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Transcript
Classical
Organizational
Theory
Erlan Bakiev, PH. D.
Zirve University
Spring 2012
Main idea
of classical organizational theory
• There is “one best way” to perform a task
Classical organizational theory
espouses two perspectives:
• Scientific management – focusing on the
management of work and workers
• Administrative management - addressing
issues concerning how overall organization
should be structured
Major contributors to the Classical
Organizational Theory:
Scientific Management:
• Frederick Taylor
Administrative Management:
• Henri Fayol
• Luther Halsey Gulick
• Max Weber
Frederick Taylor
•Taylor is born in Pennsylvania on March 20,
1856
•After studying in Europe, he plans to go to
Harvard, but does not pass the entrance exams
•Instead Taylor works as a pattern maker at a
pump manufacturing company in Philadelphia
•Later, he studies mechanical engineering at
Stevens, finishing in just three years.
Taylor identifies two people as having
influenced him:
• Lucian Sharpe impresses Taylor with his focus,
concentration, and task commitment
• John Griffith teaches Taylor how to be an
appreciative, respectful, and admirable
working mechanic
Midvale Steel Company
• Taylor begins working for the Midvale steel
Company in 1878.
• While there he succeeds in doubling the work of
his men, is soon promoted to foreman
• As foreman, he begins studying productivity as
a means of measuring of manufacturing.
• Later he becomes the chief engineer at
Midvale.
Ingenuity and Accomplishments
• Creates systems to gain maximum efficiency
from workers and machines in the factory.
• Focuses on time and motion studies to learn
how to complete a task in the least amount of
time.
• Becomes consulting engineer for many other
companies
• Publishes—The Principles of Scientific
Management
Key Points of
Scientific Management
1. Scientific Job Analysis – observation, data
gathering, and careful measurement determine
“the one best way” to perform each job
2. Selection of Personnel – scientifically select
and then train, teach, and develop workers
3. Management Cooperation – managers should
cooperate with workers to ensure that all work
is done in accordance with the principles of the
science that developed the plan
4. Functional Supervising – managers assume
planning, organizing, and decision-making
activities, and workers perform jobs
Henri Fayol
• Engineer and French industrialist
• In France works as a managing director in coalmining organization
• Recognizes to the management principles rather
than personal traits
• While others shared this belief, Fayol was the
first to identify management as a continuous
process of evaluation.
Fayol’s 5 Management Functions
Fundamental roles performed by all managers:
 Planning
 Organizing
 Commanding
 Coordinating
 Controlling
Additionally Fayol recognizes fourteen principles that
should guide the management of organizations.
Fayol’s 14 Principles:
1. Division of Work —improves efficiency through a
reduction of waste, increased output, and
simplification of job training
2. Authority and Responsibility—authority: the right to
give orders and the power to extract obedience –
responsibility: the obligation to carry out assigned
duties
3. Discipline—respect for the rules that govern the
organization
4. Unity of Command—an employee should receive
orders from one superior only
5. Unity of Direction—grouping of similar activities that
are directed to a single goal under one manager
6. Subordination of Individual Interests to the General
Interest—interests of individuals and groups should
not take precedence over the interests of the
organization as a whole.
