Download Mussolini - Mr. Weldon

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Austrofascism wikipedia , lookup

Robert Soucy wikipedia , lookup

Axis powers wikipedia , lookup

Kingdom of Italy wikipedia , lookup

Gabriele D'Annunzio wikipedia , lookup

Benito Mussolini wikipedia , lookup

Florestano Di Fausto wikipedia , lookup

Anti-fascism wikipedia , lookup

Economics of fascism wikipedia , lookup

Italian Empire wikipedia , lookup

Italian Fascism wikipedia , lookup

National Fascist Party wikipedia , lookup

Italian Social Republic wikipedia , lookup

Fascism in Europe wikipedia , lookup

Economy of Italy under fascism wikipedia , lookup

Italy under Mussolini, 1922-45:
• Italy was very poor in 1900. Rich north, poor south.
• 50% illiteracy, mass emigration to US
• It. fought for Allies during WW1 (1914-18). Heavy losses but on
winning side.
Conditions in Italy after World War 1:
1. Dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles. Italians expected more
land that they were given. Eg.-Fiume, Croatia occupied by war hero
and poet, Gabriele D’Annunzio, set up Fascist style govt.
2. High unemployment and inflation after WW1
3. Workers and farmers strikes inspired by Bolsheviks and econ. Prob
4. Political instability-1919-22, many weak coalition govts
5. Italians saw democracy as weak and wanted a strong leader. Many
greatly feared a Bolshevik revolution in Italy
6. This fear of communism led to fascism.
Features of Fascism:
1. Anti-Communist: Fascists promised to protect property owners,
businessmen from Communists. Appealed to people in countries like
Italy and Germany where the Communist party was strong
2. Anti-democratic: Fascists warned that in a democracy, it was possible
for communists to win an election. A strong ruler was needed to
prevent this from happening
3. Nationalist: Fascists claimed they would make their country strong,
powerful. In Ger. + Italy they built strong armies, planned wars
4. Racist: Fascists encouraged people to believe that their race was
superior to others. This led to harsh treatment of minority groups.
5. Authoritarian: Strong govt, order and a powerful leader-a dictator
6. Totalitarian: The state was all powerful. Loyalty to the state was the
responsibility of the citizen. Use of secret police and terror
7. One party state: All other political parties banned
8. Cult of personality: Leader could not be criticized. God like
9. Economic self-sufficiency: Develop own industry and agriculture
The March on Rome:
• Mussolini felt he had enough political support to be appointed PM
• Would advance on Rome. Followers occupied town all over Italy
• King Victor Emmanuel III gave in to Mussolini’s demands. PM at 39
1922-26:Establishing a Fascist Dictatorship:
In the years 1922-26, Mussolini gradually set up a dictatorship
New govt, Fascists in minority, had all parties except Socialists/Comm
The Blackshirts paid by the govt and beat up opponents
Fascist Grand Council=Introduced laws without consulting other party
Acerbo Law: Nov 23=Party with greatest number of votes in general
election would receive 2/3 of seats in parliament
• Mussolini popularity increased when he negotiated return of Fiume
• April 1924 Election: Fascists=65% of vote
• Blackshirts beat up and intimidated many opponents
The Murder of Matteotti:
Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti criticized Fascist violence
Abducted and murdered by Blackshirts. Mussolini’s role unclear
Newspapers attacked Mussolini, non-Fascists left parliament
King would not sack Mussolini, more afraid of Socialists
The establishment of one-party rule:
• Jan 1925=Mussolini set up dictatorship. Press freedom ended,
increased police and Blackshirt violence
• Christmas 1925= Only King could dismiss Mussolini
• Nov. 1926= Failed attempt on Mussolini’s life, all parties except
Fascists banned
• Fascist Grand Council replaced parliament
• Mussolini=Dictator of Italy= the leader= IL Duce
How the fascist dictatorship worked:
1. Propaganda: The Fascists controlled newspapers, radio and films.
• Only comments favourable to Mussolini were allowed
• He used propaganda to tell Italians he was a superman that would
lead them to greatness
2. Fear: Not allowed criticise Mussolini.
