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Lab Experiment No. 4
Kirchhoff’s Laws
I.
Introduction
In this lab exercise, you will learn –
• how to read schematic diagrams of electronic networks,
• how to draw and use network graphs,
• how to transform schematics into actual component connections,
• correct ways to layout a breadboard connection of a network,
• how to connect the DMM to network components, and
• the verification of KCL and KVL.
II. Experiment Procedure
Four resistive networks N1 through N4 are shown on the following pages. Each network is accompanied with its
oriented graph, a simplified connection diagram, and a photo of its suggested breadboard layout. Your job in this
lab experiment is to fill out the three tables included with each network with the following data: (where ‘x’ denotes
the network number; eg, x = 1 for network 1, x = 2 for network 2, etc.)
(a) Table x.1 (variable map) – measure and record
i. the value of each network element,
ii. the voltage across each network element with node polarities, and
iii. the current through each voltage source with node polarities.
(b) Table x.1 (variable map) – calculate and record
i. the current through each resistor using Ohm’s law, and
ii. the power dissipated by each element.
(c) Table x.2 (KCL) – calculate and record
i. the total current into each node,
ii. the total current out of each node, and
iii. verification of KCL at each node.
(d) Table x.3 (KVL) – calculate and record
i. the total clockwise voltage drop around each circuit,
ii. the total counter clockwise voltage drop around each circuit, and
iii. verification of KVL for each circuit.
III. Lab Report
The report for this lab experiment must be word-processed and contain the following items –
• Title Page.
• Introduction.
• Procedure.
• Results.
• Discussions.
(a) Comment with respect to accuracy versus convenience on the application of Ohm’s law to determine
element current.
• Conclusion. Provide detailed comments and discussions on the items listed below for each resistor network.
(a) Does the total power dissipated equal the total power supplied? Explain why or why not.
(b) Are the network laws KCL and KVL verified? Explain any discrepancies.
• Appendix.
• References.
IV.
Resistor Networks
Network N1
v1
1
Agilent E3620A
V1
V1
R1
10V
1K
eV1
eR1
G1
N1
(a)
2
V2
R1
v2
1K
1
(b)
Figure 1.1
(a) Network N1
(b) Graph G1 of N1
(c) Component connections
Figure 1.2
Breadboard layout of N1
2
(c)
Table 1.1
Voltage, current, and power map for N1
Element voltage
Nodes
Element
Specified
value
R1
1KΩ
V1
10V
Measured
value
+
−
1
2
Element current
Nodes
Measured
value (V)
+
−
Calculated
value (A)
Table 1.2
Kirchhoff current law
Node
Total current
into (Iin) (A)
Total current
out of (Iout) (A)
KCL
(Iin – Iout) (A)
1
2
Table 1.3
Kirchhoff voltage law
Circuit
V1, R1
Total cw voltage
drop (Vcw) (V)
Total ccw voltage
drop (Vccw) (V)
KVL
(Vcw – Vccw) (V)
Element
power (W)
Network N2
R1
1
2
v1
eR1
Agilent E3620A
v2
V1
1K
V1
R2
9V
2K
eV1
eR2
1
R3
N2
4
3K
(a)
V2
3
v4
eR3
4
v3
G2
R1
(b)
R3
2
3
R2
(c)
Figure 2.1
(a) Network N2
(b) Graph G2 of N2
(c) Component connections
Figure 2.2
Breadboard layout of N2
Table 2.1
Voltage, current, and power map for N2
Element voltage
Nodes
Element
Specified
value
R1
1KΩ
R2
2KΩ
R3
3KΩ
V1
9V
Measured
value
+
−
1
4
Element current
Nodes
Measured
value (V)
+
−
Calculated
value (A)
Table 2.2
Kirchhoff current law
Node
Total current
into (Iin) (A)
Total current
out of (Iout) (A)
KCL
(Iin – Iout) (A)
1
2
3
4
Table 2.3
Kirchhoff voltage law
Circuit
V1, R1,
R2, R3
Total cw voltage
drop (Vcw) (V)
Total ccw voltage
drop (Vccw) (V)
KVL
(Vcw – Vccw) (V)
Element
power (W)
Network N3
1
R1
R2
2
3
v1
3.9K
V1
R5
15V
R3
12K
eV1
9.1K
R4
R6
6 4.7K
eR1
v2
eR2
v3
1.2K
5
eR5
v6
2.2K
eR6 v
5
G3
4
N3
(a)
(b)
Agilent E3620A
V1
V2
1
6
R1
R6
R5
2
R2
3
5
R4
R3
4
(c)
Figure 3.1
(a) Network N3
(b) Graph G3 of N3
(c) Component connections
Figure 3.2
Breadboard layout of N3
eR3
eR4
v4
Table 3.1
Voltage, current, and power map for N3
Element voltage
Nodes
Element
Specified
value
R1
3.9KΩ
R2
1.2KΩ
R3
9.1KΩ
R4
2.2KΩ
R5
12KΩ
R6
4.7KΩ
V1
15V
Measured
value
+
−
1
6
Element current
Nodes
Measured
value (V)
+
−
Calculated
value (A)
Table 3.2
Kirchhoff current law
Node
Total current
into (Iin) (A)
Total current
out of (Iout) (A)
KCL
(Iin – Iout) (A)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Table 3.3
Kirchhoff voltage law
Circuit
V1, R1,
R5, R6
R5, R2,
R3, R4
V1, R1,
R2, R3,
R4, R6
Total cw voltage
drop (Vcw) (V)
Total ccw voltage
drop (Vccw) (V)
KVL
(Vcw – Vccw) (V)
Element
power (W)
Network N4
V1
R2
1
R3
2
82K
R1
220K
3.3K
N4
3
V2
10V
R4
R7
150K
12K
v2
eR5
v5
4.7K
G4
(a)
eR7
(b)
Agilent E3620A
V1
V2
3
1
R3
2
R2
R1
6
R4
R7
R5
4
R6
(c)
Figure 4.1
(a) Network N4
(b) Graph G4 of N4
(c) Component connections
5
v3
eR4
eR6
v6
4
eR3
eV2
eR1
R5
5
eR2
v1
47K
R6
6
eV1
5V
v4
Figure 4.2
Breadboard layout of N4
Table 4.1
Voltage, current, and power map for N4
Element voltage
Nodes
Element
Specified
value
R1
220KΩ
R2
82KΩ
R3
47KΩ
R4
150KΩ
R5
12KΩ
R6
3.3KΩ
R7
4.7KΩ
V1
V2
Measured
value
+
−
5V
1
3
10V
2
5
Element current
Nodes
Measured
value (V)
+
−
Calculated
value (A)
Element
power (W)
Table 4.2
Kirchhoff current law
Node
Total current
into (Iin) (A)
Total current
out of (Iout) (A)
KCL
(Iin – Iout) (A)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Table 4.3
Kirchhoff voltage law
Circuit
R1, R2,
V2, R6
V2, R3,
R4, R5
R2, V1, R3
R6, R5, R7
Total cw voltage
drop (Vcw) (V)
Total ccw voltage
drop (Vccw) (V)
KVL
(Vcw – Vccw) (V)
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