130.
Version: 10, 01, 11.
Date of manufacturing: 11/08/2014
RAM: 1035.
Company name: Nokia
Language: IK.
True caller
Opera mini
Flash light
Mostly Linux is considered to be a copy of UNIX. Linux was actually a late
addition to the family. It was written by Linus Torvalds back in 1991 and it was
meant for IBM computers. As a matter of fact, in the world of operating systems,
Linux has come up as a great operating system and it is welcomed with huge
popularity. Commercial enterprise servers are running on Linux. Another cherry on
the cake, Laptop and PC companies are also providing GNU Linux as a preinstalled OS on their systems so that individual users can also get a bite of it.
An extensive brain storming confusion is if Linux a kernel or Operating System.
After some time, people just start ignoring this doubt as it never gets answered;
well keep reading for the solution. What Linus Torvalds wrote was Linux kernel
and it had a lot of features similar to UNIX one. Why it is confused with OS,
actually commercially available distributions that provide graphical interface,
compilers and other utilities along with Linux kernel are referred to as Linux
Operating System.
Linux is, as they say, a UNIX-like kernel, because it has ‘some’ common features
but still there are areas where they are not same. Difference between Unix and
Linux can be understood by going through following points.
1. The difference in approach: There is a class of kernels that fall in Monolithic
category, Monolithic ones are those which operate in one and only one process,
they don’t have any other process for any kind of task. Another category is called
Micro-kernel where core of the kernel is assigned one process while other
processes are there for its side tasks like drivers, etc. Linux lies within Monolithic
category with few exceptions in Micro-kernel.
2. Loadable kernel Modules: UNIX systems are bound to have static links of new
modules to be added or recently added. Linux differs here too; it supports new
additions on the fly. For example, drivers can be loaded dynamically whenever
they are needed. This feature is recognized as Loadable kernel Modules (LKM).
This feature enables us to add any component dynamically without arising the need
of compiling the whole kernel again. Unloading can also be performed in similar
fashion. This adds to the flexibility of Linux.
3. Kernel threads: Kernel thread is an independent execution flow. It can be used
to execute some user process or any kernel code. Most of the UNIX-like systems
constitute kernel thread sets. Threads always operate in same address space, so it is
not expensive to perform context switching on kernel threads in comparison to
processes- this explains why Unix-like systems have kernel threads. Kernel threads
are used, on Linux, to execute kernel code.
4. Multi-threading: Multi-threaded applications are those which create multiple
execution flows. These flows are also known as threads and are light weight
processes. Nowadays all operating systems have support for multi-threading. Most
of the UNIX-like operating systems LWP (read light weight process) are kernel
thread based, while on the other hand Linux handles them a bit differently. In
Linux, LWP are created by calling the clone () function which leads to creation of
separate processes. Same task can also be carried out with fork () function but
clone () lets recently created processes share their memory, address space etc.
Their working in shared environment gave them a name “threads”. Hence, multithreading is supported by both of them but they differ in internal handling of it.
5. Preemption and non-preemption: We have a category of kernels which are
able to pre-empt currently executing process and hence we call the preemptive
kernels. Processes are run on a priority basis. If currently executing process is a
low-priority one and a high-priority one process comes up, it can interrupt the
current process and start executing itself. Non-preemptive kernels are those which
don’t forcibly interrupt the current process even if a high-priority process has to
wait. Linux based operating systems are non-preemptive while UNIX systems are
fully preemptive. Linux based Realtime operating systems are found to be fullypreemptive
History of Linux
1980: Bell Laboratories licenses the UNIX operating system to Microsoft, which
then introduces their own version of UNIX called XENIX.
1980: The number of active computers in the U.S. reaches a milestone of one
million units.
1981: Commodore brings the home computer known as the VIC-20 to market. The
computer sells over a million units.
1981: IBM brings de facto standards to the personal computer market.
1981: The first portable computer, the Osborne 1, is introduced by Osborne
1982: Sun Microsystems opens for business.
1982: 16 months after MS-DOS becomes available on the market, Microsoft
licenses the operating system to 50 microcomputer manufacturers.
1982: The computer is declared Man of the Year by Time Magazine.
1983: Upon introducing its first computer to the market in January, Compaq sales
reach $111M.
1983: The Cray 2 super computer reaches a performance rating of one billion
floating point operations per second, or FLOPs.
1984: Apple brings the Macintosh computer to the consumer market.
