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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Planetary Missions -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Moon points of interest Luna - Soviet Lunar Missions (1959 - 1976) 20 successful missions; orbiters and landers Apollo - NASA Manned Lunar Program (1963 - 1972) 1st men on Moon Ranger - NASA Lunar Impact Missions (1964 - 1965) photographic impact missions Zond - Soviet Lunar Missions (1965 - 1970) orbit and return; precursors to manned missions Lunar Orbiter - NASA Lunar Mapping Missions (1966 - 1967) Surveyor - NASA Lunar Lander Missions (1966 - 1968) check out soil conditions prior to manned missions Hiten - ISAS (Japan) Flyby and Orbiter Mission to the Moon (1990) test of technologies for future lunar missions Clementine - DoD/NASA Lunar Mapping Mission (1994) Lunar Prospector - NASA Global Orbiter Mission to the Moon (1998) search for polar ice deposits SMART 1 - ESA Orbiter to the Moon (2003) testing of technologies for future lunar missions Kaguya (SELENE) - JAXA (Japan) Orbiter to the Moon (2007) because I can Chang'e 1 - CAST (China) Orbiter to the Moon (2007) ditto Chandrayaan-1 - ISRO (India) Orbiter to the Moon (2008) ditto Chang'e 2 - CAST (China) Orbiter to the Moon (2010) take that, Japan and India! Mercury MESSENGER - NASA Orbiter to Mercury (2004) actual orbit March 2011; mission about to end Venus Mariner 2 - NASA Venus flyby (1962) major discoveries Mariner 5 - NASA Venus flyby (1967) Venera - Soviet Missions to Venus (1967 - 1983) flybys, orbiters, landers (6 or 7) Mariner 10 - NASA Mission to Venus and Mercury (1973) Pioneer Venus - NASA Orbiter/Probes to Venus (1978) Magellan - NASA Venus Radar Mapping Mission (1989) SAR mapping of surface; 100 m resolution Venus Express - ESA Orbiter to Venus (2005) magnetometers and spectrometers; still operational Mars Mariner 4 - NASA Mars flyby (1964) Mariner 6 - NASA Mars flyby (1969) Mariner 7 - NASA Mars flyby (1969) Mariner 9 - NASA Mars orbiter (1971) first spacecraft to orbit another planet Viking - NASA Orbiters/Landers to Mars (1975) two landers; both successful; no evidence of life Phobos - Soviet Missions to Mars (1988) failed attempts to land on Phobos Mars Observer - NASA Mission to Mars (1992) failed orbiter Mars 96 - Russian Orbiter and Lander Mission to Mars (1996) did not make it out of Earth orbit Mars Pathfinder - NASA Environmental Survey Mission to Mars (1996) bounce landing; Sojournor rover Mars Global Surveyor - NASA Global Orbiter Mission to Mars (1996) spectrometers; surface mapping laser altimeter Mars Climate Orbiter - NASA Orbiter Mission to Mars (1998) failed; metric unit problem Nozomi (Planet-B) - ISAS (Japan) Orbiter Mission to Mars (1998) poor orbit; frozen fuel Deep Space 2 - NASA Penetrator Mission to Mars (1999) penetrating probes; failed mission Mars Polar Lander - NASA Lander Mission to Mars (1999) failed communications; landing may have occurred 2001 Mars Odyssey - NASA Orbiter Mission to Mars (2001) still functioning Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity - NASA Rover Mission to Mars (2003) still functioning Mars Exploration Rover Spirit - NASA Rover Mission to Mars (2003) recently shut down Mars Express - ESA Mars Orbiter and Lander (2003) Beagle2 lander; lost signals Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter - NASA Orbiter Mission to Mars (2005) high-res imaging; spectrometry Mars Phoenix Lander - NASA lander near Mars' north pole (2007) spectroscopy; imagers Mars Science Laboratory - NASA Rover Mission to Mars (2011) landing scheduled for Aug, 2012 Jupiter Pioneer 10 - NASA Jupiter flyby (1972) Pioneer 11 - NASA Jupiter flyby (1973) Galileo - NASA Mission to Jupiter (1989) source of most of our good data Ulysses - NASA/ESA Mission to study the solar wind via Jupiter (1990) Juno - NASA Mission to study Jupiter's atmosphere (2011) arrival in July, 2016 Saturn Cassini - NASA/European Space Agency Mission to Saturn (1997) source of most of our good data Huygens - NASA/European Space Agency Mission to Saturn's satellite Titan (1997) lander; measured atmosphere and ground conditions Asteroids/Comets Sakigake - Japanese ISAS mission to Comet Halley (1985) Suisei - Japanese ISAS mission to Comet Halley (1985) Giotto - ESA Mission to Comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup (1985) NEAR - NASA Rendezvous Mission to Near-Earth Asteroid (1996) asteroid Eros (13x13x33 km); orbit 2000; soft landing unplanned Deep Space 1 (DS1) - NASA Flyby Mission to asteroid 1992 KD (1998) Stardust - NASA Coma Sample Return Mission to Comet P/Wild 2 (1999) Dec '03-Jan '04 encounter; successful CONTOUR - NASA Fly-by Mission to three Comet Nuclei (2002) Hayabusa (Muses-C) - ISAS (Japan) Sample Return Mission to Asteroid Itokawa (2003) partial success Rosetta - ESA Rendezvous Mission to Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko (2004) rendezvous in May 2014 Deep Impact - NASA Rendezvous and Impact with Comet Tempel 1 (2005) impact on July 4, 2005; observe impact debris New Horizons - NASA Pluto Kuiper Belt Flyby (2006) arrival in July, 2015 Dawn - NASA Asteroid Ceres and Vesta Orbiter (2007) at Vesta now; leaving for Ceres in August; arrive 2015 Multi-purpose Mariner 10 - NASA Mission to Venus and Mercury (1973) Voyager - NASA Missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and beyond (1977) still going today; outside of our solar system; Star Trek I's "V'ger" ICE (ISEE-3) - NASA Mission to Comet Giacobini-Zinner (1978(1985)) Vega 1 - Soviet mission to Venus and Comet Halley (1984) Vega 2 - Soviet mission to Venus and Comet Halley (1984) Miscellaneous Genesis - NASA Solar Wind Sample Return (2001) sample return vehicle crashed; possible success A Review of Chapters 5 and 6 Details about the elements of our solar system What have we learned? • What are terrestrial planets like on the inside? – All terrestrial worlds have a core, mantle, and crust. – Denser material is found deeper inside. • What causes geological activity? – Interior heat drives geological activity. – Radioactive decay is currently main heat source. • Why do some planetary interiors create magnetic fields? – Requires motion of charged particles inside a planet What have we learned? • What processes shape planetary surfaces? – Cratering, volcanism, tectonics, erosion • How do impact craters reveal a surface’s geological age? – The amount of cratering tells us how long ago a surface formed. • Why do the terrestrial planets have different geological histories? – Differences arise because of planetary size, distance from Sun, and rotation rate. What have we learned? • What geological processes shaped our Moon? – Early cratering is still present. – Maria resulted from volcanism. • What geological processes shaped Mercury? – Had cratering and volcanism similar to Moon – Tectonic features indicate early shrinkage. What have we learned? • How did Martians invade popular culture? – Surface features of Mars in early telescopic photos were misinterpreted as “canals.” • What are the major geological features of Mars? – Differences in cratering across surface – Giant shield volcanoes – Evidence of tectonic activity What have we learned? • What geological evidence tells us that water once flowed on Mars? – Some surface features look like dry riverbeds. – Some craters appear to be eroded. – Rovers have found rocks that appear to have formed in water. – Gullies in crater walls may indicate recent water flows. What have we learned? • What are the major geological features of Venus? – Venus has cratering, volcanism, and tectonics but not much erosion. • Does Venus have plate tectonics? – The lack of plate tectonics on Venus is a mystery. What have we learned? • How do we know that Earth’s surface is in motion? – Measurements of plate motions confirm the idea of continental drift. • How is Earth’s surface shaped by plate tectonics? – Plate tectonics is responsible for subduction, seafloor spreading, mountains, rifts, and earthquakes. What have we learned? • Was Earth’s geology destined from birth? – Many of Earth’s features are determined by its size, distance from Sun, and rotation rate. – The reason for plate tectonics is still a mystery. What have we learned? • Are jovian planets all alike? – Jupiter and Saturn are mostly H and He gas. – Uranus and Neptune are mostly H compounds. • What are jovian planets like on the inside? – Layered interiors with very high pressure and cores made of rock, metals, and hydrogen compounds – Very high pressure in Jupiter and Saturn can produce metallic hydrogen. What have we learned? • What is the weather like on jovian planets? – Multiple cloud layers determine colors of jovian planets. – All have strong storms and winds. • Do jovian planets have magnetospheres like Earth’s? – All have substantial magnetospheres. – Jupiter’s is the largest by far. What have we learned? • What kinds of moons orbit the jovian planets? – Moons come in many sizes. – The level of geological activity depends on a moon’s size. • Why are Jupiter’s Galilean moons so geologically active? – Tidal heating drives geological activity, leading to Io’s volcanoes and ice geology on other moons. What have we learned? • What is special about Titan and other major moons of the solar system? – Titan is only moon with thick atmosphere. – Many other major moons show signs of geological activity. • Why are small icy moons more geologically active than small rocky planets? – Ice melts and deforms at lower temperatures, enabling tidal heating to drive activity. What have we learned? • What are Saturn’s rings like? – They are made up of countless individual ice particles. – They are extremely thin with many gaps. • How do other jovian ring systems compare to Saturn’s? – The other jovian planets have much fainter ring systems with smaller, darker, less numerous particles. • Why do the jovian planets have rings? – Ring particles are probably debris from moons. What have we learned? • Have we ever witnessed a major impact? – The most recent major impact happened in 1994, when fragments of comet SL9 hit Jupiter. • Did an impact kill the dinosaurs? – Iridium layer just above dinosaur fossils suggests that an impact caused mass extinction 65 million years ago. – A large crater of that age has been found in Mexico. What have we learned? • Is the impact threat a real danger or media hype? – Large impacts do happen, but they are rare. – They cause major extinctions about every 100 million years. • How do the jovian planets affect impact rates and life on Earth? – Jovian planets sometimes deflect comets toward Earth but send many more out to Oort cloud.