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Male Reproductive System
Lecture 8
a- : without
crypt- : hidden
oligo- : deficiency/few
trans- : across/through/beyond
Roots/Combining forms
cyst/o: bladder
fer/o: to carry
posth/o: prepuce/foreskin
phren/o: diaphragm
-al: pertaining to
-algia: condition of pain
-cele: swelling/protrusion/hernia
-cide: something that kills/killing
-ectomy: removal of
-genesis: forming/capable of causing
-graphy: technique of recording/making an X-ray
-ia: condition of
-ic: pertaining to
-ism: process of
-itis: inflammation of
-lysis: breakdown/disintegration
-megaly: enlargement
-meter: measuring instrument
-oma: tumour/swelling
-ous: pertaining to/of the nature of
-pathia: condition of disease
-pathy: disease of
-pexy: surgical fixation/fix in place
-plasty: surgical repair/reconstruction
-rrhagia: condition of bursting forth/discharge of
-rrhaphy: suture/stitch/suturing
-rrhea: (Am.) excessive flow/discharge
-rrhoea: excessive flow/discharge
-sect(ion): cut/cutting/excision
-stomy :opening into
-tomy: incision into
-uria: condition of urine
• Testis or testicle = main male sex organs,
paired, oval shaped, enclosed in a sac called
the scrotum.
– Semini/fer/ous tubules = coiled tubes within
the testes where sperm have their beginning.
– Epididymis = a pair of coiled tubes atop the
testes that carry the mature sperm up to the vas
• Vas deferens = duct that carries sperm to the
• Seminal vesicles = main glands at the base of the
bladder, open into the vas deferens. Secrete a
thick fluid which forms part of the semen.
• Prostate gland= encircles the upper urethra,
secretes a fluid that aids in the movement of sperm
and ejaculation.
• Scrotum = sac suspended on both sides and just
behind the penis.
• Penis = male organ of urination or copulation.
• Semen = composed of sperm, seminal fluid & other
Combining forms
Balan/o = glans penis.
Epididym/o = epididymis.
Orchid/o = testis, testicle or test/o, orchi/o.
prostat/o = prostate.
Vas/o = vessel, duct.
Vesicul/o = seminal vesicles.
Andr/o = male.
Sperm/o spermat/o = spermatozoa, sperm.
Medical Terms
• Balanitis = inflammation of the glans penis.
• Balanorrhea = excessive discharge from the
glans penis.
• Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy [BPH] =
nonmalignant excessive development of the
prostate gland.
• Epididymitis = inflammation of an epididymis.
• Prostatitis = inflammation of the prostate gland.
• Prostatolith = stone in the prostate gland.
Medical Terms
• Prostatovesiculitis = inflammation of the prostate
gland and seminal vesicles.
• Erectile dysfunction = inability to attain or maintain
an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
• Hydrocele = scrotal swelling.
• Phimosis = narrowing of/ constriction of/ the
opening of the prepuce (foreskin) of the glans
• Prostatic cancer = cancer of the prostate gland.
Medical Terms
• Varicocele = enlarged veins of the spermatic cord.
• Testicular torsion = twisting of the spermatic cord
causing decreased blood flow to the testis.
• Orchioplasty = surgical repair of a testis.
• Orchiectomy = excision or surgical removal of one
or both testes. (castration).
• Prostatectomy = excision of the prostate gland.
• Vasectomy = excision of a duct, sterilization.
• Circumcision = removal of the prepuce.
Complementary Terms
Andropathy = diseases of the male.
Aspermia = absence of sperm.
Oligospermia = scanty sperm (in semen).
Spermatolysis = dissolution of sperm.
AIDS = acquired immune deficiency.
Artificial insemination = introduction of semen into
the vagina by artificial means.
• Chlamydia = STD, painful urination & discharge,
male and female can acquire.
• Coitus = sexual intercourse male & female
Complementary Terms
• Gonads = male & female sex glands.
• Gonorrhea = STD, bacterial organism affects
the mucous membranes.
• Heterosexual = attracted to the opposite sex.
• Homosexual = attracted to the same sex.
• Human papilloma virus = prevalent STD,
benign cancerous growths in the male &
female genitals (venereal warts).
• Prosthesis = artificial replacement of an absent
body part.
Complementary Terms
• Puberty = period when secondary sex
characteristics development
• STD= sexually transmitted disease.
• Sterilization = renders an individual unable to
produce offspring.
AIDS= acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
BPH= benign Prostatic hypertrophy.