1984: IBM invents the PC Advanced Technology, or PC AT.
1985: Aldus releases PageMaker for the Apple Macintosh. This is the beginning of
the desktop publishing era.
1987: IBM produces the PS/2 family of computers and ships over 1 million
1987: Sun Microsystems offers a workstation that uses the RISC (Reduced
Instruction Set Computing) microprocessor.
1987: Apple offers the Apple Macintosh II, Macintosh SE, and its new HyperCard
1987: DEC releases the Vaxstation 2000, MicroVAX 3500 and 3600 workstations
to the market.
1987: Aldus brings desktop publishing to the IBM PC and PC compatible market
with the release of PageMaker for that platform.
1988: Cray Research produces a $20 million super computer, the Cray Y-MP.
1988: AT&T announces plans to work with Sun Microsystens to develop a new
version of UNIX.
1988: IBM, DEC, HP, Apollo, and other major computer companies respond to
AT&T’s announcement by creating the not-for-profit organization Open Software
Foundation. Its purpose was to create royalty-free UNIX operating systems and
1988: NeXT introduces a workstation computer that uses rewritable optical discs
as its primary form of data storage.
1988: The Morris computer worm spreads through the Internet and overloads
thousands of computers, forcing them to crash and shut down.
1989: Intel unveils its new 80486 microprocessor as well as the I860 RISC
coprocessor chip. The chips feature over one million transistors.
1989: Poqet unveils the first sub-notebook, the Poqet PC, which is a pocket-sized
computer with an MS-DOS compatible operating system.
1989: Grid produces the GridPad, a laptop that uses a touch-sensitive pad. The pad
also recognizes a person’s handwriting.
1989: Compaq introduces the LTE and LTE/286. These computers are batterypowered notebooks that include a hard drive and floppy disk.
1989: EISA-based PCs, the first of their kind, are available.
1989: The first computers that are 80486-based are unveiled.
1990: The Motorola 68040 microprocessor is introduced.
1990: The high performance RISC Station 6000 workstations are announced by
1990: A fault-tolerant VAX computer is introduced by Digital Equipment.
1990: Microsoft Windows 3.0 is introduced.
1990: The PS/1, a computer designed for home and home office use begins to ship
from IBM.
1990: The first web hosting server connects with a web browser client over the Int.
b1990: NCR switches from a proprietary mainframe to systems based on Intel 486
and microprocessors and their successors.
1990: Microsoft, IBM, Tandy, and AT&T, among others announce hardware and
software specifications for multimedia platforms.
1991: Advanced Micro Devices, or AMD, announces it has created a competitor to
the Intel 386 chips. It is called the AMD 386 microprocessor.
1991: Most PC vendors unveil Notebook PCs.
1991: The Advanced Computing Environment (ACE) is launched by 21 companies
headed by Compaq. Its purpose is to create standards for PCs and workstations that
are higher end.
1991: Microsoft is investigated by the Federal Trade Commission over business
1991: The 486SX, which is a more affordable 486 chip, is introduced by Intel.
1991: The UNIX operating system Solaris is announced by SunSoft, a subsidiary
of Sun Microsystems.
1992: OS/2 Version 2.0 is released by IBM. Over 1M units are shipped.
1992: Microsoft Windows 3.1 is introduced and results in the shipping of nearly
10M units.
1992: Compaq becomes a price trendsetter with the announcement of several new
lines of PCs, an ultimately successful strategy.
1992: The RISC-based Alpha is announced as the next generation computer by
Digital Equipment.
1992: Windows for Workgroups is introduced by Microsoft.
1992: Intel announces that it will change the name of their next microprocessor
from 589 to Pentium.
1993: Novell’s NetWare 4.0 is revealed.
1993: Notes 3.0 is announced by Lotus.
1993: The first of the PowerPC microprocessors are shipped by Motorola.
1993: Windows NT is unveiled by Microsoft.
1993: The shipping of Pentium-based systems begins.
1993: Apple’s first Personal Digital Assistant called the Newton MessagePad is
1993: A family-oriented PC for the home called the Presario is introduced by
1993: The FTC probe of Microsoft comes to an end with no action taken.
1993: After 10 years as Apple’s chairman, John Sculley is forced to resign.
1993: Microsoft at Work (MAW) along with the Plug and Play initiatives are
outlined by Microsoft.
1993: PowerPC chip based workstations are debuted by IBM.
