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1
Contents
Ⅰ
Regional Development Policy until 2000s
Ⅱ
Regional Development Policy in early 2000s
Ⅲ
Regional Development Policy in Madame
Lady Park Government (2016)
Ⅰ
Regional Development Policy until 2000s
Korea’s Territory as Regional Development Span
8 Metropolitan cities
(Shi)
9 Provinces (Do)
73 Cities (Shi)
85 Counties (Gun)
69 Districts (Gu)
Regional governments
administer metropolitan
cities and provinces, and
local governments
administer cities,
counties and districts
4
Gyeonggi - Do
Gangwon
- Do
Seoul
Incheon
Chungcheongbuk
(Chungbuk
Chungcheongnam
(Chungnam
- Do
)
- Do
)
Daejeon
Jeollabuk - Do
(Jeonbuk )
Gwangju
Gyeongsangbuk
(Gyeongbuk
- Do
)
Daegu
Ulsan
Gyeongsangnam
(Gyeongnam
- Do
)
Busan
Jeollanam - Do
(Jeonnam )
N
N
Jeju- do
0 10
30
50
100( km)
Spatial
Distribution of
Major
Infrastructure
Development
5
Industrial Complexes
22
Regional Development Policy until 2000s
22.3
25
%
17.6
20
15
9.8
10
5
0
1960
7
1970
1980
Regional Development Policy until 2000s
8
Development
Reservation zone
Relocation
promotion zone
Development
restriction zone
Development
inducement zone
9
Natural
conservation zone
Regional Development Policy until 2000s
10
Growth
management zone
Over-concentration
restriction zone
Natural
conservation zone
Growth
management zone
11
Regional Development Policy until 2000s
1960-1970s
12
Growth pole development and
industrialization
1980s
Control of the capital region and
decentralization
1990s
Promotion of provincial regions and
localization
Ⅱ
13
Regional Development Policy in early 2000s
Participatory Government Policy(2003-2007)
Area
11.8%
Population
48.3%
GRDP
48.8%
R&D expenditures
Bank deposit
Public agencies
100 large corporations
14
64.1%
70.0%
85.0%
91.0%
Goal
Balanced national development
Planning
• Five year planning of balanced national development
• Local innovational development
Main
Method
Infrastructure
Move of public
Promotion of
Distinguished Enhancement of
Organization and underdevelopment
local development Local university
Company to local
areas
• Establishment of Specific
Audit for Balanced national
development
• Balanced Nat’l Development
Committee
• Local Innovation Committee
Balanced national development law
Revitalization Area Program



The program targeted 70 counties
and cities, the lower 30% classes
of the 226 municipal level areas in
Korea
Policy measures : establishing
regional innovation system based
on education and expert
consulting and specialized
resource development combined
with tourism
Government supported financial
assistance depending on the
degree of deprivation
37
Lee Myung-bak Government (2008-2012)
17
Lee Myung-bak Government (2008-2012)
3 dimensional approach
Scope
Direction
Financing
Local Area
Region
163
cities and
counties
Basic needs and
QOL enhancement
Local
development account
(special account)
Mega
Economic
Region
5+2
economic
regions
Regional
competitiveness,
inter-provincial
cooperation
Regional
development account
(special account)
SupraEconomic
Region
4+α
develop.
axes
Globally open and
competitive
territorial belts
General account
and
private investment
18
Lee Myung-bak Government (2008-2012)
Leading Industries of Mega Regions
Capital Region
Knowledge &
Information
Gangwon Region
Medical Products
Medical tour
Chungchung Region
Bio Medical
New IT
Daekyung Region
IT
Green Energy
Honam Region
Renewable Energy
Components& Material
Dongnam Region
Machinery
Components& material
Jeju Region
Tourism, Water industry
19
3 dimensional approach
20
Objectives and Framework
 Mega economic regions are
proposed for global
competitiveness by
overcoming the limitation
of administrative
boundaries
Capital Region
Gangwon
Region
Chungchung
Region
Daekyung
Region
Dongnam
Region
Honam Region
 7 metropolitan cities and 9
provinces are regrouped
Jeju Region
into 5+2 mega economic
regions
Source: Presidential Committee on Regional Development
21
Everyday Living Sphere
 163 low-level
municipalities
 Satisfying basic living
standards to local
residents
 Enhancing quality of
life in such areas as
health, education,
culture, housing,
information, water
and transportation
22
Ⅲ
23
Regional Development Policy in Park
Geun-hye Administration (2013~2018)
Efficiency
Green Growth
Sustainability
Competitiveness
Balanced Regional
Development
Equity
Wide Region
Development
Globalization
Growth Pole
Economic
efficiency
Agglomeration
Economy
24
Urbanization
Agglomeration
Economy expansion
Economy
of Scale
Participatory Government
Lee Myung-bak Government
Balanced regional development by
allocation of functions : equity
5+2 Economic Regions :
competitiveness
• Construction of Multifunction
Administrative city and Leading
city for balanced regional develop.
