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Mr. Hunt
Social Studies 8
 Located in northern
Canada and Alaska in the
highest latitudes (Arctic
Circle = 66 Degrees
 Characterized by very
long cold seasons—light
and dark for months at a
time due to the earth’s tilt
 Very limited vegetation due
to permafrost.
 Permafrost is permanently
frozen soil that prevents
growth of many plants.
 Some grassy plants and
 Population is very scarce.
An average of less than one
person per square mile in a
lot of places.
Canadian Shield
 The Canadian Shield is
located over a large
section of Eastern
Canada around the
Hudson Bay.
 Climate consists of a long
cold season and a very
short warm season.
 Growing season for any
kind of farming is only
about 3 months long.
Canadian Shield
 Vegetation sits on a thin
layer of topsoil on top of
 Coniferous forests
(evergreen trees/pines)
cover much of the
 Population is scarce, but
some sizeable cities &
towns where people mine
copper, nickel, gold, and
Canadian Shield
Appalachian Highlands
 Located in the Eastern
United States and a small
portion of southern
Canada—in the U.S. from
Maine to northern
 Climate is a wide range—
from cold winters and mild
summers in the North to
short cool summers and
hot summers in the South.
Appalachian Highlands
 Vegetation is a mix of
deciduous trees (trees
that loose their leaves in
the fall) and coniferous
trees (evergreens).
 Not many large cities,
principal industry
includes coal, oil, and
natural gas production.
Appalachian Highlands
Coastal Plain
 The Atlantic Coastal Plain
runs along the Atlantic Coast
of the United States from
around New York City to the
North all the way around the
Appalachian Highlands along
the Gulf of Mexico to eastern
 Climate varies, but generally
more mild than highland
region—influenced by
closeness to Atlantic Ocean.
Coastal Plain
 Wide variety of vegetation,
spans temperate and
subtropical regions. Very
fertile soil due to many river
valleys, swamps, and
 Highly populated areas—
many of largest cities in the
US located here. Centers
for trade, manufacturing,
and business.
Coastal Plain
Great Plains
 Also known as “Interior
Plains”—located along central
United States and Canada from
the Mississippi River/Great
Lakes westward to the western
mountain region.
 Climate of very cold winters
and hot summers. Often, wind
speeds are high. Vast expanses
of open land sometimes subject
to dust storms and often see
tornadoes and other severe
Great Plains
 Large areas of grassland
and savannah vegetation
spread across the Great
 Most people living in this
region farm—main crops
include corn and wheat
as well as livestock (cattle
and pigs).
Great Plains
Rocky Mountains
 Located from Alaska through
western Canada and United
States through Mexico and
into Central America.
 Climate varies with the region
because it is so large. In lower
elevation, a more temperate
climate with seasons (spring,
summer, fall, winter). The
higher the elevation, the
longer and more harsh the
Rocky Mountains
 Like climate, vegetation depends
on the altitude and the location.
The further north and the higher
up, the less vegetation can thrive.
The lower the elevation and the
further south, conifers and
deciduous trees can survive.
 Industry in the region includes
production and mining for
natural gas, coal, oil, and shale.
Gold, silver, copper, tungsten,
and zinc deposits are also found
Rocky Mountains
Great Basin
 Located in a section of the
American west including
Idaho, Utah, Nevada, and
sections of Arizona and
New Mexico.
 Climate is mainly warm and
dry. Also known as the
“Intermontaine Plateau.”
Occasionally, snowstorms
occur in the winter,
especially in higher
Great Basin
 Vegetation depends on elevation.
Scruffy desert plants in lower
areas with less annual rainfall. In
some higher elevations with
more precipitation, pines grow.
 Natives have lived here for over
10,000 years—in time, the region
became an important connection
from people traveling East to
West. Hydroelectricity and
tourism have grown to become
modern industries in the area.
Great Basin
Pacific Coastal Regions
 Located along the West Coast
of Canada and the United
States from Alaska into Mexico.
 Climate depends on how far
north or south you are. Longer
cold seasons to the north, more
moderated temperatures yearround to the south. This is
influenced by the currents off
the Pacific Ocean. (Pacific
Northwest and Mediterranean
climate regions)
Pacific Coastal Regions
 In many areas north, vegetation
is called a “temperate rain forest,”
lots of rainfall allows for many
evergreen and deciduous trees.
To California, vegetation includes
large redwood forests and more
subtropical plants, grasses,
shrubs, and trees.
 Population increases as you go
South. Agriculture, Lumber,
Entertainment, and Technology
are major industries of the
Pacific Coastal Range