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Santomartino 1
Invasive Species
Use the Global Invasive Species Database to complete the table below.
Common Name
Cane Toad
Scientific Name
Rhinella marina
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Location where
it is now a
problem
Australia
Original habitat
Northern South
America, Central
America, Mexico
Northward to
Southern Texas
What native
species in the
ecosystem have
been impacted?
Skinks, native
fauna, some
people, elapid
snakes, freshwater
crocodiles,
varanid & scincid
lizards, and
dasyurid
marsupials
What problems
are caused by
this invasive
species?
What has been
done to try to
correct the issue?
The species that
consume the toads
will be poisoned,
children and pets
could be poisoned
as well,
competition with
frogs, and they
have a rapid birth
rate.
A lungworm
parasite by
Professor Shine
that kills the
toads, but not the
Australian frogs,
an alarm
pheromone that is
released into the
pond to stress and
kill off the
tadpoles of the
toads, but not the
frogs, and the
Australian
Government
prepared a
national cane toad
plan under the
EPBC Act, which
will address the
impacts of cane
toads on native
species and
ecological
communities.
Santomartino 2
Zebra Mussel
Dreissena
polymorpha
(Pallas, 1771)
Gulf of Mexico
and Southern
Canada (Great
Lakes/ Mississippi
watersheds)
Caspian sea
region of
Northern Iran,
Azerbaijan,
Southern Russia,
Kazakhstan, and
Turkmenistan
Native mussels,
humans, game
fish, native clams,
plankton
They attach
themselves to
native
clams/mussels,
eventually killing
them, filter water,
up to a liter per
day, to eat
plankton, compete
with fish for food,
clog pipes by
forming colonies
inside the pipes,
which results in
lack of water
flow, and the
annual cost on the
Great Lakes to
control the zebra
mussels in water
intake pipes is
$250 million.
Chemicals are
used in the pipes
to kill the larva,
draining all the
water from boats,
live wells, and
baitwells, small
amounts of the
chemicals:
molluscicides,
Bayluscide, Clam
Trol CT-1, &
potassium
chloride are used
to kill off the
zebra mussels, but
are still a little
toxic to other
organisms,
“pigging,” which
means cleaning
the pipes, building
two sets of pipes,
and finally, the
Nonindigenous
Aquatic Nuisance
Prevention &
Control Act was
enacted, which
was the first U.S.
legislation to
provide
significant focus
on aquatic
invasive species
Santomartino 3
and ballast water.
Santomartino 4
Lionfish
Pterois volitans
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Western Atlantic
Ocean, Caribbean
Sea, and the Gulf
of Mexico
The South Pacific
and Indian Oceans
(Indo-Pacific
region) & the Red
Sea
Small crustaceans
such as coral
shrimp, spiny
lobster, & fish,
which consist of
but not limited to,
yellowtail
snappers &
Nassau groupers,
bridled cardinal
fish, striped
parrotfish, and
white grunt
They put stress on
coral reefs, are the
fastest breeders in
the Western
Atlantic Basin,
out-breeding, outcompeting, & outliving native fish
stocks, can eat
prey over half the
size as their
bodies as long as
it can fit in their
mouths, their
spines seem as if
they offer
shelter/protection
for other species,
whereas it is just a
method to bring
prey to the
lionfish, and
impact the food
security &
economies
affecting over a
hundred million
people.
Scientists suggest
to do the
following: track
the lionfish
population,
educate the
public, notify
physicians &
other healthcare
providers about
venomous fish in
U.S. waters, also,
they can be eaten,
avoid eating
grouper due to
how they are
known to
consume lionfish,
and the National
Invasion Lionfish
Prevention &
Management Plan
was approved,
which a new plan
to prevent the
spread of invasive
lionfish & to help
manage lionfish in
an effort to
prevent further
harm to marine
ecosystems.
Santomartino 5
Hemlock Woolly
Adelgid
Adelges tsugae
(Annand 1928)
Southeastern
Pennsylvania
Asia
Hemlock trees,
red squirrels,
native birds,
decomposers &
any other
organism that
would use the
hemlock tree for
shelter or
nutrients
They hurt all the
animals that rely
on these hemlock
trees, eliminates
the Carolina &
Eastern hemlocks
from the forests’
ecosystem, which
results in several
repercussions on
both animal &
plant life, prevents
other birds from
using these trees
as shelter during
the winter, since
hemlock trees do
not lose their
leaves, & finally,
there decline
could increase
soil, leaf litter &
stream
temperatures,
which would lead
to drying, & these
results would lead
to the driving of
salamanders &
invertebrates,
deeper
underground,
causing an
increase in
competition for
Soil treatments
are used by
applying an
approved
insecticide within
the surface
organic soil
around the tree
trunk, which will
be absorbed by
the root system,
along with soil
drenching, soil
injection, tablet
placement, foliar
treatments, trunk
spray, stem
injections, and the
Hemlock Woolly
Adelgid
Quarantine, which
would block off
an infected area
until further
insecticides were
used/treatments.
Santomartino 6
resources.
Santomartino 7
Kudzu
Pueraria montana
var. lobata
(Willd.) Maesen
& S. Almeida
Southeastern/
Eastern United
States
Ukraine,
Caucasus, central
Asia, southern
Africa, Hawai,
Hispaniola, and
Panama.
Native plants such
as native fauna,
humans, damages
timber crop,
The following
methods were
used: cutting,
grazing, digging,
disking,
It is denying
prescribed
access to lands for burning &
hunting, hiking,
application of
and bird watching, herbicides (for
disrupts the food
light infestations),
chain that native
but for large
plants & animals
infestations of
use for shelter,
kudzucauses loss of
preservation of
money to prevent the natural area,
spread over
along with
important places
herbicides
such as train
(thorough), and
tracks & wires,
the Invasive Fish
and can quickly
& Wildlife
replace a diverse
Prevention Act,
ecosystem with a
which was to
monoculture of
prevent the
just kudzu.
introduction &
establishment of
nonnative wildlife
likely to cause
harm in the
United States.
1. Why are invasive species such a concern?
Invasive species are such a concern because they are one of the leading threats to native wildlife and 42% of threatened or endangered species are at
risk because of invasive species. Also, human health and economies are at risk from invasive species due to the impacts of these species on our
natural ecosystems and economy cost billions of dollars each year. Finally, invasive species can spread rapidly...
Santomartino 8
2. How do invasive species affect the biodiversity of an ecosystem?
Invasive species affect the biodiversity of an ecosystem by preying on native species, out-competing native species for food or other resources,
preventing native species from reproducing or killing their young, changing food webs by destroying or replacing native food sources, replacing a
native species with itself (kudzu) and changing the ecosystem conditions, which consist of changing the soil chemistry or the intensity of wildfires.
3. Using the internet, identify 5 other invasive species of concern and the location of the problems they cause.
Five other invasive species and the location of the problems that they cause are Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) (also known as the black rat), which is
most problematic in Europe, the Mediterranean region, America, Australia and New Zealand, Sciurus carolinensis (Gmelin 1788) (also known as the
grey squirrel), which is most problematic in the UK, Italy, Ireland, South Africa, and Europe, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) (also known as the red
fox), which is most problematic in Australia, Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (also known as the common yellowjacket), which is most
problematic in Australia and New Zealand, and lastly, Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758) (also known as the pig), which is most problematic in Australia.