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Treatment of Infectious
Diseases
Treatment of Bacterial Diseases
› Drugs used to treat
bacterial diseases
are grouped into
categories based on
their modes of
action
Treatment of Bacterial Diseases
› Penicillins and
cephalosporins
› Interfere with certain
layers of the bacteria’s
cell wall
› Do not affect the host
cells
Treatment of Bacterial Diseases
› Chloramphenicol,
Tetracyclines, and
Erythromycins
› Bind to bacteria cell
ribosomes and inhibits
protein synthesis
› May be toxic to human
tissue when used in high
doses or for prolonged
periods of time
Treatment of Bacterial Diseases
› Rifampin
› Used to treat tuberculosis
› Inhibits RNA synthesis
Treatment of Viral Diseases
› Drugs that effectively inhibit
viral infections are highly toxic
to host cells because viruses
use the host’s metabolic
enzymes in reproduction
Treatment of Viral Diseases
› Antiviral drugs target
virus-specific
enzymes
› Acyclovir
Used in treatment of
genital herpes
Treatment of Viral Diseases
› Amantadine
› Used to prevent or
moderate influenza (flu)
for those at high risk of
severe illness
› AZT
› Inhibits replication of
HIV genome
Treatment of Fungal and
Parasitic Diseases
› Development of drugs used treat
fungi, protozoan, and helminthic
diseases are also highly toxic to
mammals
Treatment of Fungal and
Parasitic Diseases
› Azol Derivitives
› Antifungal
› Inhibit sterol synthesis
› Sterols are organic
compounds that make up
cell walls
Treatment of Fungal and
Parasitic Diseases
› Amphotericin B
› Antifungal also
› Disrupts cell membrane
RESISTANCE TO ANTIMICROBIAL
AGENTS
Antimicrobial
resistance
presents
ongoing
problems in the
fight against
infectious
diseases
Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents
› Penicillin resistance
noted as early as
1943 by Alexander
Fleming (the discover
of penicillin)
› He warned that
indiscriminate use of
penicillin would lead
to resistant
pathogenic bacteria
Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents
Mycobacterium
Tuberculosis (TB)
Some strains are
resistant to all of the
currently available
drugs used for
treatment
Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents
› Is a result of changes in genetic information
› Resistance mechanism include:
› 1. Causes structural changes that inhibit the drug’s
ability to bind to it
› 2. Reduces permeability of the cell membrane to the
drug
› 3. Actively pumps the drug out of the cell after it has
entered it