7. Remuneration of Personnel—payment should be fair
and satisfactory for employees and the organization
8. Centralization—managers retain final responsibility –
subordinates maintain enough responsibility to
accomplish their tasks
9. Scalar Chain (Line of Authority)—the chain of
command from the ultimate authority to the lowest
10. Order—people and supplies should be in the right
place at the right time
11. Equity—managers should treat employees fairly and
equally
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel—managerial
practices that encourage long-term commitment from
employees create a stable workforce and therefore a
successful organization
13. Initiative—employees should be encouraged to
develop and carry out improvement plans
14. Esprit de Corps—managers should foster and
maintain teamwork, team spirit, and a sense of unity
among employees
Luther Halsey Gulick
(1892-1992)
• A specialist in municipal finance and
administration
• Gulick works with the Institute of Public
Administration, professor of municipal science
and administration at Columbia, and serves on
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Committee of
Government Administration
• Expands Fayol’s five management functions
into seven functions:
1. Planning - developing an outline of the things that
must be accomplished and the methods for
accomplishing them
2. Organizing - establishes the formal structure of
authority through which work subdivisions are
arranged, defined, and coordinated to implement
the plan
3. Staffing - selecting, training, and developing the
staff and maintaining favorable working
conditions
4. Directing - the continuous task of making
decisions, communicating and implementing
decisions, and evaluating subordinates properly
5. Coordinating - all activities and efforts needed
to bind together the organization in order to
achieve a common goal
6. Reporting - verifies progress through records,
research, and inspection; ensures that things
happen according to plan; takes any corrective
action when necessary; and keeps those to
whom the chief executive is responsible
informed
7. Budgeting - all activities that accompany
budgeting, including fiscal planning, accounting,
and control
Max Weber
(1864-1920)
• German sociologist
• Weber first describes the concept of
bureaucracy – an ideal form of organizational
structure
• He defines bureaucratic administration as the
exercise of control on the basis of knowledge
• Weber states, “Power is principally exemplified
within organizations by the process of control”
Weber uses and defines the terms authority
and power as:
• Power: any relationship within which one
person could impose his will, regardless of
any resistance from the other.
• Authority: existed when there was a
belief in the legitimacy of that power.
Weber classifies organizations according to
the legitimacy of their power and uses
three basic classifications:
Charismatic Authority: based on the sacred or
outstanding characteristic of the individual.
Traditional Authority: essentially a respect for
customs.
Rational Legal Authority: based on a code or set of
rules.
Weber recognizes that rational legal
authority is used in the most efficient
form of organization because:
• A legal code can be established which can claim
obedience from members of the organization
• The law is a system of abstract rules which are
applied to particular cases; and administration
looks after the interests of the organization
within the limits of that law.
• The manager or the authority additionally
follows the impersonal order
• Membership is key to law obedience
• Obedience is derived not from the person
administering the law, but rather to the
impersonal order that installed the
person’s authority
Weber outlined his ideal bureaucracy
as defined by the following parameters:
• A continuous system of authorized jobs
maintained by regulations
• Specialization: encompasses a defined “sphere
of competence,” based on its divisions of labor
• A stated chain of command of offices: a
consistent organization of supervision based on
distinctive levels of authority
• Rules: an all encompassing system of
directives which govern behavior: rules
may require training to comprehend and
manage
• Impersonality: no partiality, either for or
against, clients, workers, or administrators
• Free selection of appointed officials: equal
opportunity based on education and
professional qualification
• Full-time paid officials: only or major
employment; paid on the basis of position
• Career officials: promotion based on seniority
and merit; designated by supervisors
• Private/Public split: separates business and
private life
• The finances and interests of the two should be
kept firmly apart: the resources of the
organization are quite distinct from those of the
members as private individuals.
(a) A tendency to a leveling of social classes by
allowing a wide range of recruits with technical
competence to be taken by any organization
(b) Elite status because of the time required to
achieve the necessary technical training
(c) Greater degree of social equality due to the
dominance of the spirit of impersonality or
objectivity
Common Criticisms of Classical
Organizational Theory
Classical principles of formal organization may
lead to a work environment in which:
• Employees have minimal power over their jobs and
working conditions
• Subordination, passivity and dependence are expected
• work to a short term perspective
• Employees are lead to mediocrity
• Working conditions produce to psychological failure as a
result of the belief that they are lower class employees
performing menial tasks
Activity:
•Break into four groups: Taylor, Fayol, Gulick and Weber
•Refer to the power point notes you have been given to examine a
classical organizational theorist’s principles
•Consider what you discussed about each principle
•Analyze how the theorists beliefs exist, don’t exist, or are
modified within today’s educational world
•Please have someone take notes on your work
•Lead a discussion of how your theorist’s ideas relate to the
current system of educational administration