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Ch 6
Cellular Respiration
Energy for life
ECOSYSTEM
Photosynthesis
in chloroplasts
Glucose
CO
+
2
+
H2O
O2
Cellular respiration
in mitochondria
ATP
(for cellular work)
Heat energy
Breathing vs Cellular Respiration
• Breathing- gas exchange
• Cellular respiration- aerobic harvesting of
energy from food molecules by cells
Cellular Respiration
• Stores energy in ATP
C6H12O6
Glucose
+ 6
O2
Oxygen
6 CO2
Carbon
dioxide
+ 6
H2O
Water
+
ATPs
Energy
Cell Respiration
Redox
• Oxidation- loss of e• Reduction- addition of e-
Loss of hydrogen atoms
(oxidation)
C6H12O6
+ 6 O2
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
(ATP)
Gain of hydrogen atoms
(reduction)
Glucose Oxidation
• Dehydrogenase
• NAD+
Oxidation
Dehydrogenase
NAD+
+ 2H
Reduction
2 H+ + 2 e–
NADH + H+
(carries
2 electrons)
ETC
• Electron Transport Chain
NADH
ATP
NAD+
+
2e–
Controlled
release of
energy for
synthesis
of ATP
H+
2e–
H+
H2O
1

2
O2
Cell Respiration
Glycolysis
• Splits sugar
• Breaks Glucose into 2
three C sugars
• Yields 2 pyruvate
molecules
– Net gain of +2 ATP
Glucose
2 ADP
2 NAD+
+
2 P
2 NADH
2 ATP
+
2 H+
2 Pyruvate
Glycolysis
• Substrate-level phosphorylation
– Transfer of P from substrate to ADP
• Energy banked in ATP and NADH
Enzyme
P
Enzyme
ADP
+
P
Substrate
ATP
P
Product
Formation of Acetyl CoA
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
Stopping the chain
Rotenone
Cyanide,
carbon monoxide
Oligomycin
ATP
synthase
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+ H+ H+ DNP
DNP
FADH2
NADH
FAD
1

2
NAD+
O2 + 2 H+
H+
H+
H2O
ADP + P
H+
Electron Transport Chain
Chemiosmosis
ATP
ATP yield
Electron shuttle
across membrane
Cytoplasm
2
Mitochondrion
2
NADH
NADH
(or 2 FADH2)
2
6
NADH
GLYCOLYSIS
2
Pyruvate
Glucose
2 Acetyl
CoA
CITRIC ACID
CYCLE
+ 2 ATP
+ 2 ATP
by substrate-level
phosphorylation
by substrate-level
phosphorylation
Maximum per glucose:
About
38 ATP
NADH
2
FADH2
OXIDATIVE
PHOSPHORYLATION
(Electron Transport
and Chemiosmosis)
+ about 34 ATP
by oxidative phosphorylation
+ 2
2
P
ATP
Fermentation
2 NAD+
2 ADP
+ 2 P
2 NADH
2
ATP
2 Pyruvate
2 NAD+
GLYCOLYSIS
2 ADP
Glucose
GLYCOLYSIS
Glucose
2 NADH
2 Pyruvate
2 NADH
NADH
2
2 CO2
released
NAD+
2 NAD+
2
2 Lactate
2 Ethanol
Biosynthesis
ATP needed to drive biosynthesis
ATP
GLUCOSE SYNTHESIS
CITRIC
ACID
CYCLE
Acetyl
CoA
Pyruvate
G3P
Glucose
Amino
groups
Amino acids Fatty acids Glycerol
Proteins
Fats
Cells, tissues, organisms
Sugars
Carbohydrates
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