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Physical Development
Physical Limitations and Challenges
Stress and Coping: Dealing With Life’s Challenges
Physical Development
Physical Development and the Senses
• Physical development and maturation
• Peak of physical capabilities
• Brain wave patterns show more mature
• Senses peak
• Most professional athletes at peak during
early adulthood
Motor Functioning, Fitness, and Health:
Staying Well
Psychomotor abilities peak during early
Reaction time quicker
Muscle strength greater
Physical Fitness
Superior physical
capabilities require
exercise and diet
No more than 10 percent
Americans exercise
enough to keep
themselves in good
physical shape
Less than 20 percent
participate in moderate
exercise on regular basis
People in their early 20s tend to be
healthy, vigorous, and energetic, but
they often experience quite a lot of
Benefits of Exercise
• Exercise helps.
• More elasticity in muscles,
• Cardiovascular fitness increase
tendons, and ligaments
• Lung capacity increases, raising
• Reduction in osteoporosis
• Stronger muscles and greater
• Greater range of movement
• Optimization of immune response
• Decreased stress level
• Increased sense of control over
their bodies and feeling of
The Result of Fitness: Longevity
The murder rate (per 100,000 men) is far higher in the United States than in any
Greater fitness level = lower the death rate
other developed country. What features of U.S. society contribute to this higher
Source: Based on United Nations Survey on Crime Trends, 2000.
Leading causes of death among young adults
(ages 25-34)
Heart disease
Gender and SES differences
Secondary Aging
• Lifestyle decisions, including the use—or
abuse—of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs or
engaging in unprotected sex, can hasten
secondary aging
• This can also increase a young adult’s risk
of dying
Violence and Death: Tracking Murder
How cultural beliefs influence health and
health care
• Research findings suggest that cultural health
beliefs, along with demographic characteristics
and psychological barriers, can affect the use pf
physicians and medical care.
• Health care providers need to take cultural
beliefs into account when treating members of
different cultural groups.
By young adulthood, the body and the senses are at
their peak, but growth still proceeds, particularly in
the brain.
Young adults are generally as fit and healthy as
they will ever be. Accidents present the greatest risk
of death.
In the United States, violence is also a significant
risk during young adulthood, particularly for nonWhite males.
______________ is the natural physical
decline brought about by aging.
a. Maturation
b. Plasticity
c. Senescence
d. Lateralization
At the age of ______________, illness and
disease overtake accidents as the leading
cause of death.
a. 25
b. 35
c. 40
d. 50
Compared to all other developed countries,
one of the greatest risks for death in young
adult men in the United States is murder.
• True
• False
What factors do you think contribute to the
comparatively high risk of automobile
accidents during young adulthood? How can
this be changed?
Physical Limitations and Challenges
Good Nutrition: No Such Thing as a Free
According to guidelines provided by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, people can achieve
good nutrition by eating healthy foods
• Low in fat, including vegetables, fruits, whole-grain
foods, fish, poultry, lean meats, and low-fat dairy
• Whole-grain foods and cereal products, vegetables
(including dried beans and peas), and fruits
• Milk and other sources of calcium
• Reduced salt intake
Age and Obesity
Obesity: A Weighty Concern
• Third of adults are obese, a percentage that has
nearly tripled since the 1960s
• As age increases, more and more people are
classified as obese
• Most diets fail
• Obesity is particularly prevalent in the United
States. The world average weight for adults is
137 pounds; in the United States, the average is
Physical Disabilities:
Coping With Physical
Some 50+ million Americans
are physically challenged
– Fewer than 10 percent of
people with major
handicaps have finished
high school
Despite the passage of the Americans
with Disabilities Act (ADA), people with
physical disabilities still cannot gain
access to many older buildings.
Fewer than 25 percent of
disabled men and 15 percent
of disabled women work full
– Adults with handicaps
are often unemployed or
stuck in routine, lowpaying jobs
Even in young adulthood, health must be
maintained by proper diet and exercise.
Obesity is increasingly a problem for young
People with physical disabilities face not only
physical barriers but also psychological
barriers caused by prejudice.
As age increases, fewer individuals are
classified as obese.
• True
• False
Obesity is defined as body weight that is
________ percent or more above the average
weight for a person of a given height.
a. 10
b. 20
c. 25
d. 30
What developmental factors make it hard for
young adults to understand that they may
have to change their eating habits and
personal choices?
Stress and Coping in Early Adulthood
• Refers to response to events that threaten or
challenge an individual
• Includes pleasant events and unpleasant events
• May result in a reduction of body's ability to deal
with stress with long-term, continuous exposure
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and Stress
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
• Involves study of the relationship among
the brain, the immune system, and
psychological factors
• Examines outcomes of stress
• Acute stressors
• Chronic stressors
Lazarus and Folkman
People move through series of stages that
determine whether or not they will
experience stress.
Predicting Stressful Events
(Taylor, 1991)
• Negative emotions are more likely to
produce stress
• Uncontrollable or unpredictable
situations are more likely to produce
• Ambiguous and confusing situations
produce more stress
• Simultaneous task demands are more
likely to experience stress
What constitutes stressful events?
Although we commonly think of negative events, such as auto mishaps,
as leading to stress, even welcome events, like getting married, can
be stressful.
Consequences of Stress
Psychosomatic disorders
Styles of Coping
Hardiness, Resilience, and Coping
Hardiness: Personality characteristic
associated with lower rate of stress-related
Resilience: Ability to withstand, overcome,
and actually thrive following profound
Coping with Stress: General Guidelines
• Seek control over the situation producing
the stress
• Redefine “threat” as “challenge”
• Find social support
• Use relaxation techniques
Stress, which is a healthy reaction in small doses, can be
harmful to body and mind if it is frequent or long-lasting.
Long-term exposure to stressors may cause deterioration
in the heart, blood vessels, and other body tissues. Stress
is linked to many common ailments.
Strategies for coping with stress include problem-focused
coping, emotion-focused coping, and the use of social
support. Utilizing the relaxation technique can also be
helpful. Another strategy, defensive coping, which relies on
avoidance, can prevent a person from dealing with the
reality of the situation.
Stressful events are limited to the negative
events in our lives.
• True
• False
Researchers in the field of ______________
study the relationship among the brain, the
immune system, and psychological factors,
and have found that stress can produce
several outcomes.
a. psychoanalysis
b. disease management
c. pilates
d. psychoneuroimmunology
Avoiding thinking about a stressful situation
by drinking, doing drugs, or just denying the
true nature of a situation are all examples of
______________ coping.
a. defensive
b. emotion-focused
c. social support
d. hardiness
In what circumstances can stress be an
adaptive, helpful response? In what
circumstances is it maladaptive?