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Dr. Len Elovitz
Chapter 11 in Owens & Valesky
The Meaning and Patterns of Motivation
Motivation deals with the explanation of why people do the things they
The motivational patterns are evident in human behavior:
 Direction of decisions
 Choices that individuals make when confronted with an array
of alternatives
 Persistence
 With which one pursues the chosen course
 Intensity
 With which one tends to doing something
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Motivation at Work
 “…
a set of energetic forces that originate both
within as well as beyond an individuals being
able to initiate work-related behavior and to
determine its form, direction and duration.”
Job satisfaction is related to those aspects of work
that make the job intrinsically fulfilling
Owings and Kaplan
The Extrinsic-Intrinsic Debate
 There
are two major approaches to motivation:
Extrinsic views (behaviorist approach)—people are
motivated by external rewards and punishments; this is also
called the carrot and stick approach.
Intrinsic views (cognitive or humanist approach)—people
are motivated by internal capacities, such as aspirations,
perceptions, attitudes, or thoughts that can be motivating or
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Individual and Group Motivation
When individuals act in an organization, they act as
members of a group.
 Groups are dynamic social systems that establish
interdependent relationships between and among
 These dynamics give rise to basic assumptions and
values that are the essence of group climate and
 Group norms have the power to motivate or
demotivate people.
 Mob Rule --- Unions?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
The Western Electric Studies Revisited
These studies are also called the Hawthorne
Studies (from the Hawthorne plant of Western
 The term Hawthorne effect comes from these
 Hawthorne effect is defined as a direct
relationship between behavior and psychological
phenomena caused by unusual conditions in
which people may be placed.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
The Relay Inspection Group Studies
The experimental group was consulted on changes in
the work environment.
 Output rose even though working conditions returned
to earlier circumstances.
 Findings included:
The workers were involved in the new form of supervision
in which their opinions mattered.
The group had been transformed by this experience and
developed a distinctive esprit.
They were empowered through participative decision
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Impact of the Studies
Many misread the results of these studies when
applying them to organizations. The Hawthorne
effect does not simply mean that if you pay attention
to someone and change conditions, their motivation
will improve.
 The Hawthorne experiments resulted in motivated
employees through participative leadership in which
people were part of a team that made important
decisions for the organization.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Individual Differences
 Leaders
must understand and accept diversity
between and among people in a nonjudgmental way. This means that leaders
create environments that:
Foster and enhance growth and development of
participants in terms of their own perceptions,
needs, aspirations, etc.
 Accept the fact that not only do individuals differ,
but that this diversity can be a source of great
strength to the organization.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
David McClelland (1961, 1965, 1985)
 Achievement
motivation theory
The need to accomplish hard tasks, to overcome
difficulties and obstructions and to excel
 High nAch
 Strong
desire to assume personal responsibility
 Set moderately difficult goals
 Have a strong desire for performance feedback
Feels that achievement motivation is learned at an
early age strongly influenced by parents
 Others believe it is developed later
 Application to teacher? Students?
Cognitive Views of Motivation (continued)
David McClelland (The Achieving Society) took these
ideas a step further indicating that high n Ach people
contribute to economic growth.
 He believed high n Ach can be taught in home and
school through attitudes, skills, and habits.
 People varied in their need to be successful
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Cognitive Views of Motivation
John Atkinson views motivation as driven by two
The desire to achieve success (n Achievement or n Ach).
The desire to avoid failure.
In some circumstances, low n Ach individuals may
become highly competitive, i.e., those who seek to
avoid failure can be highly motivated.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Cognitive Views of Motivation (continued)
Matina Horner’s work (1968) demonstrated that
women were different than men in motivation, and
she added a third form of motivation: fear of
 She believed this to be based on fear of losing the
social/cultural norm of femininity.
 This is not just a female issue, as men are also
motivated by fear of success, e.g., bright students
may not want to appear to be successful by being
singled out as a high achiever.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Abraham Maslow (1970)
Clinical Psychologist not a researcher
Hierarchy of Needs:
Basic Physiological Needs: food, water, shelter.
Security and Safety: physical and financial.
Social Affiliation: love, belonging, acceptance.
Esteem: self-respect, dignity and recognition.
Self-actualization: self-fulfillment.