• 4+9 regional strategy industries
• Raising leading industries in
Economic Regions
• 3-dimentional regional development
• 30 leading projects
Over 20,000 $ per capita income, Retarded Quality of Life
⇒ Increasing necessity of happiness of residents
25
Vision
“Happiness to the People,
Hope for the Regions”

Goal
(HOPE)



26
Happiness : Feeling happiness and hope
Opportunity: Securing opportunities for
happy living
Partnership: Voluntary participation and
cooperation
Everywhere: Reducing blind areas of policy
Strateg
ies
Main
Method
Infrastr
ucture
27
Happy Living
Zone
Targeted &
Packaged
Support
Inter-regional
Cooperation
① Stabilization of Happy
Living Zone
② Job Creation, Growing
Regional Economy
③ Improvement of
Educational Environment,
Cultivation of Education
④ Cultivation of Regional
Culture, Eco-system
Restoration
⑤ Spotless Regional
Welfare and Medication
without Blind Spot
⑥ Implementation of
Balanced Regional
Development
① Enhancement of PCRD ② Reshaping of Special Account
③ Revision Balanced Regional Development Law
Tasks: 17 Main Projects in the 6 Spheres
Stabilization of Happy
Living Zone
1
2
3
Revitalization region
Exp. Of Living Infra.
Residents-based cooperative
system
Job Creation,
Enhancement of Regional
Economy
4
5
6
7
Job-focused Regional industry
Job-Creation by Investment
Growing industrial Complexes
Job Creation in Rural
Improvement of
Educational Environments
8
9
10
28
Improvement Of Edu.
Environment in Local
Raising Univ. in Local
Improv. Regl corporate
11
HOPE
Project
12
13
Cultivation of Regional
Culture, Eco-system
Restoration
Differentiation of Regional
Culture
Reducing Cultural Gap
Preservation of Natural
Environments
Regional Welfare and
Medication without Blind
Spot
14 Support Targeted Regional
Welfare
15 Fix of Public Medication
System in vulnerable area
Implementation of Balanced
Regional Development
16
17
Supporting Admin. and
Leading Cities
Implementation of regional
Infrastructure
Comparison of Economic Region and Happy Living Zone
Economic Region
Goal
Happy Living Zone
Regional Competitiveness
Happiness of Residents
Zone
Artificial Zone by Central Gov.
Autonomous cooperation
Zone Unit
2~3 upper-level Local Governments
2- 4 lower-level governments
Organization
Economic Region Development
Committee
Upper-level Local Govt. lowerlevel Local Govt.
Main
Leading industry in E R
Gentrification, Local Community
Project
Raising flagship University
Creation of Local job
30 Leading Projects
Improvement of education,
이전정부와 비교 그림
culture, environment, welfare
29
Elem. & Mid.
School
for children
Residential Area
Hospital &
Museum
Residents
Commuting
30
Camping &
Leisure
Villages
Towns
General Services
31
Cities
Higher Services
Led by large
city
Type 1
• HLZ located near Metropolitan cities
• Smaller cities can have benefit from
metropolitan cities.
(including
large
cities)
Networked cities
with small cities
32
• HLZ in the place where small and
medium cities are linked
• Sharing living facilities each others
Type 2
(Urban-rural
rural and fishery small cities (most typical)
• Core city can be the hub of higher services
cooperation)
including education, economic activities, etc
Type 3
• HLZ cooperative in rural regions without core
(Rural and
• Small cities in rural areas share their specific
fishery region)
33
• HLZ cooperative in Core city and periperial
services for lining
A govt.
34
C Govt.
B Govt.
Cooperative
- Cooperative project A and B and C
- Cooperative between A & C, B & C, A & B
Noncooperative
- Implement
A alone
- Implement
B alone
- Implement
C alone
35
36
Account
Actor
Account for
Account for local
Regional
development
development
(living conditions)
(economic
-
provincial and local
Provincial govt.
governments
Government
37
Sejong
development)
Provincial govt.