HIV= human immunodeficiency virus.
HPV= human papilloma virus.
PSA = Prostatic specific antigen.
STD= sexually transmitted disease.
Combining forms relating to the
reproductive system:
glans penis
prepuce / foreskin
spermatozoa / sperm
varicose vein
vas deferens/vessel
Seminal vesicle
• Insemination refers to the deposition of
semen in the female reproductive tract (from
Latin seminare, meaning to sow).
• Artificial insemination (AI) refers to the
insertion of semen into the uterus via a
cannula (tube) instead of by coitus.
• Sperm counts are performed to estimate the number
of sperms, the percentage of abnormal sperms and
their mobility.
• The actual number of sperms is important in
determining the fertility of the male.
• A sperm count of less than 60 million sperms per
cm3 of semen results in decreased fertility, even
though only one sperm is required to fertilize an egg!
• Semen containing sperms can be preserved at very
low temperatures in a cryostat. Once thawed, the
sperm are capable of fertilizing eggs and are used
for artificial insemination.
• Recently it has become possible to use sperm to
fertilize eggs outside the body in laboratory
glassware, a process known as in vitro fertilization
(vitro meaning glass).
• Mr O, a 32-year-old father of two children, consulted his
GP about a severe back pain. Although a regular football
player he could not recall any recent injury that could
account for his condition.
• During his consultation he mentioned that several
months ago he had noticed his right testicle was swollen.
It felt heavy and sometimes uncomfortable but he had
ignored it assuming it would resolve.
• When his early medical record was checked it revealed a
history of cryptorchism of the right testicle that had been
rectified by orchidopexy at the age of 5 years.
• Palpation showed the right testicle to be hard,
smooth and swollen. It was easily separated from
the epididymis and did not transilluminate.
• Mr O had not felt any pain and otherwise
appeared in good health. There was no evidence
of orchitis, epididymitis or torsion.
• He was counselled by his GP who referred him to
the Urology department with suspected cancer of
the testis.
• Ultrasonography determined the presence of an
intratesticular mass in the right testicle. A chest Xray was negative for lung metastases, but a CT
scan of his abdominopelvic region revealed
retroperitoneal and para-aortic lymphadenopathy.
• He had elevated levels of the serum tumor markers
(β-HCG and lactate dehydrogenase)
• Mr O was advised of the need for surgical
orchidectomy and the procedure was explained to
him by the consultant.
• Mr O's scrotal contents were examined and his right
testicle removed through an inguinal approach with
early clamping of the spermatic cord and its vessels.
• (Note, trans-scrotal biopsy is contra-indicated as a
means of evaluating scrotal masses as it causes
tumor cell shedding and spread of the tumor).
• Histopathological analysis confirmed the
presence of a malignant seminoma in the right
testicle; the contralateral testis was biopsied at
the same time and found to be normal.
• Mr O's condition was assessed as Stage IIC and
he was given chemotherapy with follow up chest
X-ray, abdominopelvic CT scan and serum tumor
marker determination every 3 months.
• At 6 months the residual retroperitoneal mass
has shrunk and calcified, and he remains
progression free.
• β-HCG a serum tumour marker
• calcified referring to deposition of calcium salts into a
• chemotherapy treatment using drugs (here cytotoxic
drugs that destroy cancer cells)
• contralateral pertaining to the opposite side
• CT computed tomography
• epididymis the first part of the duct system that leaves
the testis and stores maturing sperm
• epididymitis inflammation of the epididymis
• GP general practitioner (family doctor)
• histopathological pertaining to disease of a tissue
• inguinal pertaining to the groin
• lactate dehydrogenase a serum tumor marker
• lymphadenopathy disease of lymph nodes (lymph
• malignant dangerous, capable of spreading
• metastases parts of a tumor that have spread
from one site to another
• palpation act of feeling with the fingers using light
• para-aortic pertaining to beside the aorta
• progression advancing, moving forward of a
• retroperitoneal pertaining to behind the peritoneum
• serum tumour marker certain chemicals are
elevated to higher than normal levels in blood
serum when tumours are present, they act as signs
or markers of the presence of disease
• Stage IIC staging is a system of classifying
malignant disease that will influence its treatment;
this patient is at Stage IIC
• torsion act of twisting/rotation
• transilluminate shine a bright light through (note, a
solid tumor will prevent transmission of light)
• ultrasonography technique of recording (an
image) using high frequency sound waves
• urology study of the urinary tract (here department
that diagnoses and treats disease and disorders
of the urinary tract)