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Physical Development Physical Limitations and Challenges Stress and Coping: Dealing With Life’s Challenges Physical Development Physical Development and the Senses • Physical development and maturation complete • Peak of physical capabilities • Brain wave patterns show more mature patterns • Senses peak • Most professional athletes at peak during early adulthood Motor Functioning, Fitness, and Health: Staying Well Psychomotor abilities peak during early adulthood Reaction time quicker Muscle strength greater Physical Fitness • Superior physical capabilities require exercise and diet • No more than 10 percent Americans exercise enough to keep themselves in good physical shape • Less than 20 percent participate in moderate exercise on regular basis People in their early 20s tend to be healthy, vigorous, and energetic, but they often experience quite a lot of stress. Benefits of Exercise Benefits • Exercise helps. Benefits • More elasticity in muscles, • Cardiovascular fitness increase tendons, and ligaments • Lung capacity increases, raising • Reduction in osteoporosis endurance • Stronger muscles and greater flexibility • Greater range of movement • Optimization of immune response • Decreased stress level • Increased sense of control over their bodies and feeling of accomplishment The Result of Fitness: Longevity The murder rate (per 100,000 men) is far higher in the United States than in any Greater fitness level = lower the death rate other developed country. What features of U.S. society contribute to this higher rate? Source: Based on United Nations Survey on Crime Trends, 2000. Health Leading causes of death among young adults (ages 25-34) – – – – – – Accidents AIDS Cancer Heart disease Suicide Murder Gender and SES differences Secondary Aging • Lifestyle decisions, including the use—or abuse—of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs or engaging in unprotected sex, can hasten secondary aging • This can also increase a young adult’s risk of dying Violence and Death: Tracking Murder How cultural beliefs influence health and health care • Research findings suggest that cultural health beliefs, along with demographic characteristics and psychological barriers, can affect the use pf physicians and medical care. • Health care providers need to take cultural beliefs into account when treating members of different cultural groups. By young adulthood, the body and the senses are at their peak, but growth still proceeds, particularly in the brain. Young adults are generally as fit and healthy as they will ever be. Accidents present the greatest risk of death. In the United States, violence is also a significant risk during young adulthood, particularly for nonWhite males. ______________ is the natural physical decline brought about by aging. a. Maturation b. Plasticity c. Senescence d. Lateralization At the age of ______________, illness and disease overtake accidents as the leading cause of death. a. 25 b. 35 c. 40 d. 50 Compared to all other developed countries, one of the greatest risks for death in young adult men in the United States is murder. • True • False What factors do you think contribute to the comparatively high risk of automobile accidents during young adulthood? How can this be changed? Physical Limitations and Challenges Good Nutrition: No Such Thing as a Free Lunch? According to guidelines provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, people can achieve good nutrition by eating healthy foods • Low in fat, including vegetables, fruits, whole-grain foods, fish, poultry, lean meats, and low-fat dairy products • Whole-grain foods and cereal products, vegetables (including dried beans and peas), and fruits • Milk and other sources of calcium • Reduced salt intake Age and Obesity Obesity: A Weighty Concern • Third of adults are obese, a percentage that has nearly tripled since the 1960s • As age increases, more and more people are classified as obese • Most diets fail • Obesity is particularly prevalent in the United States. The world average weight for adults is 137 pounds; in the United States, the average is 180 Physical Disabilities: Coping With Physical Challenge Some 50+ million Americans are physically challenged – Fewer than 10 percent of people with major handicaps have finished high school Despite the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), people with physical disabilities still cannot gain access to many older buildings. Fewer than 25 percent of disabled men and 15 percent of disabled women work full time – Adults with handicaps are often unemployed or stuck in routine, lowpaying jobs Even in young adulthood, health must be maintained by proper diet and exercise. Obesity is increasingly a problem for young adults. People with physical disabilities face not only physical barriers but also psychological barriers caused by prejudice. As age increases, fewer individuals are classified as obese. • True • False Obesity is defined as body weight that is ________ percent or more above the average weight for a person of a given height. a. 10 b. 20 c. 25 d. 30 What developmental factors make it hard for young adults to understand that they may have to change their eating habits and personal choices? Stress and Coping in Early Adulthood Stress • Refers to response to events that threaten or challenge an individual • Includes pleasant events and unpleasant events • May result in a reduction of body's ability to deal with stress with long-term, continuous exposure Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and Stress Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) • Involves study of the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors • Examines outcomes of stress • Acute stressors • Chronic stressors Lazarus and Folkman People move through series of stages that determine whether or not they will experience stress. PRIMARY SECONDARY APPRAISAL APPRAISAL Predicting Stressful Events (Taylor, 1991) • Negative emotions are more likely to produce stress • Uncontrollable or unpredictable situations are more likely to produce stress • Ambiguous and confusing situations produce more stress • Simultaneous task demands are more likely to experience stress What constitutes stressful events? Although we commonly think of negative events, such as auto mishaps, as leading to stress, even welcome events, like getting married, can be stressful. Consequences of Stress • Psychosomatic disorders • Coping Styles of Coping Hardiness, Resilience, and Coping Hardiness: Personality characteristic associated with lower rate of stress-related illness Resilience: Ability to withstand, overcome, and actually thrive following profound adversity Coping with Stress: General Guidelines • Seek control over the situation producing the stress • Redefine “threat” as “challenge” • Find social support • Use relaxation techniques Stress, which is a healthy reaction in small doses, can be harmful to body and mind if it is frequent or long-lasting. Long-term exposure to stressors may cause deterioration in the heart, blood vessels, and other body tissues. Stress is linked to many common ailments. Strategies for coping with stress include problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and the use of social support. Utilizing the relaxation technique can also be helpful. Another strategy, defensive coping, which relies on avoidance, can prevent a person from dealing with the reality of the situation. Stressful events are limited to the negative events in our lives. • True • False Researchers in the field of ______________ study the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors, and have found that stress can produce several outcomes. a. psychoanalysis b. disease management c. pilates d. psychoneuroimmunology Avoiding thinking about a stressful situation by drinking, doing drugs, or just denying the true nature of a situation are all examples of ______________ coping. a. defensive b. emotion-focused c. social support d. hardiness In what circumstances can stress be an adaptive, helpful response? In what circumstances is it maladaptive?