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LIBYA
T
WORLD RANK:
REGIONAL RANK:
N/A N/A
ECONOMIC FREEDOM STATUS:
NOT GRADED
he level of economic freedom in Libya remains unrated
because of a lack of reliable comparable data. Official
government compilations of economic data are inadequate, and
data reported by many of the international sources relied upon
for Index grading remain incomplete.
Economic recovery since the overthrow of Muammar Qadhafi’s
regime has been fragile. Political instability, factional clashes,
and security threats from domestic and foreign followers of the
Islamic State are significant constraints on economic growth and
meaningful development. The government faces major challenges in disarming and demobilizing militias, enforcing the rule
of law, and reforming the state-dominated economy.
ECONOMIC FREEDOM SCORE
N/A

( NOT GRADED THIS YEAR )
0
50
60
70
60.9
100
61.9
WORLD AVERAGE
NOTABLE SUCCESSES:
n/a
80
REGIONAL AVERAGE
(MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICA REGION)
CONCERNS:
n/a
OVERALL SCORE CHANGE
SINCE 2013:
N/A
QUICK FACTS
FREEDOM TREND
60
POPULATION:
6.3 million
50
GDP (PPP):
$92.6 billion
–6.4% growth in 2015
5-year compound
annual growth –0.3%
$14,650 per capita
40
30
UNEMPLOYMENT:
20.6%
INFLATION (CPI):
8.0%
FDI INFLOW:
$725.7 million
PUBLIC DEBT:
65.4% of GDP
20
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
2015 data unless otherwise noted. Data compiled as of September 2016
BACKGROUND: Dictator Muammar Qadhafi was overthrown in 2011, and political upheaval continues to
this day. In June 2014, Libya held its second parliamentary election since the fall of Qadhafi; in November,
the Supreme Constitutional Court ruled that the elected parliament was constitutionally illegitimate. Pro-Islamist militias allied with the Muslim Brotherhood have established parallel institutions. In March 2016, the
U.N. brokered the establishment of a national unity government in Tripoli to replace the two rival administrations. Oil and natural gas provide about 80 percent of GDP, 95 percent of export revenues, and 99
percent of government revenues. Extremists have attacked oilfields and seized oil infrastructure, threatening government control of oil and gas revenues.
322
2017 Index of Economic Freedom
KEY:
WORLD AVERAGE
12 ECONOMIC FREEDOMS | LIBYA
RULE OF LAW
182nd
GOVERNMENT SIZE
152nd
163rd
12th
100
100
80
80
70
70
60
60
50
50
6.8
0
Property
Rights
22.6
26.7
Judicial
Effectiveness
Government
Integrity
Rank
128th
0
80
80
70
70
60
60
50
50
Business
Freedom
Labor
Freedom
Monetary
Freedom
The existing regulatory framework is severely
undermined by ongoing political instability and turmoil.
The labor market remains destabilized, and the large
informal sector is an important source of employment.
Fearful of exacerbating social unrest, the central bank
uses its large stock of foreign reserves to operate as a
de facto ministry of finance, funding subsidies in the
absence of a unified government.
Government
Spending
Fiscal
Health
0
81st
—
—
80.0
N/A
N/A
Trade
Freedom
Investment
Freedom
Financial
Freedom
Rank
LIBYA
100
69.2
Tax
Burden
OPEN MARKETS
100
52.5
0.0
The top income tax rate is 10 percent, but other
taxes make the top rate much higher in practice. The
top effective corporate tax rate is 20 percent. Taxation
has not been enforced effectively since early 2011.
Government spending has amounted to 74.7 percent
of total output (GDP) over the past three years, and
budget deficits have averaged 32.9 percent of GDP.
Public debt is equivalent to 65.4 percent of GDP.
158th
65.0
95.0

REGULATORY EFFICIENCY
0
168th
11.4
Libyans have the right to own property and can
start businesses, but regulations and protections
are not upheld in practice. The World Bank’s 2015
Doing Business report ranked Libya 188th out of 189
economies surveyed. Businesses and homes have
been confiscated by militants, particularly in Libya’s
eastern regions and in Benghazi. Without a permanent
constitution, the role of the judiciary remains unclear.
Corruption is pervasive.
93rd
177th
Trade is extremely important to Libya’s economy;
the value of exports and imports taken together equals
137 percent of GDP. Political instability is a major
impediment to foreign trade and investment. The
financial infrastructure has been significantly degraded
by unstable political and economic conditions. Limited
access to financing severely impedes any meaningful
private business development.
The Heritage Foundation | heritage.org/Index
323