Prepotency: one cannot be motivated by a higher need
until the lower needs are met. Higher-level needs
become activated as lower-level needs become
This does not mean that one level of need has to be
totally satisfied before higher level needs emerge
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Structure and Authority
 Deficiency
Needs –
The first 4
 Until met, people find it difficult to respond to
higher order needs
 Growth
Are never met
 They Expand
 How
can the hierarchy be applied to Teachers
 What about students?
 What does the research say
 Mixed
results, not many studies
 Trusty & Sergiovanni (1966) –
 Largest deficiency for educators – esteem and selfactualization
 Teachers have more esteem needs deficiencies than
 Chilsom (1980) – Teachers have more need deficiencies
in all 5 areas
Application to Work Motivation
 Lyman
Porter adapted Maslow’s theory to the
 He added Autonomy, or the need for
individuals to be involved in making decisions
that affect him or her.
 Porter and others were interested in how
individuals in jobs experienced either:
Need satisfaction.
 Need deficiency.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Porter’s Model
Application to Work Motivation (continued)
Thomas Sergiovanni led studies that found teachers,
as a group, had satisfied lower-order needs. They were
ready to respond to higher-order needs.
Younger teachers were most concerned with esteem.
Older teachers’ levels of aspiration dropped since they
become resigned to things as they are.
Application of these finding would indicate that job
security, salary, or benefits have little likelihood of
motivating teachers, but fulfilling higher-order needs
would be motivating.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Needs and Worker Satisfaction
Herzberg found five factors in particular that
were strong determiners of job satisfaction:
achievement, recognition, the work itself,
responsibility, and advancement. These
motivators (satisfiers) were associated with longterm positive effects in job performance while
the hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) consistently
produced only short-term changes in job
attitudes and performance, which quickly fell
back to its previous level.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
Motivational Factors: these can lead to satisfaction.
On a continuum from satisfaction to no satisfaction (but not
necessarily dissatisfied).
Maintenance Factors: these are required to be
satisfied before motivational factors can work, and
lack of which can lead to job dissatisfaction.
On a continuum from no dissatisfaction to dissatisfaction
(but not necessarily satisfied).
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of
Motivation (continued)
Maintenance Factors (dissatisfiers; originally called hygiene
 e.g.: work environment (climate), supervision, salary, job
security, attitudes of administration and policies.
Motivators (satisfiers):
 e.g.: achievement, advancement, work itself, growth,
responsibility, recognition.
 Motivators, when present, can act to increase job
satisfaction. However, absence does not necessarily lead to
job satisfaction,
 Maintenance factors when not present can increase job
dissatisfaction, but when met do not necessarily result in
job satisfaction
 It
is not possible to motivate teachers through
maintenance factors
 However, they are a prerequisite to motivation
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of
Motivation (continued)
Herzberg suggested three ways to practice his theory:
Enrich the job: redesign work to tap potential, making job
interesting, challenging, and rewarding.
Increase autonomy: more participation in decision making
about the work.
Expand personnel administration: administration should be
concerned about motivational factors, not maintenance
Research in school settings has generally supported
Herzberg’s motivation-maintenance theory.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
 The
desire to have choice in what one does and
how he/she does it
 Richard de Charms (1976, 1983)
Origins – those with self-determination
 Pawns – those with other-determination
 When people feel more like Origins than pawns,
they have higher self-esteem, feel more competent
and perform at higher levels
 Teachers? Students?
The Paradigm Shift in Education
What comprises intelligence?
 Traditional definitions of intelligence.
Reason, problem solve, comprehend ideas.
Can be measured accurately.
Is a unitary whole.
Is fixed and unchangeable.
Alfred Binet—developed with Theodore Simon the
first intelligence test, Binet-Simon scale. In 1905.
 MA/CA X 100 = IQ
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
IQ is Normally Distributed
The Paradigm Shift in Education (continued)
 Richard
Herrnstein and Charles Murray
(1994). The Bell Curve.
Controversial, yet scholarly, treatise on
 Brought attention to topic of intelligence.
 The
achievement gap has racial overtones.
 Lake Wobegon Syndrome
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Multiple Intelligences Theory
The following individuals paved the way for Gardner’s work
on Multiple Intelligence
 Jean Piaget—learning is a progressive growth process
during which – over time and with proper stimulation and
guidance – the individual builds on the simpler processes
that were learned in earlier years by integrating higherorder logical processes.
