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Transcript
2.3 Carbon
Compounds-Carbon
and Carbos
Organic Chemistry
• Study of carbon and
the bonds that form
between them
Carbon
6p
6n
6 e-
Carbon can bond to 4 e-
• Total of 6 electrons
• 4e- in outer shell
Can bond to 4 H
Hydrocarbons
• Contain hydrogen and
carbon
METHANE
• One carbon
Carbon Skeleton
• Carbon Chain
• Here with 6 carbons (hexane)
Unbranched
Can be branched
• Like here with isooctane
• (8 carbons)
Rings
• Cyclohexane
Note
the
ring
Aspirin
Note
the
ring
Aspirin
Isomers
isos = "equal", méros = "part".
• Compounds with the same
chemical composition but
different orientation
Isomer Examples
Contrast Caraway and Spearmint
Isomers
• Caraway and Spearmint
• Single bond (ethane)
• Double bond (ethene)
• Triple bond (ethyne)
Single, Double, Triple Bonds
4 most common elements of life
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
C
H
O
N
4 Types of Macromolecules
• Proteins
• Nucleic Acids
• Carbohydrates
• Lipids
Macromolecule
or Polymer
•
a large molecule consisting of
many identical or similar
subunits strung together
Polymer
• A large molecule (macromolecule)
consisting of many smaller
molecules (monomers) into chains
Monomers
• the subunits that serve as the
building blocks
Polymerization
•Joining monomers
to make a polymer
• LINK Animation of a Condensation
Polymerization
Dehydration Synthesis
A.K.A. polymerization
Dehydration Synthesis
• Start with small molecules
(monomers), by removing water
end with large molecules
(polymers)
Dehydration Synthesis
•
Monomers (small molecules)
are linked together by a process
that takes out a molecule of
water to form a polymer
(macromolecule).
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
•
Polymers are disassembled to
monomers by hydrolysis in
which bonds are broken by the
addition of water
Hydrolysis
• Start with large molecules (polymer)
add water and end with small molecules
(monomer)
Carbohydrates are Made Of:
•
C:H:O
1 : 2 :1
C6H12O6
glucose
Carbohydrates
• “Sugars”
• Names for Carbohydrates
end in –ose
• Monomers: monosaccharides
Carbohydrates
• Glucose (C6H1206) is the
most common
monosaccharide
• basic formula CH2O
KNOW: Glucose =
•C6H12O6
Monomer of Carbohydrates:
Monosaccharides
• Simple sugar
• -main use in body: fuel
• EX: glucose - common
galactose –milk sugar
fructose – fruit sugar
Carbohydrates
• Monosaccharides-single
sugars –the monomer of carbos
• Disaccharides-double sugars
• Polysaccharides-many sugars
Monosaccharide
• CHO in ratio of 1:2:1
Disaccharides
“double sugars”
double sugars with the formula C12H22O11
Disaccharides
Polysaccharide
Chains of monosaccharides
EX: starch is made of many glucose
molecules
Disaccharide Examples
• sucrose = glucose + fructose
` common table sugar
• maltose = glucose + glucose
– Beer sugar
• lactose = glucose + galactose.
– Milk sugar
Polysaccharide: many sugars
Polysaccharides
•
are
macromolecules
with a few to 1000
monosaccharides
linked together
Polysaccharides
• Storage Polysaccharides: starch
(from plants) and glycogen (from
animals)
• Structural Polysaccharides: chitin
(in fungi cell walls and in
exoskeleton of arthropods) and
cellulose (in plant cell walls)
STARCH
• Made of glucose molecules
• Stores sugar
Starch
•Foods
found in:
Potatoes,
wheat,
corn, rice
•Found in plant roots
Glycogen
• ANIMAL
STORAGE
Made of excess sugar
• Found in animal livers and muscle
cells
• Foods: meats
Glucose
Glycogen
Glycogen
• Is the storage form of
glucose in animals.
• Composed of
thousands of glucose
molecules.
Cellulose: plant cell walls stiff
Us: good fiber
Glucose polymer
Chitin
• Onion Cell Walls are of cellulose
• exoskeleton of insects, crabs
Which is a monosaccharide?
A disaccharide? A polysaccharide?
•
•
•
•
•
•
cellulose
chitin
glucose
glycogen
sucrose
starch
Which is a monosaccharide?
A disaccharide? A polysaccharide?
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cellulose
Chitin
Glucose
Glycogen
Sucrose
Starch
P
P
M
M
D
P