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Santomartino 1 Invasive Species Use the Global Invasive Species Database to complete the table below. Common Name Cane Toad Scientific Name Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) Location where it is now a problem Australia Original habitat Northern South America, Central America, Mexico Northward to Southern Texas What native species in the ecosystem have been impacted? Skinks, native fauna, some people, elapid snakes, freshwater crocodiles, varanid & scincid lizards, and dasyurid marsupials What problems are caused by this invasive species? What has been done to try to correct the issue? The species that consume the toads will be poisoned, children and pets could be poisoned as well, competition with frogs, and they have a rapid birth rate. A lungworm parasite by Professor Shine that kills the toads, but not the Australian frogs, an alarm pheromone that is released into the pond to stress and kill off the tadpoles of the toads, but not the frogs, and the Australian Government prepared a national cane toad plan under the EPBC Act, which will address the impacts of cane toads on native species and ecological communities. Santomartino 2 Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) Gulf of Mexico and Southern Canada (Great Lakes/ Mississippi watersheds) Caspian sea region of Northern Iran, Azerbaijan, Southern Russia, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan Native mussels, humans, game fish, native clams, plankton They attach themselves to native clams/mussels, eventually killing them, filter water, up to a liter per day, to eat plankton, compete with fish for food, clog pipes by forming colonies inside the pipes, which results in lack of water flow, and the annual cost on the Great Lakes to control the zebra mussels in water intake pipes is $250 million. Chemicals are used in the pipes to kill the larva, draining all the water from boats, live wells, and baitwells, small amounts of the chemicals: molluscicides, Bayluscide, Clam Trol CT-1, & potassium chloride are used to kill off the zebra mussels, but are still a little toxic to other organisms, “pigging,” which means cleaning the pipes, building two sets of pipes, and finally, the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention & Control Act was enacted, which was the first U.S. legislation to provide significant focus on aquatic invasive species Santomartino 3 and ballast water. Santomartino 4 Lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico The South Pacific and Indian Oceans (Indo-Pacific region) & the Red Sea Small crustaceans such as coral shrimp, spiny lobster, & fish, which consist of but not limited to, yellowtail snappers & Nassau groupers, bridled cardinal fish, striped parrotfish, and white grunt They put stress on coral reefs, are the fastest breeders in the Western Atlantic Basin, out-breeding, outcompeting, & outliving native fish stocks, can eat prey over half the size as their bodies as long as it can fit in their mouths, their spines seem as if they offer shelter/protection for other species, whereas it is just a method to bring prey to the lionfish, and impact the food security & economies affecting over a hundred million people. Scientists suggest to do the following: track the lionfish population, educate the public, notify physicians & other healthcare providers about venomous fish in U.S. waters, also, they can be eaten, avoid eating grouper due to how they are known to consume lionfish, and the National Invasion Lionfish Prevention & Management Plan was approved, which a new plan to prevent the spread of invasive lionfish & to help manage lionfish in an effort to prevent further harm to marine ecosystems. Santomartino 5 Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand 1928) Southeastern Pennsylvania Asia Hemlock trees, red squirrels, native birds, decomposers & any other organism that would use the hemlock tree for shelter or nutrients They hurt all the animals that rely on these hemlock trees, eliminates the Carolina & Eastern hemlocks from the forests’ ecosystem, which results in several repercussions on both animal & plant life, prevents other birds from using these trees as shelter during the winter, since hemlock trees do not lose their leaves, & finally, there decline could increase soil, leaf litter & stream temperatures, which would lead to drying, & these results would lead to the driving of salamanders & invertebrates, deeper underground, causing an increase in competition for Soil treatments are used by applying an approved insecticide within the surface organic soil around the tree trunk, which will be absorbed by the root system, along with soil drenching, soil injection, tablet placement, foliar treatments, trunk spray, stem injections, and the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Quarantine, which would block off an infected area until further insecticides were used/treatments. Santomartino 6 resources. Santomartino 7 Kudzu Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida Southeastern/ Eastern United States Ukraine, Caucasus, central Asia, southern Africa, Hawai, Hispaniola, and Panama. Native plants such as native fauna, humans, damages timber crop, The following methods were used: cutting, grazing, digging, disking, It is denying prescribed access to lands for burning & hunting, hiking, application of and bird watching, herbicides (for disrupts the food light infestations), chain that native but for large plants & animals infestations of use for shelter, kudzucauses loss of preservation of money to prevent the natural area, spread over along with important places herbicides such as train (thorough), and tracks & wires, the Invasive Fish and can quickly & Wildlife replace a diverse Prevention Act, ecosystem with a which was to monoculture of prevent the just kudzu. introduction & establishment of nonnative wildlife likely to cause harm in the United States. 1. Why are invasive species such a concern? Invasive species are such a concern because they are one of the leading threats to native wildlife and 42% of threatened or endangered species are at risk because of invasive species. Also, human health and economies are at risk from invasive species due to the impacts of these species on our natural ecosystems and economy cost billions of dollars each year. Finally, invasive species can spread rapidly... Santomartino 8 2. How do invasive species affect the biodiversity of an ecosystem? Invasive species affect the biodiversity of an ecosystem by preying on native species, out-competing native species for food or other resources, preventing native species from reproducing or killing their young, changing food webs by destroying or replacing native food sources, replacing a native species with itself (kudzu) and changing the ecosystem conditions, which consist of changing the soil chemistry or the intensity of wildfires. 3. Using the internet, identify 5 other invasive species of concern and the location of the problems they cause. Five other invasive species and the location of the problems that they cause are Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) (also known as the black rat), which is most problematic in Europe, the Mediterranean region, America, Australia and New Zealand, Sciurus carolinensis (Gmelin 1788) (also known as the grey squirrel), which is most problematic in the UK, Italy, Ireland, South Africa, and Europe, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) (also known as the red fox), which is most problematic in Australia, Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758) (also known as the common yellowjacket), which is most problematic in Australia and New Zealand, and lastly, Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758) (also known as the pig), which is most problematic in Australia.