 Jerome Bruner—professed a “constructivist” philosophy of
learning. Learning is an active process in which students
construct new understandings upon a base of their existing
Daniel Goleman—used the term “emotional intelligence” –
important competencies in life included self-awareness,
self-discipline, persistence, and empathy. These are more
important than IQ and can be taught to children.
Human Intelligence
Howard Gardner explained that there are 7 kinds of
intelligence that are independent of one another
Linguistic – ability to understand words and how they are
Logical-Mathematical – ability to see patterns, order and
Musical – ability to discern pitch, melody, tone, rhythm
and other musical qualities
Spatial – ability to perceive and think in terms of visual
qualities and demensions
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Kinesthetic – ability to control one’s bodily motions and to
handle objects skillfully
Intrapersonal – ability to assess and understand the inner
self: feelings, reactions, aspirations
Interpersonal – ability to notice and make distinctions
among other individuals: moods, temperaments,
Carl Jung, as student of Freud suggested that
motivation varied among people. His work laid the
foundations for the concept of personality types.
About 75% of the population is thought to have extraverted
 Westerns culture tends to sanction the outgoing, sociable
and gregarious.
 Many non-Western cultures are more supportive of those
who turn their energy inward.
Individuals are not either-or in terms of being introverts or
extraverts. This is a dimension in which individuals are on a
continuum, mostly one, but may have qualities of the other.
Learning Styles
Learning Styles
 Anthony
Four Basic Dimensions of Human
Carl Jung indicated that three dimension existed:
 Introversion-extroversion.
 Sensation-Intuition.
 Thinking-Feeling.
Myers and Briggs added:
 Perceiving-Judging.
Myers and Briggs developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
instrument (MBTI).
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
About 75% of the population is thought to have extraverted
 “Western culture seems to sanction the outgoing, sociable
and gregarious temperament.”
 Many non-Western cultures are more supportive of those
who turn their energy inward.
Individuals are not either-or in terms of being introverts or
extraverts. An individual is mostly introverted or extraverted,
but may have qualities of the other.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Individuals are either one or the other.
 Individuals who use sensation must gather
information from their senses.
 Whereas, people who are intuition perceive the world
through the unconscious.
 These two different types may have trouble
empathizing with one another.
The sensing person is detail-oriented.
The intuitive person will not worry about the facts so much,
and be impatient with others who do.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
decision-making (judging) functions
both used to make rational decisions, based on the data
received from information-gathering functions (sensing
or intuition)
Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a
more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by
what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent and
matching a given set of rules.
Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by
associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at
it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve,
on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit,
considering the needs of the people involved.
This fourth preference pair describes how
people like to live their outer life—
 what are the behaviors others tend to see?
 Do you prefer a more structured and decided
lifestyle (Judging) or a more flexible and
adaptable lifestyle (Perceiving)?
 This preference may also be thought of as
orientation to the outer world
Introvert iNtuitive Thinking Judging
 You have moderate preference of Introversion
over Extraversion (56%)
 You have moderate preference of Intuition over
Sensing (38%)
 You have moderate preference of Thinking over
Feeling (31%)
 You have distinctive preference of Judging over
Perceiving (67%)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
MBTI Statistics 2006
Introversion (I)-Extraversion (E)
Intuition (N)-Sensation (S)
Thinking (T)-Feeling (F)
Perceiving (P)-Judging (J)
2.33% ESTP 2.68%
ENFP 8.64%
 ENTJ 3.57% ESTJ 11.71%
ENFJ 7.53%
 INTJ 5.19% ISTJ 10.56%
INFJ 7.11%
ESFP 4.65%
ESFJ 12.14%
ISFJ 9.39%
Team Building
Introversion (I)-Extraversion (E)
Intuition (N)-Sensation (S)
Thinking (T)-Feeling (F)
Perceiving (P)-Judging (J)
The Star Trek Team
Mr. Spock
 Dr. McCoy
 Scottie
 Uhuru
 Sulu
 Checkov
 Yeoman Rand
 Vince
 Storm
 George
 rry
 Dottie
The Star Trek Team
Mr. Spock
 Dr. McCoy
 Scottie
 Uhuru
 Sulu
 Checkov
 Yeoman Rand
 Alan
 Vince
 Storm
 George
 Gerry
 Dottie
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007