• Secret police called OVRA set up to keep an eye on everyone.
• Beat up people who were anti-fascist
3. Youth policy: Mussolini wanted all young people to be fascists.
• Teachers had to take an oath of loyalty to the fascist government.
• Schools taught students to be loyal to Il Duce
• From 8 yrs of age boys had to belong to the Balilla=the fascist youth
movement. Expected to be strong soldiers to fight for Italy
• Girls would be good mothers-provide Italy with big population
The Corporate State:
Corporate State= Promote co-operation between employers and
workers + end class warfare
Alternative to socialism and capitalism- ‘a third way’
Strikes not allowed, Catholic or Socialist trade unions banned
Employers free to pick their own representatives, Fascist party chose
the leaders of the Fascist trade unions
Workers got annual holidays with pay, social security, cheap holidays..
Mussolini and the Economy:
1. ‘Battle for Grain’= Increase in production of Italian wheat but more
expensive for poor
2. Public Works Schemes
• Pontine Marshes-Mosquito infested area outside Rome drained. Twon,
villages and roads built on the reclaimed land
• Building of new motorways=autostrada
• Railways electrified
Mussolini and the Catholic Church:
The Church had lost land at time of Italian unification (1860)
Opposed new state and told Catholics not to vote
Mussolini wanted to create a strong, united Italy-end church quarrel
Church was deeply anti-Communist, Fascism as lesser evil
Mussolini’s opposition to divorce, abortion popular with church
The Lateran Pacts, 1929:
• An agreement made between Pope Pius XI and Mussolini.
1. An independent State ruled by the Pope called the Vatican was set up
2. Compensation was paid to the church for land lost
3. Catholicism became the official religion of Italy.
4. Church run bodies not get involved in politics
5. All bishops Italian +oath of loyalty to state
6. Pope not interfere in Italian international disputes
• Mussolini’s greatest achievement. Made him more popular in Italy
and famous statesman around the world
Tension between Church and State:
Mussolini had row with Pius XI over Church Organisation ‘Catholic
Action’. Accused it of interfering in politics. Compromise reached
Writings of many leading Fascists banned by Pius XI
Church opposed anti-semitic laws introduced by Mussolini in 1938
(Italians and Jews forbidden to marry, not allowed to own some
businesses, could not join army etc..
Not strictly enforced until Germans occupied Italy
Pope Pius XII saved many Jews during WW2 but criticized for not
opposing Mussolini more
Mussolini’s foreign policy:
He wished to make Italy great again like Roman Empire. Occupied
Corfu, Greece, Fiume, Croatia and Albanian puppet govt
In 1920s-30s he supported League of Nations, went against Germany
(Stresa Front, 1935- Italy, France and Britain). Saw Hitler as ‘little bro’,
Wanted an empire for Italy. In 1935 he invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Abyssinia asked the League for help. It imposed sanctions on Italy.
Mussolini was enraged. Hitler backed Italy. Now, Mussolini and Hitler
became allies with disastrous consequences for Mussolini and Italy
Alliance with Hitler:
1936-Ger and Italy both supported Fascist Franco in Spanish Civil War
Dec 1936: Alliance with Hitler called the Rome-Berlin Axis
1938:Mussol. allowed Hitler occupy Austria and Sudentenland, Czech
1939: The Pact of Steel was signed between Mussolini and Hitler:
This was a military agreement whereby they both promised to help
each other in any future war. Mussolini was unaware at this stage
that Hitler intended to invade Poland in the near future.
• These alliances with Hitler were a serious error on Mussolini’s part.
Italy and WW2:
In 1940, Italy joined on Germany’s side. Thought Ger would win war
Italian army disorganised, ill-equipped, poor leadership, soldiers
1940: Italians invaded Greece. Had to be rescued by Germany
Mussolini’s popularity plummeted. Allies invaded Italy.
The king sacked Mussol. He was rescued by Ger and had small North
Italian ‘Salo’ Republic
By 1945 obvious that Germany had lost the war.
Mussolini tried to flee but was captured and killed and his body was
hung upside down in the main piazza of Milan.
Mussolini’s death marked the end of fascism in Italy