Download methods in behavioral research

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage project wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
METHODS IN BEHAVIORAL
RESEARCH
NINTH EDITION
PAUL C. COZBY
Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
CHAPTER 3
ETHICAL RESEARCH
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Summarize Milgram’s obedience
experiment
Discuss the three ethical principles outlined
in the Belmont Report: beneficence,
autonomy, and justice
List the information contained in an
informed consent form
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Discuss potential problems obtaining
informed consent
Describe the purpose of debriefing research
participants
Summarize alternatives to using deception
in research, including role-playing,
simulation studies, and honest experiments
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Describe the function of an Institutional
Review Board
Contrast the categories of risk involved in
research activities: exempt, minimal risk,
and greater than minimal risk
Summarize the ethical principles in the APA
ethics code concerning research with human
participants
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Summarize the ethical principles in the APA
ethics code concerning research with
animals
Discuss how potential risks and benefits of
research are evaluated
Discuss the ethical issue surrounding
misrepresentation of research findings
MILGRAM’S OBEDIENCE
EXPERIMENT
Study of the phenomenon of obedience to
an authority figure
Examined the effects of punishment on
learning (Shock treatment for mistakes)
Results challenged beliefs about our ability
to resist authority
Important for understanding obedience in
real life situations, e.g. the Holocaust
BELMONT REPORT
The Belmont Report (1979): Ethical
Principles and Guidelines for the Protection
of Human Subjects of Research
Beneficence
Autonomy (respect for persons)
Justice
ASSESSMENTS OF RISKS AND
BENEFITS
Risks in Psychological Research
Physical harm
Stress
Loss of privacy and confidentiality
ASSESSMENTS OF RISKS AND
BENEFITS
• Potential benefits of Psychological
Research
• Educational benefits, new skill, or treatment for
a psychological or medical condition
• Material benefits
• Personal satisfaction
INFORMED CONSENT
Informed Consent Form
Autonomy Issues
Information Issues: Withholding
Information and Deception
Is Deception a Major Ethical Problem in
Psychological Research?
THE IMPORTANCE OF
DEBRIEFING
 Debriefing
 Opportunity for the researcher to deal with issues of
withholding information, deception, and potential
harmful effects of the participation
 Explain why deception was necessary
 Provide additional resources, if necessary
 Make sure participant leaves the experiment without
any ill feelings towards the field of psychology
IMPORTANCE OF DEBRIEFING
• Positive aspects of debriefing:
• Provides an opportunity to explain the purpose
of the study and anticipated results
• Most participants report positive experience
• Research suggests that it is effective
ALTERNATIVES OF DECEPTION
 Role-Playing
 Asks participants how they would respond to a certain
situation or to predict how others would respond
 Simulation Studies
 Variation on role-playing that involves simulation of a
real world situation
 Honest Experiments
 Participants are made completely aware of the purposes
of the research
JUSTICE AND THE SELECTION
OF PARTICIPANTS
Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972)
Justice principle requires researchers to
address issues of equity
Any decisions to include or exclude certain
people from a study must be justified on
scientific grounds
RESEARCHER COMMITMENTS
“Contracts” with Participants
Punctuality
Summary of Details to Participant
Course Credit
Details that Maintain Trust Between
Participants and Researchers
FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND
THE INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW
BOARD
Exempt Research
Research in which there is no risk of harm
Minimal Risk Research
When the risk of harm is no greater that risk
encountered in daily life or routine physical or
psychological tests
Greater Than Minimal Risk Research
FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND
THE INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW
BOARD
• IRB Impact on Research
• Increased time for approval of study
• Submissions often need to be revised or
clarified
• Very cautious around approval
APA ETHICS CODE
5 General Principles
Beneficence
Responsibility
Integrity
Justice
Respect for the rights and dignity of others
APA ETHICS CODE
Ten Ethical Standards Address Specific
Issues Concerning:
Conduct of psychologists in teaching
Research
Therapy
Counseling
Testing
Professional roles and responsibilities
RESEARCH WITH HUMAN
PARTICIPANTS
8.01 Institutional Approval
8.02 Informed Consent to Research
8.03 Informed Consent for Recording
Voices and Images in Research
8.04 Client/Patient, Student, and
Subordinate Research Participants
RESEARCH WITH HUMAN
PARTICIPANTS
8.05 Dispensing with Informed Consent for
Research
8.06 Offering Inducements for Research
Participation
8.07 Deception in Research
8.08 Debriefing
ETHICS AND ANIMAL
RESEARCH
8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in
Research
APA has developed a more detailed
Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the
Care and Use of Animals (American
Psychological Association, 2002b)
MISREPRESENTATION
8.10 Reporting Research Results
8.11 Plagiarism