Central
Account for Jeju,
local govt.
-
-
Ministries
⑥Ministries
Appendix: History of Acts, Measures
Policy
1962
• Urban Planning Act(1962)
• 1st 5-Year Economic Development Plan(1962~1966)
1963
• Act on Comprehensive Nat'l Territorial Dev. Plan
1964
• Measures For Over-concentration Of Population to Large Cities
1965
• Act on Export Complex Construction
1970
39
foreign aids
• Preparation of legislation basis of nat'l territorial
plan
• Ban on plant construction in large cities
• Samaeul Undong
• 3rd 5-Year Economic Development Plan(1972~1976)
• Act on Utilization And Management of Nat'l Territory
• Revision of urban Planning Act
1975
• Construction of the basis of economy without
• Guide to curb centralization of population in Capital Region
• 1st Comprehensive Nat'l Territorial Dev. Plan(1972~1981)
1972
Contents
• Population Dispersion Plan of Seoul
• Implementation of nat'l territorial plan on
whole nat'l dimension
• Enforcement of Greenbelt
Policy
1977
• 4th 5-Year Economic Development Plan(1977~1981)
• Target population 700million in 1980
• Redistribution Plan of Capital Region Population
• Distribution of population to 5-largest
• Act on Industry Distribution
• 2nd Comprehensive Nat'l Territorial Dev. Plan(1982~1991)
1982
• 5th 5-Year Economic Development Plan(1982~1986)
• Capital Region Management Act
1983
• Act on Rural Income Development Promotion
1984
• Master Plan of Capital Region Management Plan
1987
1989
40
Contents
• 6th 5-Year Economic Development Plan
• Revised Plan of 2nd Comprehensive Nat'l territorial Dev. Plan
• Measures to prohibit investment in land
• Acts Related To The Public Concept Of Land Ownership
cities
• 15 growth pole cities, 28 integrated
regional settlement areas
• Construction rural-factory district
• Development of regional economic
Spheres
• Revision of capital gain from land
development
Policy
1992
Contents
• 3rd Comprehensive Nat'l Territorial Development Plan
• 7th 5-Year Economic Development Plan
1993
• Reshaping of Nat'l Territorial Utilization Plan
1994
• Revision of Capital Region Management Act
1999
• 4th Comprehensive Nat'l Territorial Development Plan
• Abolition of Comprehensive Nat'l Territorial
2002
• Act on Comprehensive National Territory Plan
• Nat'l Land Planning and Utilization Act
Development Act
• Abolition of Act On Utilization And
Management Of Nat'l Territory
41
2004
• Special Act on Balanced Nat'l Development
2009
• Revision of Special Act on Balanced Nat'l Development
Policy
2010
• Creation Project in Local areas
2012
• Inter-regional cooperative development Projects
• Introduction of Regional Development of Park Geun-hye
2013
Government: HOPE
• Revision of Balanced National Development Law
Contents
• Promotion of Creativity of Local Governments
focused on development of local assets
• Provision of grant to the related regions
• Goal : Enhancing Happiness of Residents
- Focused on Happy Living Zone
• Reshaping Presidential Committee on
Regional Development
2014
42
• Revision of Special Account for Regional Development
• Formulation of Happy Living Zone
Period
Keynote
1st Capital Region
2nd Capital Region
3rd Capital Region
Management Act
Management Act
Management Act
1982~1996(15-years)
1997~2011(15-years)
2006~2020(15-years)
Inducing settlement in nonCapital region
-Locational restraint of population
Strategy
inducing facilities to Seoul
-Multi-nuclei capital region
(5-zones)
-relocation promotion zone
Readjustment
zone
-Restraint of readjustment zone
-Inducing development
zone
-Conservation zone of nature
-Reservation of development zone
Characteristics
Locational regulation of physical
facilities
Restraint of overconcentration to capital
region
-Planned development in
capital region
-Conservation of decent
environment
(3-zones)
-Over-concentration
restriction-zone
-Growth management zone
-Conservation zone of
nature
Harmonize with non-capital
region
-Strengthen the
competitiveness in capital
region
(3-zones)
-Over-concentration
restriction-zone
-Growth management zone
-Conservation zone of nature
Economical & total factory
Economical & total factory area
area regulation
regulation
- Over-concentration fee
- Over-concentration fee
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