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Transcript
Unit 3 Atomic Structure
Text Notes from Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste
Chapter 3
3.3
1. What does the law of constant composition mean?
2. Although Dalton’s atomic theory was rejected at first, he used his theory to do WHAT that soon resulted
in his theory being accepted by scientists?
3.5
3. Because of the success of Dalton’s theory, scientists came to believe what two things?
4. How did J.J. Thomson know that the particles he had discovered were negatively charged?
5. Today, the particles discovered by Thomson are called __________________.
6. Why did Thomson then conclude that atoms must also have positively charged particles?
7. Describe Lord Kelvin’s plum pudding model of the atom.
8. Rutherford was a student of ______________________ and designed an experiment in which
___________________-charged alpha () particles were directed at a _______ _________ _______.
9. What did Rutherford expect the  particles to do?
10. What were the results of Rutherford’s experiment?
11. What must have caused the large deflections of the  particles?
12. Why did most of the  particles pass directly through the foil?
13. Describe Rutherford’s nuclear atom.
14. The neutron was discovered in 1932 by Rutherford and:
3.6
15. If the nucleus were as big as a grape, how far away would the electrons be?
16. What, possibly, is the function of the neutrons in the nucleus?
17. The number of ________________ determines chemical behavior.
3.7
18. What did Dalton assume about all atoms of a given element in his atomic theory?
19. What are isotopes?
20. What do we mean by an atom’s atomic number?
21. How would you calculate the mass number of an atom?
Chapter 11
11.1
22. What did Rutherford suggest about how the electrons were moving?
11.2
23. What is another term for light?
24. What do we mean by a wavelength?
25. What does frequency indicate?
26. ________ have very short wavelengths; _________ _________ have very long wavelengths.
27. What does microwave radiation do to the water molecules in food?
28. What are photons?
29. Does light consist of waves, or does it consist of particles?
30. In general, the ______________ the wavelength of light, the ____________ the energy of its photons.
11.3
31. In the flame test experiment, what are the atoms doing when we see the different colors?
32. When atoms absorb energy, we say they are ______________. The atom then releases some of the
energy in the form of ____________.
33. The energy of the photon is exactly equal to what?
11.4
34. What is an atom’s ground state?
35. Different wavelengths of light carry different:
36. How do we know that only certain energy changes are occurring in a hydrogen atom in the excited
state?
37. What do we mean in saying that an atom’s energy levels are quantized?
11.5
38. Of what shape were the electron orbits in Bohr’s model of the atom?
39. How could an electron jump to a different orbit?
40. Bohr’s model is incorrect about how electrons move in an atom. How DO electrons move in an atom?
11.6
41. Schrodinger and de Broglie thought an electron might be described as a ___________.
42. Schrodinger’s model was called the:
43. If you see the firefly flash far from the center of the room, where will it flash next?
44. What do the mathematics of the wave mechanical model allow us to predict?
45. What two things does the model give us no information about?
11.7
46. What is an orbital?
47. The edge of an orbital is “_____________.”
48. What do higher energy states correspond to, in the wave mechanical model?
49. When we are labeling orbitals, the number tells the ___________________ ___________ _________
and the letter tells the ___________ of the sublevel.
50. As the principal energy level number increases, the electrons get ___________ ______ the nucleus.
11.9
51. How are orbitals represented in an orbital diagram?
52. In an orbital diagram, what does the arrow represent?
53. What are valence electrons?
54. Why are valence electrons important to chemists?
55. Core electrons are not involved in:
Unit 3 Atomic Structure
Text Notes from Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste
Chapter 3
3.3
1. What does the law of constant composition mean?
a given compound always has the same composition, regardless of where it comes from
2. Although Dalton’s atomic theory was rejected at first, he used his theory to do WHAT that soon resulted
in his theory being accepted by scientists?
