yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Eradication of infectious diseases wikipedia, lookup

Pandemic wikipedia, lookup

Herpes simplex research wikipedia, lookup

Canine parvovirus wikipedia, lookup

Carol Kirrane
Lecturer Practitioner
Facts about encephalitis
Signs & Symptoms
What is Encephalitis??
• Literally means an inflammation of the
• Usually refers to brain inflammation caused
by a virus
• May also be called acute viral encephalitis
or aseptic encephalitis
Types of Viruses that Cause
• The most dangerous is the Herpes Simplex
virus (HSV)- the same virus that causes
cold sores but when it attacks the brain it
may be fatal in half those that are infected
• HSV is very rare
• Some forms are transmitted by insects e.g.
West Nile virus from mosquitoes that pick
virus up from infected birds
• Milder forms of encephalitis can follow
common childhood illnesses
• Measles, mumps, chicken pox, Rubella
(German measles)
• One in every 1000 people with measles will
develop measles encephalitis- develops 4 to
7 days after rash appears
• Less commonly encephalitis can result from
a bacterial infection, such as meningitis
• May be a complication of other infectious
diseases such as rabies, syphilis or HIV
• Many cases may go unreported because
symptoms so mild
Signs & Symptoms
Fever with hallucinations
Headache – may be severe with double vision
Nausea & Vomiting
Raised ICP- Stiff neck, pupils, motor weakness
Confusion, personality changes, convulsions
Poor appetite
Loss of energy
• Harder to detect symptoms
• Important signs- vomiting, a full or bulging
soft spot (fontanel)
• Crying that does not stop and worsens when
the patient is picked up
• Body stiffness
• Brain inflammation itself is not contagious
• Any of the viruses that cause encephalitis
can be- to be safe children should avoid
contact with anyone who has encephalitis
• Mosquitoes spread through bites
• Herpes or chicken pox spread mostly via
fluids of the nose & throat (cough/sneeze)
• Signs & Symptoms
• Imaging such as CT/MRI to check for brain
• EEG – abnormal brain waves
• Blood test- Confirm presence of
bacteria/viruses in blood and antibodies to
fight infection
• LP Analysis of CSF
• Children with mild encephalitis can be
monitored at home- usually will be nursed
in ITU
• Monitor neuro obs, vital signs & body
fluids to prevent further swelling
• Antiviral drugs for some forms e.g. HSV
• Reduce ICP- position, steroids
• Acute phase of illness when symptoms most
severs lasts up to a week
• Full recovery can take much longer often
several weeks
• May have permanent damage or need
intensive rehabilitation – Centre of
• Most people make a full recovery
• Small percentage 5% can lead to permanent brain
damage or learning disabilities such as speech
problems, memory loss or lack of muscle control
• May need OT & Physio
• Rarely leads to death
• Infants younger than 1 year and adults over 55 are
at greatest risk of death
• Herpes encephalitis is usually fatal if no anti viral
drugs used
• Cannot be prevented except to try to prevent
the disease that may lead to it
• Have your child immunised
• Children avoid contact with people with
• Protection from mosquitoes/ticks- limit soil
contact, check pets for ticks
The Encephalitis Society
• Based in Malton North Yorkshire open
Mon- Fri 9-5pm
• Tel 01653 699 599
• Email: [email protected]
• Give info & direct support for Pts and
Key Nursing Issues
• Risk of ICP- Neuro obs report deterioration
(check resps!!)
• Safety- Assess mobility –risk of falls,
cognition, confusion (use of wanderguard),
• Where to place on ward – near nurses
station v side room if shouting/noisy
• QUESTIONS???????????????