1993: IBM’s OS/2 for Windows upgrade is announced.
1994: Shipping begins of Macintosh computers that use the PowerPC.
1994: The clock-tripling microprocessor called 486DX4 is introduced by Intel.
Intel Release the 90 & 100 MHz versions of the Pentium Processor.
Linus Torvalds released version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel.
PC-DOS 6.3 Basically the same as version 5.0 this release by IBM included more
bundled software, such as Stacker (the program that caused Microsoft so much
embarrassment) and anti-virus software.
1994 - September 21
Microsoft released Windows NT 3.5. This included many features missing from
the original 3.1 release, including support for compressed files and Netware
1994 - October 10
Intel Release the 75 MHz version of the Pentium Processor.
Doom II released. This reflected the rapidly increasing quality of games available
for the PC - an opinion supported by other major releases in 1994, such as "Alone
in the Dark 2", "Theme Park", "Magic Carpet" and "Little Big Adventure" which
also helped demonstrate the diversity of games available on the platform. This
success of the PC as a games platform was partly due to and partly a cause of
significantly increased PC ownership among the 'general public' during the
early/mid 1990s.
Netscape 1.0 was written as an alternative browser to NCSA Mosaic.
Command & Conquer released. Other (less significant releases) for the PC
included Star Trek 'The Next Generation', Full Throttle, Descent and Terminal
Velocity. The advent of 3D graphics cards from Videologic and 3Dfx helped the
platform's games status further.
1995 - March
Linus released Linux Kernel v1.2.0 (Linux'95).
1995 - March 27
Intel release the 120 MHz version of the Pentium processor.
1995 - May 30
The main feature of Windows NT 3.51 was a version supporting IBM's Power PC
processor. Delays in the release of the processor meant delays in the release of
Windows NT 3.51 (NT 3.51 only exists because the processor wasn't ready in time
for NT 3.5). As the development team waited for the release of the processor they
fixed bugs in the existing codebase. This made NT 3.51 reliable and therefore
popular with customers.
1995 - June 1
Intel release the 133 MHz version of the Pentium processor.
1995 - August 21 [poss. 23]
Windows '95 was launched by Bill Gates & Microsoft. Unlike previous versions of
Windows, Windows '95 is an entire operating system - it does not rely on MS-DOS
(although some remnants of the old operating system still exist). Windows '95 was
written specially for the 80386 and compatible computers to make 'full' use of its
32 bit processing and multitasking capabilities, and thus in some respects it is
much more similar to Windows NT than Windows 3.x. Both Windows 95 and
Windows NT provide the Win32 API for programmers, and when Windows NT 4
was released it had an almost identical user interface to Windows 95.
Unfortunately, in order to maintain backwards compatibility, Windows 95 doesn't
impose the same memory protection and security measures that NT does and so
suffers from much worse stability, reliability and security. Despite being
remarkable similar in function to OS/2 Warp (produced by IBM and Microsoft
several years earlier, but marketed by IBM), Windows '95 has proved very popular.
1995 - November 1
Pentium Pro released. At introduction it achieved a clock speed of up to 200 MHz
(there were also 150, 166 and 180 MHz variants released on the same date), but is
basically the same as the Pentium in terms of instruction set and capabilities. It
achieves 440 MIPs and contains 5.5 million transistors - this is nearly 2400 times
as many as the first microprocessor, the 4004 - and capable of 70,000 times as
many instructions per second.
1995 - December 28
CompuServe blocked access to over 200 sexually explicit sites, partly to avoid
confrontation with the German Government. Access to all but 5 was restored on
Feb. 13 1996.
1995 - December
JavaScript development announced by Netscape.
Quake released - representing the dramatic increases in both software and
hardware technology since Doom, of 3 years previous. Other notable releases
included "Civilization 2", "Command & Conquer - Red Alert", "Grand Prix 2" and
"Tomb Raider". On the more controversial front "Battle Cruiser 3000" was also
released, but its advertising had to be censored.
1996 - January
Netscape Navigator 2.0 released. First browser to support JavaScript.
1996 - January 4
Intel release the 150 & 166 MHz versions of the Pentium Processor. They contain
the equivalent of over 3.3 million transistors.
