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World War I A Brief History Europe in 1914 Choosing sides: A History of Alliances TREATY DATE The Dual Alliance 1879-1918 COUNTRIES Austria-Hungary Germany In protecting Austria-Hungary from Russia, Germany was looking out for her own interests. If Austria-Hungary were ever to fall then the Russians would be at the German door. This was an actual defensive alliance on the part of Germany. Europe in 1879 Choosing sides: A History of Alliances TREATY DATE The Triple Alliance 1882-1915 COUNTRIES Austria-Hungary Germany Italy This strategic alliance was formed for the express purpose of stopping Italy from attacking AustriaHungary in the event of war with Russia. Europe in 1882 Choosing sides: A History of Alliances TREATY Franco-Russian DATE COUNTRIES 1894-1917 France Russia This major lasting alliance was the Russian reaction to The Triple Alliance. Europe in 1894 Choosing sides: A History of Alliances TREATY The Entente Cordiale DATE COUNTRIES 1904-1918 France Great Britain This agreement between Great Britain and France was more a sign of healing relations than an actual alliance. The Triple Alliance powers took note. Europe in 1904 Choosing sides: A History of Alliances TREATY DATE The Anglo1907-1917 Russian Entente COUNTRIES Russia Great Britain Great Britain and Russia, having settled their differences, take this final step toward the Triple Entente. Europe in 1914 Choosing sides: A History of Alliances TREATY The Triple Entente DATE COUNTRIES 1907-1917 Russia Great Britain France This final alliance drew the lines for the war that would follow. Germany's worst fears of encirclement were realized and a two front war had been made a certainty. Europe in 1907 Annexation: Assassination: The start Archduke Francis Ferdinand visits Sarajevo and puts his life in “God’s hands.” Gavrilo Princip fires two shots and kills both Ferdinand and his wife. June 28th, 1914 Declarations of War! What about the Americans? President Wilson issues a neutrality proclamation. American economy takes a leap with European war orders. Country Britain France Germany 1914 $594,271,863 $159,818,924 $344,794,276 1916 $1,526,685,102 $ 626,851,988 $ 288,899 How did the Americans get involved? Unterseeboot (U-Boat) How did the Americans get involved? Lusitania sunk May 7th, 1915 1,198 lives 128 Americans Arabic sunk Aug. 15th, 1915 2 Americans Sussex sunk Germany issues Sussex Agreement The Zimmerman Note Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State) How did the Americans get involved? Four American merchant ships are sunk in March 1917. Germany declares unlimited U-Boat Warfare. Wilson asks congress for a declaration of war on April 2, 1917. Men Killed in Battle Russia: 1,700,000 Germany: 1,600,000 France: 1,385,000 Britain: 900,000 Austria: 800,000 Italy: 462,000 United States: 53,000 The end of the War November 11, 1918 “The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month” Germany agrees to an armistice Treaty of Versailles is signed 1919 The American congress refuses to sign The Allied powers punish Germany IS this already the start of WWII?