to predict how a given pair of elements might combine to form more than one compound
3.5
3. Because of the success of Dalton’s theory, scientists came to believe what two things?
elements consist of atoms; compounds are a specific collection of atoms
4. How did J.J. Thomson know that the particles he had discovered were negatively charged?
they were repelled by the negative part of an electric field
5. Today, the particles discovered by Thomson are called ____electrons_____.
6. Why did Thomson then conclude that atoms must also have positively charged particles?
he knew that atoms are not positively or negatively charged (i.e., atoms are neutral)
7. Describe Lord Kelvin’s plum pudding model of the atom.
negative electrons embedded in a “pudding” of positive charge
8. Rutherford was a student of ______Thomson_______ and designed an experiment in which
___positively______-charged alpha () particles were directed at a _thin__ __metal__ _foil_.
9. What did Rutherford expect the  particles to do?
crash right through the foil
10. What were the results of Rutherford’s experiment?
most -particles passed straight through, some were deflected slightly, some were deflected a lot
11. What must have caused the large deflections of the  particles?
a center of concentrated positive charge
12. Why did most of the  particles pass directly through the foil?
because the atom is mostly open space
13. Describe Rutherford’s nuclear atom.
it had a dense center of positive charge (i.e., the nucleus) around which tiny electrons moved
14. The neutron was discovered in 1932 by Rutherford and:
James Chadwick
3.6
15. If the nucleus were as big as a grape, how far away would the electrons be?
one mile away
16. What, possibly, is the function of the neutrons in the nucleus?
they help to hold the protons together
17. The number of ___electrons____ determines chemical behavior.
3.7
18. What did Dalton assume about all atoms of a given element in his atomic theory?
they were identical
19. What are isotopes?
atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
20. What do we mean by an atom’s atomic number?
the number of protons in its nucleus
21. How would you calculate the mass number of an atom?
add up its protons and neutrons
Chapter 11
11.1
22. What did Rutherford suggest about how the electrons were moving?
the electrons were revolving around the nucleus like planets around the Sun
11.2
23. What is another term for light?
electromagnetic radiation
24. What do we mean by a wavelength?
the distance between two consecutive wave peaks
25. What does frequency indicate?
how many wave peaks pass a certain point per given time period
26. _X rays_ have very short wavelengths; __radio__ __waves__ have very long wavelengths.
27. What does microwave radiation do to the water molecules in food?
it increases their motions, which increases the food’s temperature
28. What are photons?
tiny packets of energy
29. Does light consist of waves, or does it consist of particles?
it has properties of both (!?!)
30. In general, the __longer__ the wavelength of light, the ___lower____ the energy of its photons.
11.3
31. In the flame test experiment, what are the atoms doing when we see the different colors?
releasing energy by emitting visible light of specific wavelengths
32. When atoms absorb energy, we say they are __excited___. The atom then releases some of the
energy in the form of __light___.
33. The energy of the photon is exactly equal to what?
the energy change experienced by the emitting atom
11.4
34. What is an atom’s ground state?
the lowest possible energy state of the atom
35. Different wavelengths of light carry different:
amounts of energy per photon
36. How do we know that only certain energy changes are occurring in a hydrogen atom in the excited
state?
we see only certain colors in the bright line spectrum
37. What do we mean in saying that an atom’s energy levels are quantized?
only certain values of energy are allowed
11.5
38. Of what shape were the electron orbits in Bohr’s model of the atom?
circular orbits
39. How could an electron jump to a different orbit?
by absorbing or emitting a photon
40. Bohr’s model is incorrect about how electrons move in an atom. How DO electrons move in an atom?
we don’t know
11.6
41. Schrodinger and de Broglie thought an electron might be described as a __wave__.
42. Schrodinger’s model was called the:
wave mechanical model
43. If you see the firefly flash far from the center of the room, where will it flash next?
we don’t know; it will probably flash closer to the center, but we can’t be sure
44. What do the mathematics of the wave mechanical model allow us to predict?
the probabilities of finding the electrons at given points in space around the nucleus
45. What two things does the model give us no information about?
when an electron occupies a certain point in space; how an electron moves
11.7
46. What is an orbital?
the probability map for an electron in an atom
47. The edge of an orbital is “___fuzzy____.”
48. What do higher energy states correspond to, in the wave mechanical model?
different kinds of orbitals with different shapes
49. When we are labeling orbitals, the number tells the ____principal_____ __energy__ __level__
and the letter tells the __shape___ of the sublevel.
50. As the principal energy level number increases, the electrons get __farther__ _from_ the nucleus.
11.9
51. How are orbitals represented in an orbital diagram?
by boxes
52. In an orbital diagram, what does the arrow represent?
an electron spinning in a particular direction
53. What are valence electrons?
electrons in the outermost (highest) principal energy level of an atom
54. Why are valence electrons important to chemists?
because they are involved when atoms form bonds
55. Core electrons are not involved in:
bonding