Windows '95 OSR2 (OEM System Release 2) was released - partly to fix bugs
found in release 1 - but only to computer retailers for sale with new systems. There
were actually two separated releases of Windows 95 OSR2 before the introduction
of Windows '98, the second of which contained both USB and FAT32 support - the
main selling points of Windows '98. FAT32 is a new filing system that provides
support for disk paritions bigger than 2.1GB and is better at coping with large disks
(especially in terms of wasted space).
1996 - June 9
Linux 2.0 released. 2.0 was a significant improvement over the earlier versions: it
was the first to support multiple architectures (originally developed for the Intel
386 processor, it now supported the Digital Alpha and would very soon support
Sun SPARC many others). It was also the first stable kernel to support SMP,
kernel modules, and much more.
1996 - July 31
Windows NT 4.0 was released. The main feature was an update of the user
interface to match Windows 95.
1996 - October 6
Intel release the 200 Mhz version of the Pentium Processor.
Tim Berners-Lee awarded the Institute of Physics' 1997 Duddell Medal for
inventing the World Wide Web (see 1989).
"Grand Theft Auto", "Quake 2" and "Blade Runner" were all released while Lara
Croft returned in "Tomb Raider 2". As the standards for graphics kept increasing,
3d graphics cards were beginning to become mandatory for games players.
1997 - January 8
Intel released Pentium MMX (originally 166 and 200 Mhz versions), for games
and multimedia enhancement. To most people MMX is simply another 3-letter
acronym and people wearing coloured suits on Intel ads, and to programmers in
meant an even further expanded instruction set that provides, amongst other
functions, enhanced 64-bit support - but software needs to be specially written to
work with the new functions. A major rival clone, the AMD-K6-MMX containing
a similar instruction set, caused a legal challenge from Intel on the right to use the
trademarked name MMX - it was not upheld.
1997 - May 11
IBM's Deep Blue, the first computer to beat a reigning World Chess Champion,
Gary Kasparov, in a full chess match. The computer had played him previously loosing 5/6 games in February 1996.
1997 - May 7
Intel Release their Pentium II processor (233, 266 and 300 Mhz versions). It
featured, as well as an increased instruction set, a much larger on-chip cache.
1997 - June 2
Intel release the 233 MHz Pentium MMX.
1997 - August 6
After 18 months of losses Apple were in serious financial trouble. Microsoft
invested in Apple, buying 100,000 non-voting shares worth $150 million - a
decision not approved of by many Apple owners! One of the conditions was that
Apple were to drop their long running court case - attempting to sue Microsoft for
copying the look and feel of their operating system when designing Windows.
There is some contention as to whether Apple were justified in sueing Microsoft,
given that they themselves used some of the ideas from the XEROX 'Star' system
when designing their G.U.I. - however the similarities between MacOS and
Windows are much more pronounced than those between the XEROX system and
the Mac.
1998 - February
Intel released of 333 MHz Pentium II processor. Code-named Deschutes these
processors use the new 0.25 micron manufacturing process to run faster and
generate less heat than before.
1998 - April
A U.S. court has finally banned the long-running game of buying domain names
relating to trademarks and then at selling them for extortionate prices to the
companies who own the trademark. The case was based around a man from Illinois
who bought in 1995 and has just tried to sell it for $13,000.
The current going commercial rate for domain name registration is around $100.
1998 - June 25
Microsoft released Windows '98. Some U.S. attorneys tried to block its release
since the new O/S interfaces closely with other programs such as Microsoft
Internet Explorer and so effectively closes the market of such software to other
companies. Microsoft fought back with a letter to the White House suggesting that
26 of its industry allies said that a delay in the release of the new O/S could
damage the U.S. economy. The main selling points of Windows '98 were its
support for USB and its support for disk paritions greater than 2.1GB.
1999 - Jan 25
Linux Kernel 2.2.0 Released. The number of people running Linux is estimated at
over 10million, making it an not only important operating system in the Unix
world, but an increasingly important one in the PC world.
1999 - Feb 22
AMD release K6-III 400MHz version, 450 to OEMS. In some tests it outperforms
soon-to-be released Intel P-III. It contains approximately 23 million transistors,
and is based on 100 MHz super socket 7 motherboards, an improvement on the
66MHz buses their previous chips were based on. This helps its performance when
compared to Intel's Pentium II - which also uses a 100MHz bus speed.
1999 - Aug 31
Apple releases the PowerMac G4. It’s powered by the PowerPC G4 chip from
Apple, Motorola and IBM. Available in 400MHz, 450MHz and 500MHz versions
its claimed to be the first personal computer to be capable of over one billion
floating-point operations per second.
1999 - Nov 29
AMD release Athlon 750MHz version.
2000 - Jan 14
US Government announce restrictions on exporting Cryptography are relaxed
(although not removed). This allows many US Companies to stop the long running,
and rather ridiculous process of having to create US and International copies of
their software.
2000 - Jan 19
Transmetal launch their new 'Crusoe' chips. Designed for laptops these provide
comparable performance to the mid-range Pentium II chips, but consume a tiny
fraction of the power. They are a new and exciting competitor to Intel in the x 86
2000 - Feb 17
Offical Launch of Windows 2000 - Microsoft's replacement for Windows 95/98
and Windows NT. Claimed to be faster and more reliable than previous versions of
Windows. It is actually a descendant of the NT series, and so the trade-off for
increased reliability is that it won't run some old DOS-based games. To keep the
home market happy Microsoft also released Windows ME, the newest member of
the 95/98 series.
2000 - March 6
AMD Release the Athlon 1GHz.
2000 - March 8
Intel release very limited supplies of the 1GHz Pentium III chip.
2000 - June 20
British Telecom (BT) claim the rights to hyperlinks on the basis of a US patent
granted in 1989. Similar patents in the rest of the world have now expired. Their
claim is widely believed to be absurd since Ted Nelson wrote about hyperlinks in
1965, and this is where Tim Berners Lee says he got the ideas for the World Wide
Web from. This is just another in the line of similar incredulous cases - for
example's claim to have patented '1-click ordering'. Even more absurb
was the claim made in March 2002 by a 'til then unheard of company "Maz
Technologies" that they had, in 1998, obtained a fairly generic patent covering
encrypted storage of documents. BT's claim was finally rejected by a judge in the
US on 23 August 2002.
2000 - Sept 6
RSA Security Inc. released their RSA algorithm into the public domain, in advance
of the US patent (#4,405,829) expiring on the 20th Sept. of the same year.
Following the relaxation of the US government restrictions earlier in the year (Jan.
14) this removed one of the last barriers to the world-wide distribution of much
software based on cryptographic systems. It should be noted that the IDEA
algorithm is still under patent and also that government restrictions still apply in
some places.
2001: Apple unveils the Mac OS X operating system, which provides protected
memory architecture and pre-emptive multi-tasking, among other benefits. Not to
be outdone, Microsoft rolls out Windows XP, which has a significantly redesigned
2003: The first 64-bit processor, AMD’s Athlon 64, becomes available to the
consumer market.
2004: Mozilla’s Firefox 1.0 challenges Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, the dominant
Web browsers. Facebook, a social networking site, launches.
2005: YouTube, a video sharing service, is founded. Google acquires Android, a
Linux-based mobile phone operating system.
2006: Apple introduces the MacBook Pro, its first Intel-based, dual-core mobile
computer, as well as an Intel-based iMac. Nintendo’s Wii game console hits the
2007: The iPhone brings many computer functions to the smart phone.
2009: Microsoft launches Windows 7, which offers the ability to pin applications
to the taskbar and advances in touch and handwriting recognition, among other
2010: Apple unveils the iPad, changing the way consumers view media and
jumpstarting the dormant tablet computer segment.
2011: Google releases the Chromebook, a laptop that runs the Google Chrome OS.
2012: Facebook gains 1 billion users on October 4.
2015: Apple releases the Apple Watch. Microsoft releases Windows 10.
2016: Iphone 7
Version 10.0 “Cheetah”.It was released by apple on March 24, 2001.
Version 10.1 “Puma”. On September 25, 2001, this version was released.
Version 10.2 “Jaguar” This version was released on August 23, 2002.
Version 10.3 “Panther”: was released on October 24, 2003.
Version 10.4 “Tiger’ it was released April 29, 2005.
Version 10.5:”Leopard” This version was released on October 26, 2007.
Version 10.6: “Snow Leopard”: was released on August 28, 2009.
Version 10.7 “Lion”: It was released on July 20, 2011.
Version 10.8 “Mountain Lion”: was released on July 25, 2012.
Version 10.9: “Mavericks”: was released on October 22, 2013
Version 10.10 “Yosemite” was released to the general public on October 16, 2014.
Version 10.11 “El Captain” was revealed on June 8, 2015 during the WWDC
keynote speech.
Version 10.12 “Sierra” was released on June 13, 2016.